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E. CAPPS PH.D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, Lirr.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, LiTT.D. 

















Of the classification of under-shrubs : the wild kinds : 
the chief distinction that between spinous and 

spineless 3 

Of spineless under-shrubs and their differences .... 7 
Of certain specially important spineless under-shrubs 
silphium and magydaris belonging to ferula-like 

plants 15 

Of spinous under-shrubs and their differences 21 

Of cultivated under-shrubs (coronary plants), with 
which are included those coronary plants which are 

herbaceous 35 

Of the seasons at which coronary plants flower, and of 

the length of their life 49 



Of the times of sowing and of germination of pot-herbs 59 
Of the propagation of pot-herbs, and of differences in 

their roots 67 

Of the flowers and fruits of pot-herbs 75 

Of the various forms of some pot-herbs 81 

Of the cultivation of pot-herbs ; manure and water . . 93 

Of the pests which infest pot-herbs 95 

Of the time for which seed of pot-herbs can be kept . . 97 

Of uncultivated herbs : the wild forms of pot-herbs . . 99 



Of other uncultivated herbs, which may be classed with 

pot-herbs 103 

Of the differences in stem and leaf found in all herba- 
ceous plants 107 

Of other differences seen in herbaceous plants in general, 

as compared with one another and with trees ... Ill 

Of the seasons at which herbs grow and flower .... 115 

Of the classes into which herbaceous plants may be 
divided, as those having a spike and chicory-like 
plants 119 

Of herbs which have fleshy or bulbous roots 125 

Of certain properties and habits peculiar to certain 

herbaceous plants 135 



Of the three classes and the times of sowing and of 

germination 143 

Of differences in the mode of germination and of subse- 
quent development 149 

Of differences in development due to soil or climate . . 155 
Of differences between the parts of cereals, pulses, and 

summer crops respectively 159 

Of the differences between cereals 165 

Of the differences between pulses 173 

Of sowing, manuring, and watering 177 

Of the degeneration of cereals into darnel 183 

Of the peculiar character of chick-pea 183 

Of special features of ' summer crops ' 185 

Of treatment of cereals peculiar to special localities . . 185 
Of cereals which grow a second time from the same 

stock '. . . 187 

Of the effects of climate, soil, and manuring 189 

Of different qualities of seed . 191 




Of degeneration of cereals, and of the weeds which 

infest particular crops 193 

Of the conditions in the seeds of pulses known as- 

' cookable ' and ' uncookable,' and their causes . . 197 
Of the grains and pulses which most exhaust the soil, or 

which improve it 199 

Of the diseases of cereals and pulses, and of hurtful 

winds 201 

Of seeds which keep or do not keep well 205 

Of the age at which seeds should be sown 209 

Of artificial means of preserving seed 211 

Of the effect of heat on seeds 211 

Of certain peculiarities of the seed of lupin and aigilops 213 



Of the various kinds of plant-juices and the methods of 

collecting them 217 

Of resinous trees and the methods of collecting resin 

and pitch 223 

Of the making of pitch in Macedonia and in Syria . . . 229 

Of frankincense and myrrh : various accounts .... 233 

Of cinnamon and cassia : various accounts 243 

Of balsam of Mecca 245 

Of other aromatic plants all oriental, except the iris . 247 
Of the medicinal juices of plants and the collection of 

them : general account 251 

Of the cutting of roots for medicinal purposes, and of 

certain superstitions connected therewith .... 255 

Of the medicinal uses of divers parts of plants .... 261 
Of hellebores, the white and the black : their uses and 

distribution 265 

Of the various kinds of all-heal 269 

Of the various plants called stryTchnos 271 

Of the various kinds of tithymallos 275 




Of the two herbs called libanotis 277 

Of the two kinds of chamaeleon 277 

Of the various plants called ' poppy ' 279 

Of roots possessing remarkable taste or smell 281 

Of the time for which roots can be kept without losing 

their virtue 287 

Of the localities which specially produce medicinal herbs 289 

Of the medicinal herbs peculiar to Crete 295 

Of wolf's- bane and its habitat, and of meadow-saffron . 299 

Of two famous druggists and of the virtues of hemlock . 303 
How use diminishes the efficacy of drugs, and how 

they have not the same effect on all constitutions . 305 
Of plants that possess properties affecting lifeless 

objects 309 

Of plants whose properties affect animals other than 

man . 309 

Of plants possessing properties which affect the mental 

powers 311 

Of plants said to have magical properties 313 

A problem as to cause and effect 313 

Of certain plants, not yet mentioned, which possess 

special properties 315 





Introductory : Of odours in general and the classifi- 
cation of them 327 

Of natural odours ; of those of animals and of the effect 

of odours on animals 329 

Of smell and taste 331 

Of odours in plants 333 

Of artificial odours in general and their manufacture : 

especially of the use of perfumes in wine 333 




Of the oils used as the vehicle of perfumes 341 

Of the spices used in making perfumes and their treat- 
ment 347 

Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and of 

the composition of various notable perfumes ... 351 

Of the properties of various spices 355 

Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes .... 359 
Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing of 

various perfumes 361 

Of the properties of certain perfumes 365 

Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes . . . 373 
Of the making of perfume -powders and compound per- 
fumes 377 

Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain 
curious facts as to the smell of animal and vegetable 

products 381 

Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions . . 383 


Introductory : general principles . 391 

The signs of rain . . . . 397 

The signs of wind 407 

The signs of fair weather 427 

Miscellaneous signs 431 



I. List of plants mentioned in the Enquiry under 

botanical names ". . . . 487 

II. List of plants mentioned in the Enquiry unde 

popular names 494 






I. Tlepl /lev ovv SevSpcov /cal Od/juvcov eiprjrai 
TrpoTepov eTTo/jievov 8' elirelv Trepi re TCOV fypvyavi- 
KWV /cal mroiwBwv /cal ei rives ev TOVTOIS erepai 
c^ucm?" olov r) ye ffirrjpa 

v Be \eyo)iJ,V Trepi r/)? tfrpvyavi/crjs' avrrj 
yap eyyvrepco TWV rrpoeiprujbeuwv Sea TO %v\(t)$rjs 
elvai. Travra-^ov fj,ev ovv tcro)? alel TO aypwv 
TOV rj/juepov ir'Kelov, el Se JMJ, Trepi ye Trjv <f)pv- 
yavi/crjv ovdiav o\iyov yap TO -tj/nepov avTrfS, 
OTrep (T%eSbv ev rot? o-TefyavwTiicols eaTiv, olov 
poBwvia tODvia SioaavOos d/idpa/cos r)jj,epoKaX\e<$, 
Tt &e e/OTTuXXo? o-iav/jilSpiov e\evLov d/BpoTovov. 
ayavTa ydp TavTa gvXwSr) /cal jj,i/cp6<f)v\\a, Si 
2 o /cal fypvyavircd. /cal eTrl TO>V \a%avr)pwv 8' 

1 cf. 6. 6. 1. 

2 This hardly corresponds to the definition of 





Of the classification of under-shrubs : the wild kinds : the chief 
distinction that between spinous and spineless. 

I. WE have spoken already of trees and shrubs, 
and next we must speak of under-shrubs and 
herbaceous plants and of any other natural classes 
which are included with these ; for instance, cereals 
come under herbaceous plants. 

But first let us tell of under-shrubs,, for this class 
comes near those mentioned above because of its 
woody character. Now it may be said that with all 
plants the wild kinds are more abundant than the 
cultivated, and this is certainly true of the under- 
shrubs. For the cultivated kinds of this class J are 
not numerous, and consist almost entirely of coronary 
plants, as rose gilliflower carnation sweet marjoram 
martagon lily, to which may be added tufted thyme 
bergamot-mint calamint southernwood. For all 
these are woody and have small leaves ; wherefore 2 
they are classed as under-shrubs. This class covers 

given in 1, 3. 1, nor do some of the plants here mentioned 
come under the description. St. considers the text defective. 


o/AOtft>9, olov pdtyavos m^yavov ical oaa rrapa- 
ir\r)cria rovrois etrriv. vrrep &v ov% rjrrov icrws 
dpfiorrei Kara rrjv ol/ceiav rrpoo-rjyopiav elrrelv, 
orav rrepl crre^avcD/jidrayv /cal \ayavwv rroLtofjieda 
/jiveiav. vvv Be rrpwrov rrepl rwv dypiwv \yco/Ji6v. 
eaTiV avrwv ei^rj teal /Jiepr) 7r\ia), a Set 
KOI rot? Ka6^ KCL(TTOV 76^09 KOI rot? oXot? ei 
Meyicmjv 8' av r^? \dfBot 

, on rd //-ev dva/cavOa rd 5e dicavQu^ri 
TrdXiv S' ev e/carepw rovrcov Tro\\al 
$ia<f)opal yevcov /cal elbwv, VTrep &v /caP exdrepa 
Tretpareov elirelv. 
3 Tcoz/ aKav@lK(t)V 87) TO, 
OHTTrep da-cfrdpayos real cncopTrlos' ov yap 
<t>v\\ov ovSev Trapd rrjv aicavQav. rd Be 
\dicav9a, /caOdjrep CLKCLVOS rjpvyyiov KvrjKos" ravra 
ydp /cal TO, roiavra eVl TWV (f)v\\a)v e%ei rrjv 
aicavOav, Si o /cal <$>v\\dKav0a Ka\eirai. rd Be 
/cal Trapd TIJV d/cai>0av erepov ey^ei (f)vX\,ov, wGTrep 
7] ovwvls /cal 6 T/3t/3oXo9 /cal 6 (pecos, ov Bij rives 
/ca\ovo-(, (rroi/3ijv. 6 Be r/ot/3oXo9 teal Trepircap- 
7rid/cav66s earw j(ei ydp d/cdv0as ev rw rcepi- 
/capTriw, Bi o /cal rovro iBiov rrpos arravra (09 
elrrelv errel rrropOa/cavOd ye TroXXa /cal rwv 
BerBpwv /cal rwv 6afJiVtowv eariv, olov %/oa? poa 
7ra\iovpo$ y5aro9 poBwvi'a Kamrapi^. ev jjiev ovv 
row d/cavOiKois ravras dv rt9 &>9 elrrelv rvrrw 
\dj3ot, r 

: text needlessly altered by Sch. and W. 
Sch. himself shews that T. uses efSos and yevos almost in- 
discriminately. Here rwv o\uv yevwv means the same as rots 


also pot-herbs, such as cabbage rue and others 
like them. Of these it is perhaps more appropriate 
to speak under their proper designation, that is, 
when we come to make mention of coronary plants 
and pot-herbs. Now let us first speak of the 
wild kinds. Of these are several classes and sub- 
divisions, which we must distinguish by the char- 
acteristics of each sub-division as well as by those of 
each class taken as a whole. 1 

The most important difference distinguishing class 
from class which one could find is that between the 
spineless and the spinous kinds. Again under each 
of these two heads there are many differences 
distinguishing kinds and forms, of which we must 
endeavour to speak severally. 

2 Of spinous kinds some just consist of spines, as 
asparagus and skorpios ; for these have no leaves 
except their spines. Then there are the spinous- 
leaved plants, as thistle eryngo safflower ; these and 
the like have their spines on the leaves, whence 
their name. Others again have leaves as well as 
their spines, as rest-harrow caltrop and pheos? which 
some call stoibe. Caltrop is also 4 spinous-fruited, 
having spines on the fruit-vessel. Wherefore this 
peculiarity marks it off from almost all other plants ; 
though many trees and shrubs have spines on the 
shoots, as wild pear pomegranate Christ's thorn 
bramble rose caper. Such 5 are the general dis- 
tinctions which may be made among spinous plants. 

'6\ois e?8e<n ; and below ysvwv and elSwv both refer to the 
smaller divisions called /uep? above. 2 Plin. 21. 91. 

8 & <peus t)v conj. Sch.; 6 </>Aeo>s ft Ald.H. ; Kal b 8rj rives Ka\. 
<TT. P. 2 . cf. 6. 5. 1 and Index. 

4 Kal irepiicapTra.KavOos conj. Sell.; /cat i) irepiKapiria, 
KO.VQOV UMVAld. cf. 6. 5. 3. 6 olv add. Scb. 


* 'Ez/ Be TO?? dva/cdv0oi<; ov/c evnv ovrcos Bia- 
\aftelv TO?? yeveaiv rj ydp TWV (frvXXcov avw^aKia 
/jieyeOei /cal /jt,t,/cp6rr)ri /cal o")^rifjLa(TLV ciTreipos /cal 
daafyris' dXXa Bet TreipdcrOai, /car* d\\ov rpoTrov 
biaipelv. TrXetco Be ecm rd yevrj rd TOVTCOV /cal 
Bia<f>opd<; e^ovra, fjL6yd\as, olov KiaOos fj,ri\w6pov 
GTreipaia icvewpov opiyavos 0vjjL/3pa 
pa/co<$ Trpciffiov Kovvi^a fjie\i(jo'o- 
(f>v\\ov erepa rotavra' jrpbs TOVTOIS en, rd 
/cal evvevpoicavXa, /caOdjrep fidpadov 
w vapOrj/cia vdp6r)% /cal TO /ca\,ov- 
VTTO Tivcov /Jivotyovov /cal ocra o/jioia TOVTOIS. 
aTravra ydp av Tt? /cal ravra /cal oXto? et n 
vap9r)Kwe<; eari T/}? <f)pvyavi/crjs Oeirj fyvcrews. 
II. RiBrj Be /cal Biacfropal /caO* e/caa-rov rwv 
elal rwv /jiev (frave pcore pat, ra>v Be 
t. Kal ydp KivOov Bvo yevrj Biaipovai, 
TO fjiev appev TO Be 8i)\v, TW TO jj,ev fjiel^ov real 
/cal \i7rapf*)Tepov elvat, Kal TO avOos 
w djui^co Be o/JLoia TO?? dypioi? poBois, 

\ v 

/cat, ao(T/jLa. 

2 Auo Be eiBr) /cal rov /cvewpov 6 /juev ydp \ev/cb<i 
6 Be yiteXa?. e%e^ Be 6 /j,ev Xeu/co? TO <f>v\\ov 

1 i.e. there is a gradation. 

a KlffQos conj. Sch.; tciffffbs Ald.H. 

3 aircipata conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 53; o/i^pe'a Ald.G. 

4 6v/jL&pa ffQaicos conj. Sch.; Ovpfipas ^>abs UMVAld. 
6 c/. 6. 2. 5. 

6 i>ap6iiK-jt>8r) = hollow-stemmed, evvfvpoKav\a = plants with a 
plain unjointed stem, solid with ' immersed ' fibres. In the 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, vi. i. 4 -n. 2 

With spineless plants it is not possible to make 
such < generic ' distinctions ; for the variation of 
the leaves in size and shape is endless, and the 
differences are not clearly marked l ; but we must try 
to distinguish on another principle. There are many 
classes of such plants and they differ widely, as 
rock-rose 2 bryony madder privet 3 kneoron marjoram ^ 
savory sphakos* (sage) eleUsphaJcos^ (salvia) hore- 
hound konyza balm, and others like these ; and in 
addition to these we have the ptants with a ferula- 
like stem 6 or with a stem composed of fibre, as fennel 
horse-fennel 7 narthekia (ferula) narthex (ferula) and 
the plant called by some _wolf s bane, 8 and others cA 
like these. All these, as well as any other ferula- 
like plants, may be placed in the class of under- 

Of spineless under-shrubs and their differences. 

II. The various forms and the differences between 
the above mentioned plants are in some cases more, 
in some less easy to distinguish. Of rock- rose 9 they 
distinguish two kinds, ' male ' and ' female/ in that 
the one is 10 larger, tougher, more glossy, 11 and has a 
crimson flower ; both however are like the wild 
rose, 12 save that the flower is smaller and scentless. 

There are also two kinds of kneoron, one white, 
the other black. The white has a leathery oblong 

examples given here the two classes are taken together, 
yapd-nnia being vapOyitdSris, the others tvvfvpdKavAa ; hence the 
article is not repeated. 7 cf. 6. 2. 7. 

8 Lit. ' mouse-bane ' : for other Greek names see Index. 

9 KlvBov conj. Sch., cf. 6 1. 4 ; Kiffffov Ald.H.; Plin. 24. 81 ; 
Diosc. 1. 97. 

10 clvai conj.W. ; ^""UMVAlcl. (rJ> <j>v\\ot> *x* lv con j- Sch.). 

11 i.e. has more glossy leaves. 

12 cf. Plin. 21. 55 ; Theocr, 5. 131. See Index. 

. 7 


TTpoa^Ke^ O/JLOLOO-^/JLOV rpoirov rivet 
e'Xaa, o be yueXa? olov 17 pvpiKr) a-apK&Bes' 
Be yu-aXXov 6 Xeu/eoV ecrri Be 007-000^79, 
6 Be yu-eXa? ao<r/i09. rrjv Be pi^av rqv et? /BdOo? 
a/JLffxo fjbeya\r]v e^ovari KCLI rou? a/cpefjiovas TTO\- 
Xou? real 7ra%et9 KCU gvXwBeis air avrf)? TTJS 77)9 
TI fjLi/cpbv avco cf^L^ofjievov^, ^vXwBea-raTijv Be. 
yXiaXpov Be a(f)6Bpa, 8t* o teal xpwvrcu 77/009 TO 
/caraBeiv /cal TrepCkajJipdveiv, &a7rep r& oi(rw. 
Be real avOel yLter' larj^pLav /JLCTO- 
/cal dvOel TTO\VV %povov. 
8 Kal r?}9 opiydvov Be rj jjLe\atva a/capTros TJ Be 
\ev/cr} /cdpTTi/jios. Kal Ovpov TO /Jiev \evtcov TO Be 
fiekav evavOes Be atyoBpa' Trepl rpoTrds yap dvOel 
6epivds. dfi ov teal rj yueXtTTa \a^dvei TO /^eXt, 
Kal TOVTM (fra&lv ol fjLe\iTTOvpyol Bij\ov elvai 
TTorepov evfJL\Lrovon rj ov' /caXw9 yap dirav- 
6r)Gavros evjj,e\iTelv fiXaTrrei Be /cal d7ro\\vcn 
rrjv avOrjaiv edy vBwp eiruyhnjTai, 

^Trep/jia Be KapTTi^ov rj jjbev dvfjbjSpa /cal en 
fjid\\ov rj opiyavos e%ei fyavepov, TOV OV/JLOV B* 
ov/c earl \aftelv, aXX' ev rw av6ei 7rco9 ava^k- 
(TTreipova-i yap rovro Kal dvajS\a<TTdvei. 
Be Kal \aiifidvovGiv ol e^dyeiv 'KOijvya-i 
TO yevos. iBiov Be e%e^ Kal 7T/?09 
ravra Kal a^eBov ?r/309 TO, aXXa TO Kara T0i>9 
T07TOf9 t ov yap (fraGi Bvva<r0ai, fyvecrOat, Kal 

1 c/. 1. 10. 4. 

2 Apparently an afterthought, suggested by the mention 
of the woodiness of the branches. 

3 TTpt\ conj. W. from G ; irepi\a/j.l3(iveiv Aid. 

4 Plin. 21. 55. 



leaf, somewhat like that of the olive ; the leaf of 
the black is like that of the tamarisk l and fleshy ; 
the white grows more on the ground and is scented, 
while the black is scentless. In both the root, which 
runs deep, is large (and the branches which divide at 
the ground level are numerous thick and woody), 
and the root is also very woody. 2 It is also very 
tough, wherefore it is used for binding and to put 3 
round things, like the withy. It grows and flowers 
after the autumnal equinox, and remains in flower a 
long time. 

4 Of marjoram the black form is barren, the white 
bears fruit. 5 There is a black and a white thyme, 
and it flowers very freely : it is in bloom about the 
summer solstice. It is from this flower that the bee 
gets the honey, and by it 6 beekeepers say that it is 
made known whether they have a good yield of 
honey or not ; for, if the thyme flowers abundantly, 7 
they have a good yield, but the bloom is injured or 
even destroyed if it is rained upon. 

Savory, and still more marjoram, has a conspicuous 
fruitful seed, but in thyme it is riot easy to find, 
being somehow mixed up with the flower ; for men 
sow the flower and plants come up from it. 8 This 
plant is sought and obtained by those in Athens who 
wish to export such herbs. But it has a peculiarity 
as compared both with similar plants and with most 
others, namely the kind of region which it affects 9 ; 
they say that it can not be grown or become 

6 Plin. 21. 56 and 154. 

6 TOVTW conj. Sch.; rovro Aid. 

7 K<H\US mBod.; &\\us UMVAld H. 

8 Plin. 21. 57. 

9 rb Kara TOVS T^TTOVS conj. W. j Kal Kara rovs r. Aid.; ical 
Kara rdirovs P. 


\afJLf$dveiv OTTOV ^ dvairvorj Bu/cveiTai, rj CLTTO rfjs 
0a\dTTTj$' oV o ovB* ev *A.p/caBia <yiVrai' Ov/ujSpa 
Be /cal opiyavos /cal ra roiavra TroXXa /cal TTO\- 
\a%ov. 7rapa7r\ij(7tov ovv TO crvfjiftaivov TOVTO 
teal eirl TTJ? e'Xaa?' ouSe <yap ov$ eiceivrj So/eel 
rpia/coo-icov a-ra&i(0v airo 

%(f)dfco<; Be KOL e\\ia(f) a/cos Btacfrepova-iv w 
TO fjiev ijfjiepov TO &e aypiov \eiOT6pov ydp TO 

(f)V\\OV TOV (T<f)dKOV KOL 6\ttTTOV Kdl aV^fjLr)p6T- 
pOV, TO & TOV e\,6\L(7(f)dKOV Tpd^VTepOV. 

Auo 8e 76^ KOI TOV irpaalov TO JJLCV yap e%ei 

TTOftjSe? TO <f>V\\OV KOi /JioXXoV 7riK^apayfJL6VOVy 

Ti Be ra? evTOfJbds ev 8^X01/9 o-tyoSpa /cal /3a@i,a<;, 
a> /cal ol (f>apjj,aK07rc0\ai, xpwvTai Trpos evict* TO 
o~Tpoyyv\OTpov /cal au^/^wSe? cr(f)6Bpa, 
TOV dfyaKOV, KOI r9 evTOfJias dfiavpo- 
v /cal 7ri/c%apa<y/j,evov TJTTOV. 
Kovvfys Be TO fjuev appev TO Be Orj\v. Bia- 
Be evei /caOdirep TO, aXXa TO, OVTW Biai- 
pov/jieva" TO jjiev <ydp Orj\v XGTTT o(f)v\\OTepov /cal 
%vv(TTr]/cb<; fjid\\ov /cal TO o\ov eXaTTOV, TO 
Be dppev jjiel^bv re /cal Tra^vKavKoTepov /cal 
Tco'X.vfcXuivoTepov /cal TO (j)v\\ov pel^ov /cal 
\i7rap(*)Tepov e%ov, ert Be TO avOos \ap,Trpo- 
Tepov. /capTTO(j)6pa Be a/z^xw TO Be o\ov o"^n- 
/cal o^riavOel irepl 'Ap/cTovpov teal 

v P 2 Ald. : lit. ' take hold,' cf. 6. 2. 6 ; 
conj. W. 

2 ff^Kos conj. Sch.: o-^/feAos UMVP 2 Ald.; Plin. 22, 146 
and 147. 



established l where a breeze from the sea does not 
reach. This is why it does not grow in Arcadia, 
while savory marjoram and such plants are common 
in many parts. (A similar peculiarity is found in 
the olive ; for it appears that it likewise will not 
grow more than three hundred furlongs from the 

The difference between sphakos 2 (sage) and 
elelisphakos (salvia) is like that between cultivated and 
wild ; for the leaf of sphakos 3 is smoother smaller 
and less succulent, 4 while that of elelisphakos is 
rougher. 5 

There are also two kinds of horehound : one has a 
narrow leaf with a more jagged edge, and the notches 
are very conspicuous and deep, and this is the plant 
used by druggists for certain purposes; the other has 
a rounder 6 leaf, which, like that of sphakos, is not at 
all succulent ; the notches are less conspicuous and 
the edge less jagged. 

Of konyza 7 there is a ( male ' and a ' female ' 
kind, the differences between them being such as 
are usual between forms so distinguished ; the 
( female ' has slenderer leaves, is more compact, and 
a smaller plant ; the ' male ' is larger, has thicker 
stalks, is more branched, has larger glossier leaves, 
and moreover the flower is more conspicuous. Both 
bear fruit ; the plant as a whole is late in growing 
and in blooming ; it blooms about the rising of 

3 ff(pa.Kov conj. Sch. ; o-^o/ccAov UMVP 2 Ald. 

4 W. omits $TTOV before avxwpATfpov. 

6 TpaxvTepov conj. Seal, from G ; fipaxvTfpov Aid. H. 
% " ffTpoyyv\oTfpov : cf. 1. 10. 4 n. 

7 See Index. Plin. 26. 58. c/. Nic. Ther. 875 ; Diosc. 
3. 121. 



'Ap/crovpov \ajJL/3dvei. ftapeia Be 97 ba^rj rov 
dppevos, rj Be rrjs 0r)\eia<i Bpi/jivrepa, Si o teal 
7T/509 rd Orjpia ^ptjo-i^rj. 

Tavra fiev ovv /cal ra roiavra axnrep Bia- 
(f>epovra. 7rd\iv Be d\\a povoeiB 
/cal rwv Trporepov elprj/jievwv /cal erepa Trapd 

yap e<m. 

To Se vap6rjic(o&es i KOL yap /cal rovro rcov 
TroXXa? 7repiei\r)$ev ISeas' ev ol? 


re /cal vapO^Kia^, eire TO avrb yevos 
Siatyepov $e /card /zeye^o?, elrc 
/cal erepov warcep rives tyacrtv. rj 8' ovv (j)avepd 
0vo-i? d/jL(j)OLv ofjioia 7r\rjv /card TO fiiyeOo^' o 
fiev yap vdp0rjg yiverai /jueyas a(f>6Spa f) Be 
vapOrj/cia p,i/cpd. fj,ovo/cav\a B' d/juc^a) /cal yova- 
rcoBij, aft wv rd re (f>v\\a /3\aardvei /cal tcav\oi 
8 rives fJiiKpoi (3\aardvei Be rrapa\\dj; rd (f>v\\a' 
\eyco Be rrapa\\d% on, OVK e/c rov avrov fiepovs 
TWV yovdrayv aXX 1 eva\\d^' TrepieiX.ij^ora Be rov 
/cav\ov eTrl 7ro\v, KaOdrrep rd rov KaXd/jiov, rr\r)v 
drcoKeKKifJieva ravra fidXXov Bid rrjv /J.a\a/c6- 
rrjra /cal TO f^eyedos' fieya yap TO (j>v\\ov /cal 
fjia\a/cbv /cal Tro^vo-^iBes, ware elvai cr^eBbv 
rpixwBe?' e'xei Be /neyicrra rd /cdrco TT/JO? rrjv 
yijv /cal del /card \6yov. dvBos Be 
dfjiavpov, Kaprrov Be Trapo/Jioiov r&> 

ei Aid.; aSpvvci conj. W. But cf. the somewhat 
similar use 6. 2. 4. 

2 contra bestiarum morsus Plin. I.e. 

3 Plin. 13. 132 and 133. 

4 The form of expression in the repeated inrep seems loose, 



Arcturus and is full grown 1 after his setting. 
The smell of the ' male ' plant is strong, but that of 
the ' female ' more pungent ; wherefore both of them 
are of use against wild beasts. 2 

These plants then and others like them have, as 
it were, different forms. Again there are some 
which have but one form both among those already 
mentioned and others as well;; for there are numerous 
plants of this class. 

8 The class of ferula-like plants (for this too belongs 
to the under-shrubs) comprises many kinds : here 
we must first speak of the characteristic which is 
common to all, including ferula itself 4 (nartkex) and 
narthekia, whether they both belong to the same 
kind and differ only in size, or whether, as some say, 
they are distinct. The obvious character of both is 
alike, except as to size ; for narthex grows very tall, 
while narthekia is a small plant. Each of them has a 
single stalk, which is jointed ; from this spring the 
leaves and some small stalks ; the leaves come 
alternately by which I mean that they do not 
spring from the same part of the joint, but in 
alternating rows. For a considerable distance they 
embrace the stalk, like the leaves of the reed, but 
they turn back from it more owing to their softness 
and their size ; for the leaf is large soft and much 
divided, so that it is almost hair-like ; the largest 
leaves are the lowest ones next the ground, and so 
on in proportion. The flower is quince-yellow 5 and 
inconspicuous, the fruit 6 like dill, but larger. 7 The 

and above ev ols is hardly satisfactory. Sch. suspects 

6 /j.i]\ivoei8es : cf. 7. 3. 1. 

tt u./u.avp6i>, Kapirbv 8e conj. Sell.; a/j.a.vp6Kapiroi> Aid. 

7 /*t'a> conj. Sch.; /JLetfrv Aid. 



e'f d/cpov Be a-^i^erai teal e%i Tivds ov 
/cav\ov<$' evTavOa Be TO re av6os 
teal 6 Kapirbs. e%* be /cal dvOos /cat /capjrbv 
real ev TO? 7rapa/cav\iovori Si o\ov, /caOdirep 
TO dvrjOov. e7rTi6/cav\ov Be, /cal rj (B\daTti- 

CTt? TOV 77/909 TTpWTOV fJiV TWV (f)V\\COV 7TLTa 

TOV /cav\ov, KaOajrep TWV a\\a>v. piav 
(SaOelav, eari Be /Aovoppi^ov. 6 fjiev ovv 

TMV 8' d\\a)V ra fiev o/juoiorepa TOVTW TOV 
icavXov e%6i <KOI\OV>, KdOaTcep o /JiavBpayopas KOI 
TO KO)Viov /cat 6 e'XXe/30/oo? /cal 6 dvOepucos' ra 
& olov evvvp6/cav\a Tvy^dvei, KaOdirep pdpaOov 

/HVO(f)6vOV TO, OfJLOia TOUTOi?. lSlO<> $6 6 KapTTOS TOV 

/jLavBpayopov TW ytteXa? T Kal paya>Sr]s /cal olvwBrjs 
elvai T& XV/JLW. 

III. MeYtcrrai Be /cal IBtwTaTai (frvaei,? TJ re 
TOV (7L\<piov /cal rj TOV irairvpov ev AlyvTTTy 
vapO^/ccoB'T) yap /cal raOra ecrTiv virep wv TOV 
fjiev iraTTvpov TrpoTepov elTCOfiev ev rot? evvBpois, 
vtrep OaTepov Be vvv \/CTeov. 

To Be (Ti\(j)iov e%{, pi^av [lev 7ro\\r)V /cal 
7ra%iav, TOV Be /cav\bv rj\i/cov vdp6r)%, o-^eBov 
Be real rrS Travel 7rapa7r\^(nov, TO Be <j>v\\ov, o 
Ka\ovai /jido-TreTOv, opoiov T& <re\iv(p' 

1 Koi\ov add. W. 

2 See Index : the stalk is specially in question here. 

* cf. 6. 1. 4 n. fKVvp6i<av\a. P 2 Ald., c/. K\fvi<os, 'whitish'; 
fvvevpoKavXa. conj. Sch. as in 6. 1. 4 ; but olov indicates the 
coinage of a fresh term. K^VCIOV seems to be placed in the 
wrong list. 

4 Plin. 25. 147-150 describes mandragoras, but his descrip- 
tion is not taken from T. cf. Diosc. 4. 75, where three kinds 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, vi. n. s-m. i 

plant divides at the top and has some small branches, 
on which grow the flower and the fruit. It also 
bears flowers and fruit on the side-stalks all the way 
up, like dill. The stalk only lasts a year, and the 
growth takes place in spring, the leaves growing 
first and then the stem, as with other plants. It 
roots deep and has but a single root. Such is the 

Of the others some to a certain extent resemble 
ferula, that is, in having a hollow stem l ; for instance 
deadly nightshade hemlock hellebore asphodel 2 : 
wTiile some have a stem more or less, as it were, _ * 
consisting of fibre, 3 as fennel aconite and others like , 
these. The fruit of deadly nightshade 4 is peculiar 
in being black and like a grape and like wine in 

Of certain specially important spineless under-shrubs silphium 
and magydaris belonging to fervla-like plants. 

III. Most important and peculiar in their characters 
are the silphium and papyrus of Egypt. These too 
come under the class of ferula-like plants ; of these 
we have spoken 5 of the papyrus already under the 
head of plants living in water ; of the other we have 
now to speak. 

The silphium has a great deal of thick root ; 
its stalk is like ferula in size, and is nearly as 
thick ; the leaf, which they call inaspeton, is like 
celery : it has a broad fruit, which is leaf-like, 

of fiavSpayopas are described : there being only two known 
species of mandragora, the third may be atropa Belladonna ; 
and to this plant may also refer an interpolated sentence in 
Diosc. 4. 73 (&V005 . . . ffraQvXTiv). 

6 4. 8. 3 and 4. Papyrus is loosely classed with ferula-like 
plants, as it has not a hollow stem. 6 Plin. 19. 42-45. 



7r\arv, olov <f)v XXcoSe?, TO \ey6fjievov 
\ov. 7reTi6/cav\ov 8' ecTTLV, Mcnrep o 
ajjia fjiev ovv TW fjpi TO udcnreTOV TOVTO dcfiirjcriv, o 
rcaOaipei ra irpo^ara /cal 7ra%vvei a^o&pa KOI ra 
Kpea OavfiaaTa nroiel rfj rjSovy- fiera 8e ravra 
fcav\6v, <ov> crdicr0ai Trdvra rpoirov e<f>6bv 
OTTTOV, KaOaipeiv Be /cal TOVTOV $>aai ra (roofiara 
2 TeTrapaKOvra T)fjiepai$. OTTOV Se Strrbv G^GI, TOV 
fjiev CLTTO TOV fcav\ov TOV Be CLTTO r?}? pitys, Si 
o /ca\ov(Tt, TOV fjiev KdvXiav TOV Se pityav. rj 8e 
pi^a TOV (f)\otbv e%i /me\ava, KOI TOVTOV irepi- 
aipova-iv. ecrTL $e wcnrep yueraXXa TCOV pi^oTO- 
fjbi&v avTois, % MV OTTOCTOV av Bo/cfj 


Te/jLVovaiv OVK e^ecrTL yap OVTC 
ovTe 7r\lov Twv TCTay/^evw /cal yap 
peTai Kal cr^Trerat TO dpybv edv xp 
yd&vTai, Be ayoi'Tes et? TCW Tleipaia TovBe TOV 
TpOTrov' OTav (Bd\wo~i els dyyela /cal d\vpa 
fjii^woiL, aeiovcn ^povov av^vov, oOev /cal TO 
%pa)/jLa \a/jL/3dveL /cal epyaaOev acrijTrTOv ijSr) oia- 
/jiVL. TO, [iv ovv /caTa T?)v epyaaiav /cal 

3 ToTTOV <$ 7TO\VV 

ydp (f>ao-iv rj TTpa/cia^i\ia aTaSia' TrXetcrra 
yivea-flai ire pi TIJV avpTiv avro TWV T&veaTrepiSwv. 
iSiov $ TO (frevyeiv TTJV epya^o^ieuijv /cal del 

1 oiW (f)v\\. rb \ey. conj. W.; 0uAA. olov r~b Aey. Ald.H. 

2 I have added 


3 ^eVaAAo U ; fj.erpa Aid. ; ? v /uerd\\ois 

4 c/. 9. 1. 7; Diosc. 3. 80. 



as it were, 1 and is called the phyllon. The stalk 
lasts only a year, like that of ferula. Now in 
spring it sends up this maspelon, which purges sheep 
and greatly fattens them, and makes their flesh 
wonderfully delicious ; after that it sends up a stalk, 
which 2 is eaten, it is said, in all ways, boiled and 
roast, and this too, they say, purges the body in 
forty days. It has two kinds of juice, one from the 
stalk and one from the root ; wherefore the one is 
called ' stalk-juice,' the other 'root-juice.' The 
root has a black bark, which is stripped off. They 
have regulations, like those in use in mines, 3 for 
cutting the root, in accordance with which they fix 
carefully the proper amount to be cut, having regard 
to previous cuttings and the supply of the plant. 
For it is not allowed to cut it wrong nor to cut more 
than the appointed amount ; for, if the juice is kept 
and not used, it goes bad and decays. When they are 
conveying it to Peiraeus, they deal with it thus 4 : 
having put it in vessels and mixed meal with it, they 
shake it for a considerable time, and from this 
process it gets its colour, and this treatment 5 makes 
it thenceforward keep without decaying. Such 
are the facts in regard to the cutting and treatment. 
The plant is found over a wide tract of Libya, for 
a distance, 6 they say, of more than four thousand 
furlongs, but it is most abundant 7 near the Syrtis, 
starting from the Euesperides islands. It is a 
peculiarity of it that it avoids cultivated ground, and, 
as the land is brought under cultivation and tamed, 

6 fpya<r6fv : f^opyaffOfv conj. Salm.; from Pliu. I.e., argu- 
ment um era/, maturitatis color siccilasque sudore finito. 

6 c/. Strabo 2. 5. 20 ; 17. 3. 20 : Scyl. Feriplus, Libya. 

7 TrAeto-Ta conj.W. ; 7rAiofaU; ra -nXfiova. MAlcl. ; yivtaBai 
conj.W.; yfvea&at Aid. 


VOL. ii. r 


o>9 ov Beojjuevov Brj\ov on O 

dypiov. (fracrl 8' ol K.vpr)valoi fyavfjvat, TO cri\- 

<f)iov eTo~i TrpoTepov rj avTol rrjv Tfo\iv wKqcrav 

7Trd' OIKOVGL Be /J,d\l(TTa Trepl TpiaKOGia 69 

^t/jicoviBrjv ap%ovra 'AOijvrj&w. 

Ol fjiev ovv ovT(o \e<yovariv. ol $e rov <ri,\$iov 
rrjv pi^av (j^aal ryiveaOai Trrf^vaiav TJ pi/cpa) fjiei^w. 
TavTY)v B eyiv eVl rov fjueaov Ke<j)a\r)v, o KOI 
/jLerecoporarov eari fcal cr^eBbif vTrep 71)9, Ka\el- 
adai Se <ya\,a' ef ^9 By fyvecrdai yuera ravra Kal 
TOV /cav\6v, e/c Be TOVTOV /jiayvSapiv TO Kal 
Ka\ovfievov <f>v\\ov TOVTO 8' elvai Girkp^a,' Kal 
orav voros Aa///7r/309 Trvevar) /jbera Kvva BiappiTT- 
TeaOai, ef ov $ve(T0ai TO o~i\(f>iov. r& avrw Be 
erei rrjv re pi^av yiveo-flai, KOI TOV KavKov ovOev 
Be TOVTO iBiov, Kal <yap eV a\\(ov, el /j,rj TOVTO 
\eyovo~iv OTL evOvs fyveTat, /neTa TTJV Bidppi^lriv. 

Kat TOVTO iBiov Kal Bidtyopov Tofc TrpoTepov, OTL 
fyaal Beiv opvTTeiv eTreTeiov eav Be eaflfj, fyepeiv 
p,ev TO (TTrepfJia Kal TOV Kav\ov, Xeipw Be yiveo-dat 
Kal TavTa Kal TTJV pL^av, opVTTOfJievas Be y8e\TtOL'9 
ryiveo'Oai, Bia TO yLtera/SaXXecr^at Trjv <yr)v. evav- 
TLOV Be TOVTO TO) (pevyetv Trjv epydaifjiov. ecrOL- 
eaQai Kal Ta<$ pi^as Trpoafya 
et9 of 09. TO Be <j)vX\ov Trj %/ooia 

1 c/. Hdt. 4. 158. 2 B.C. 310. 

3 ravTT)v 5c . . . rb ai\<f>iov : text as restored conjecturally 
by W., chiefly by alteration in the order of the words in Aid. 

4 Ka\6t<r0ai Se yd\a after (f>v*(r6a.i in Aid. 

6 In 6. 3. 7 this name is applied to a distinct plant, /nay. 
rb Kal conj. Salm.; ^7. Kal rb P 2 Ald.H. 6 c/. 6. 3. 2. 

7 TOVTO conj. Salm.; TOI>TOV UMVAld.; TOVTOV P 2 . 



it retires, plainly shewing that it needs no tendance 
but is a wild thing. The people of Cyrene say that 
the silphium appeared l seven years before they 
founded their city; now they had lived there for 
about three hundred years before the archonship at 
Athens of Simonides. 2 

Such is their account. Others however say that 
the root of the silphium grows to the length of a 
cubit or a little longer, and in the middle of this is a 
head, 3 which is the highest part and almost comes 
above ground, and is called the f milk', 4 from this 
then presently grows the stalk, and from that the 
magydaris? which is also called the phyllon 6 ; but it 7 
is really the seed, and, when a strong south wind 
blows after the setting of the dog-star, it is scattered 8 
abroad and the silphium grows from it. The root 
and the stalk grow r in the same year ; nor is this a 
singular feature unless they mean that it grows 
immediately after the dispersal 9 of the seed since 
the same thing occurs with other 10 plants also. 

There is this singular statement, which is incon- 
sistent with what was said above, that, it is said, it 
is necessary to dig the ground every year, and that, 
if it be left alone, it bears n the seed and the stalk, 
but these are inferior and so is the root ; on the 
other hand, that with digging they are improved 
because the soil is changed. (This is inconsistent 
with the statement that silphium avoids cultivated 
land.) They add that the roots are cut up into 
vinegar and eaten fresh, and that the leaf is of a golden 

8 diapplirreffBai conj. Sch.; SiappiirreTai AW.; Siappi-rrTflTai U ; 


9 Sidppttyiv conj. Sch.; Sfpit^jvUM; eitpityiv Aid. 

10 fV SAAajj/ conj. W.; T>V &\\wv Ald.H. 

11 p.fv conj. Sch.; irav Aid. 


c 2 


6 elvai. evavTiOv Be /cal TO firj KaOaipeadai ra 
Trpoftara TO (f>vX\ov ecrOiovTa" <j>ao~l yap /cal TOV 
rjpos /cal TOV 'xei/JLwvos et? 0/909 d<f)ievai, 


TL/ca ' a/j,<f)(0 Bo/cel elvai /cal KaOapaiv fJiev ov 
Troieiv, ava%r)palveiv Be /cal o-v/jLTreTTew eav Be TI 
VOGOVV TI /ca/cw? e%ov el(re\9r) TrpoftaTov, vyid^e- 
crOai ra%eft)9 ^ aTroOvija/ceiv, to? 5' eVt TO TTO\V 
. raura 


1 'H Be /ca\ov/j,evrj /jbayvBapis T6pov e'crri TOV 
o~i\<f)iov fjiavoTepov re /cal -TJTTOV Bpifjiv /cal TOV 
OTTOV ov/c %* B{,dBr)\o<? Be eo~Ti /cal Ty otyei rot? 
. yiveTai Be Trepl ^vpiav /cal OVK ev 
fyaffl Be /cal ev TO> Hapvao~i<p opei 
' evioi Be aikfyiov TOVTO Ka\ovo-iv. el Be 
TTJV epydcrijAOV wo-Trep TO o-i\(f)t.ov cr/ceTT- 
Teov, a)o~avTa)S Be /cal el TL 6/j,oiov rj 7rapa7r\tjo~i,ov 
e^et ^>v\\ov T irept /cal Kav\ov, /cal el o 
d</>ir)o-i TL Bd/cpvov. TTJV ftev ovv v 
[/cat oX&)9 TTJV d/cav0(oBr)] <f)vo~iv ev rot? 

IV Tr}<? 8' a/cavQi/cfj?, eTropevov yap TOVTO 
, eTreiBrj BiyprjTai TO /JLCV d/cav0a)Be<i oXw? TO 
Be <f)v\\dfcavOov } vTrep efcaTepov 

1 cf. Arr. Anab. 3. 28. 6 and 7. 

2 Artemisia camphorata : Index App. (24). 

8 Plin. 19. 46; Diosc. 3. 94; Hesych. .v.; Photius, Gloss. 
v.; cf. 6. 3. 4 n. 



colour. We have also the inconsistent statement 
that sheep are not purged by eating the leaves ; for 
they say that in spring and in winter they are driven 
into the hill-country, where l they feed on this and 
on another plant 2 which is like southernwood ; both 
these plants appear to be heating and not to cause 
purging, but, on the contrary, to have a drying effect 
and promote digestion. It is also said that, if a sheep 
which is sick or in bad condition comes to that 
district, it is quickly cured or else dies, but usually it 
recovers. Which of these accounts is true is matter 
for enquiry. 

3 The plant called magydaris is distinct from sil- 
phium, being of later growth and less pungent, 
and it does not produce the characteristic juice ; 
experts can also easily distinguish it by its appear- 
ance. It grows in Syria and not in Cyrene, and they 
say that it is also abundant on Mount Parnassus, and 
some call it silphium. Whether however, like sil- 
phium, it avoids cultivated ground is matter for 
enquiry, as also whether it has any resemblance or 
likeness in leaf and stalk, and, in general, whether 
it produces a juice. In these examples we may 
consider the class of ferula-like plants [and, in 
general, that of spinous plants. 4 ] 

Of spinous under-shrubs and their differences. 

IV. Taking next the class of spinous plants (for 
we must next speak of them), we have already dis- 
tinguished 5 those which are altogether spinous and 
those which have spinous leaves, and now we must 

4 teal . . . aKavOutirj. These words occur only in U: they 
cannot belong here. Note that rb /iev aKavdwSes '6\us occurs 
just below. 6 6. 1. 3. 



teal TpiTOV Brj Trepl rov /cal rrapa rr)v aicav9av 
e%ozrro9 <f>v\\ov, wvrrep o re <e&>? real b rpi/3o\o<?. 
fcal r\ /caTTTrapis iBiov e%ei TO fjirj fjbbvov rr^v e/c 
rwv tcavXwv a/cav0av e%eiv d\\d /cal TO <j)i>\\ov 
rwv 3e Siypii/Jievwv el&cov rrXeia-TOv 
can TO (f)v\\dKav&oi>, \d%io'Tov Be &>9 elireiv 
TO d/cav0a)$e$ oXw?. /3pa%v yap n 7rd/ji7rav eariv, 
cocnrep e'Xe%#?7, /cal o-%&ov ov pa&iov \a(Belv Trapd 
re rbv d(T<j)dpayov ical rov a-KOpirLov. 

e ravra dvOel pera lo"r)fApiav 

yLteV (TKOpTTlOS V Tft) aapfCCt)&6l 

rat eiroiSovvn TO) VTTO TO a/cpov TT)? d/cdv0rj$ 
TO avOo^ ef />%^9 p>ev \v/cbv vvrepov 8' 
pfyvpl^ov. o 8e datydpayos e/ccfrvwv irapa 

T9 aKavdas KOpvvwSes /jii/cpov, e/c rovrov Be ecrri 

TO CLv9oS fJLLKpOV. $ <T/COp7TiO<> fJLOvbpplfyv Kttl 

{3a0vppi%ov, 6 Be dafydpayos J3a0vppi6v T ev 
fjid\a /cal 7ro\vppL^ov 7rvKvals Tat? ptfai?, wo-T6 
TO dvcD o-f^e^e? elvau avrwv, dfi ov real al 
ftXacrTrjcreis avTwv TWV /cav\cov' dvafiXacndvei 
&e b /cav\bs e/c T% do~<j)apayLa<$ rov 17^09 /cal 
eBwSi/JLos eo"nv eW OVTCOS dTTOTpa^vverai /cal 
e^a/cavOovrai Trpoiovarj^ T^9 wyoa9' ?] Be av9r)(ns 
OVK e/c TOVTOV [Jibvov d\\d /cal e/c TWV Trpbrepov 
ov yap 7reTei6/cav\6v ecrn. ra fjiev ovv 0X0)9 
d/cav0(*)B7j TOiavrrjv nvd e%i fyv&iv. 

Tcoi' Be $v\\aKdv6wv TO TrXettTTo^ 76^09 &>9 


(fsfus conj. St.; </>Aea>s Aid. cf. 6. 1. 3. 
cf. 6 1. 3. 8 Plin. 21. 91 ; 22. 39, 


speak of each of these classes separately, and also, in 
the third place, of those which have leaves as well 
as their spines, such as pheos 1 and caltrop. More- 
over caper has the peculiarity of possessing not only 
spines on its stems but also a spinous leaf. Of the 
classes thus distinguished that with spinous leaves 
is the largest, while that which is altogether spinous 
is about the smallest. It is indeed, as was said, a 
very small class, and it would not be easy to find 
examples of such plants besides asparagus and 

3 Both of these flower after the autumnal equinox. 
Skorpios produces its flower in the fleshy swelling 4 
below the top 5 of the spinous twig ; at first it is white, 
but afterwards it becomes purplish. Asparagus pro- 
duces alongside of the spines a small knob, and from 
this grows the flower, which is of small size. Skorpios 
has a single root which runs deep ; asparagus roots 
very deep and its roots are numerous and matted, 
the upper part of them being in one piece, 6 and 
from this the actual shoots spring. The stalk comes 
up from the plant in spring and is edible ; after- 
wards, as the season advances, it acquires its rough 
and spinous character 7 ; the bloom appears not only 
on this stalk, but on those of previous years, for the 
stalk is not annual. Such is the character of 
plants which are altogether spinous. 

8 Of those which have spinous leaves the largest 
class, one may say, consists of those plants which 

4 ^TroiSovVTi conj. Seal.; eir<a8ovi>Ti U; effiroSovvTi MAM. 

8 rb &Kpov conj. Seal.; r6 &Kparoi> UMAld.; TTJS d/cav^r/s om. 

6 i.e. tuberous. c/.Col. 11. 3. 43 ; Pall. 3. 24. 8 ; 4. 9. 11. 

7 f^aKavBovrat conj. Link. ap. Sch.; t^avdovrai UM ; et-av- 
0e?Tai Aid. 8 Plin. 21. 94. 



elrrelv d/cavwBe? rvy^dver \eyco Be TO 
d/cav&Bes, on rb /cvrjfAa real ev c5 TO avdos rj KOI o 
tcaprrbs d/cavos rj d/cavwBes rrdvrcov ecrrt. Biacfro- 
pdv Be e%ei ev eavru) fcal fj,eye0ei /cal a^i^ari 
/cal %p(t)/jLari fcal r JT\r)6ei KOI 6\iyorr]Ti rwv dtcav- 
6wv KOI TWV a\\wv. efw yap 6\iya)v irdvv, 
KaOdirep TOV arpovOiOv re real rov aoj/cov real el 
erepcov, rd \oiird irdvra co? elirelv roiavTijv 
rr)V $v<Jiv ejrel KOI o cray/cos TTJV ye fyvviv 
%ei, TO Se (TirepfjiaTiKov OL% opoiov 
a\Xa rd ye roiavra rrdvra olov dfcopva \ev/c- 

d/cav0o<>, cr/coXf/xo? Be, 09 /cal \ei/jLa)via, 
aKavOos' fcal TaXXa, rrKeiw ydp ean. Sia^epovcri 
8' d\\rj\wv TTyoo? TO?9 elp^jmevoi^ TO) rd pev rro\v- 
fcav\a elvai /cal drrcxfrixTeis e^eiv, warrep 6 a/cavo?, 
rd Be fjiovoKav\a KOI fir) e^eiv, wcrrrep o KVYJKO^ 
evia 8' avwOev e%eiv ef d/cpov, KaOdrrep rb pvrpos. 
KOI rd fjiev ev9vs Tot? rrpa>rot,s verols {3\aardveiv 
rd 8' varepov, evLa Be /cal rov Oepovs, wcrnep /cal f) 
rerpd\i% vrro rivcov /caXovfjuei'ij /cal t] l^ivr)* /cal 
errl rwv dvOwv b^oiw^' o^riavB^ ydp 6 o~/c6\Vjnos 
/cal errl rroXvv 

mBas. ; aitavOuitifs Aid. c/. 1. 13. 3, Avhcre 
a.Kava>8es is restored by W.'s certain conj, 

2 aitavooSes conj. Sch. ; a.Kav6>$es Ald.H. ; acanaceum G. 

3 O.KO.VOS fy CLKavuties Aid.; &Kav6os if? aKavOades mBas. v. 

4 aroyitos conj. Sch. ; KVTJKOS Aid. The correction seems 
necessary in view of 6. 4. 8. 

5 &xopva conj. Sch.; &icapi'a Aid. C/. Plin. I.e. 

6 5s /cal Aeijiicoifta I COUJ.; ?j wol A.ei ( ucofi'a conj. Seal, from 

2 4 


are thistle-like, 1 by which 2 I mean that the swollen 
part, that part which contains the flower, or, it may 
be, the fruit, is in all cases a thistle-head, 3 or has 
that appearance. However there are differences in 
the ' head ' itself, in size shape colour number ot 
spines and in other respects. For, apart from quite 
a few plants, such as soap- wort sow r -thistle and 
possibly some others, nearly all the rest have this 
character (even sow-thistle 4 has a spinous character, 
but its seed-process is different). The list includes 
all the following : akorna 5 milk-thistle khalkeios 
safflower polyakanthos distaff-thistle onopyxos ixine 
chamaeleon (the last-named, however, has not spinous 
leaves, though golden thistle, which is also called 
'meadow-thistle,' 6 has 7 ), and so on, for there are 
many more. These differ from one another not only 
in the aforesaid ways, but in that some of them 
have many stalks and side-growths, like the pine- 
thistle, while some have a single stalk and no side- 
growths, like the safflower, and some again have 
out-growths above from the top of the plant, like 
the globe-thistle. 8 Again some grow directly the 
first rains come, others at a later time, some again in 
summer, as the plant which some call yellow star- 
thistle, and ixine. g So too 10 the flowering-time differs : 
golden thistle blooms late n and is in bloom for a 
long time. ' 

Plin. 22. 86 ; favXet/uwvia. UMj ; rjAuAet/iwi/io M 2 Ald. KO.\ 
Aej/.ia>m'a conj. W. But \6i/j.uvia is not mentioned again in 
the following description, which is against its being a 
distinct plant from ffit6\v/j.os. 

7 <pv\\a.KavOos I conj.; <f>v\\dicavOa MSS. 

8 pvrpos : rhutnim (I ; but E'lin. I.e. has eryngen. 

9 Plin. 22. 23. 10 KO.\ M conj. Sch.; /ecu r) eVl Ald.H. 

11 otyiavOris conj. Bod. from Plin. i.e. floret sero et din ; 
evavdris Aid. 



Aiatyopal Be TWV fiev aKavwv ov/c elcri, rf)<; 
KVTJKOV & elo-iv rj fj,ev yap dypia rj ' r///,e/oo?. 
T?}? 8' dypias Bvo e'lBrj, TO fiev Trpoae^epe^ ecfro- 
Bpa TW rifJL-epw ir\r)V evQv/cavXoTepov, BC o /cal 
Trrjvi&is eviai TWV dp%aia)v e%pwvTO yvvaiK&v. 
icapTTov Be e^ei fjie\ava /cal /jueyav Kal TTL/cpov. t] 
3' erepa Sacrela /cal TOU? /tauXou? e%ei aoy/ccoSeis, 
ware rpoTrov Tiva eTriyeio/cavXos yiverat,' Sia yap 
/jLa\a/c6rrjTa TWV /cavXwv /carafc\ii>erai, TT^O? ra? 
dpovpa<}' /capTrov 8* e^et fjiucpov 7ra)ya)vo<s' <nrep- 
yu,aTa)Set9 Tracrcu, TT^V pei^ocri Kal Trvfcvorepois 
al dypiai. iSiov Be e^ei* Trpo? ra a\\a aypia' ra 
/j,ev yap a-/c\r}p6repa /cal d/cavdwBecrrepa rwv 
rjfjieptov, aurrj Be fia\afca)repa /cal \etorepa. 

C H B* a/copva 7r/90(jeyLt^)ep^9 &)? aTrXtS? elirelv 
Kara rrjv Trpoa-oifriv Ty /cvtj/cqy rff rjfjiepw, ftpM/na 
B' eTTigavOov e^ei real ^v\ov \nrapov. drpa/crv- 
Xt? Be ns KaXelrau Kal \eVKorepa TOVTCOV iBiov 
Be %ei TO Trepl TO (f>v\\ov, OTI a^aipovfjuevov Kal 
Ty aap/cl irpocr^epofjievov a/yLtarcoSr; iroiel TOV 
%v\6v, Si? o /cal (j)6vov evioi /ca\ovcn Trjv aKavOav 
TavT?]V' ey^ei Be /cal Trjv oo-fjurjv Beivrjv /cal (frovwBr)- 
o^e Be /cal Te\eioi TOV /capTrbv TT/OO? TO /xero- 

1 a.Ka.V(av Aid. ; aKapvuv mBas. ; aKavov or a.K6pvi)s conj. Sch., 
the plural being awkward. 

2 irnvtois conj. R. Const.; ffir\r)veiois U; ffir\i}viois MAld ; 
coin G and Plin. I.e.-, cf. Diosc. 3. 107. 

3 ffoyKtaSeis : Plin. I.e. seems to have read (torosiore 

4 Kav\S)v conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. ; <pv\\wv Aid. 

5 ij.inp}>v conj. Spr. from Plin. I.e. (minutum semen) ; TTIK^V 

-rrwywvos' <nrepjuoTw56Js Aid. : so U, butTrwyojj'os, and M, but 



Pine-thistle l has but one kind,, but there are 
different kinds of safflower, the wild and the culti- 
vated. Again of the wild kind there are two 
forms, one very like the cultivated except that the 
stalk is straighter ; wherefore in ancient times women 
sometimes used it to make distaffs. 2 It has a fruit 
which is black large and bitter. The other is leafy, 
and its stalks are like those of the sow-thistle, 8 so 
that to some extent it comes to have a prostrate 
stem ; for on account of the softness of the stalks 4 
it bends down towards the ground ; and it has a 
small 5 fruit, which is bearded. All the forms pro- 
duce abundant seed, 6 but it is larger 7 and more 
crowded in the wild forms. This kind has also a 
peculiarity as compared with other wild plants ; these 
are usually coarser and more spinous than the culti- 
vated forms, but in this plant the wild form is softer 
and smoother. 

The akorna resembles in a general way in appear- 
ance the cultivated safflower, but has a yellowish 
colour and a sticky juice. 8 There is also a plant 
called distaff-thistle, which is whiter than these. A 
peculiarity of the leaf of this is that, if it is stripped 
off and applied to the flesh, the contact makes the 
juice blood-coloured, 9 wherefore some call this kind 
of spinous plant ' blood-wort ' ; also it has an abomin- 
able smell, like that of blood ; it matures its fruit late, 

: G. h&sfructum amarum (see last note) frequentem 
barbaeque modo hirsutum gignit: aunt ambo scminosa. W. 
conj. irctiycavoaiTfpLiaTa 8' erl iraffai, which is not convincing. 
I have retained the corrupt text and translate in the light 
of G. 

7 jtieio<Ti : sc. ffTrfp/j.a<n, but ffirfpfj-aTw^eis cannot be right. 

8 x v ^ v a( ld. St. ; om. Aid. ; succo pingui G ; pinyuiore succo 
Plin. I.e. a cf. 9. 1. 1. Plin. 21. 95. 



Trcopov. TO & o\ov o>? aTrXw? elirelv airacra r) 
drcavi/cr) (Averts o^riKapTro^. ajravra $6 ravra 
<j)verai /cau airo TOV GTrep/JLaros KOI CLTTO T??? 
ftpa'xyv nva <yivea9ai, TOV dva 

K<pv(TCi)<i T KOI T^9 TOV 

7 ToO o-/co\vfjiov Be o% on TOVTO JJLOVOV iBiov, em 
Trjv pi^av eBwBifjiov e^ei /cal ecpOrjv /cal OD/J,IJV, 
aXXa /cal em Tore dpio-Trjv OTav dv&fj /cal em 
cr/c\r)pvvojji,evr) d^L^aiv OTTOV. iBiov Be /cal TO TT}? 
ejrel Trepl TpOTcd<$. 

Be /cal eBcoBi/jLos 77 TOV o~6<y/cov fj Be 
OVK d/cavcoBris aXXa irpofjirjicr)^ avTOV' /cal 
roOr' iBiov /JLOVOV e%et TU>V fyvXXaicdvdwv CIVT- 
eGTpa/jLfjievws r) o %a/jiai\ea)v' o fj,ev yap d(f)v\\- 
d/cavQos cov d/cavi^ei. yrfpaa/cov Be TO avOos 

> /)/ \>/ \v 

eKTraiTTrovTCiLi Kauafrep TO TTJS ajraTnys /cat TO 777? 
fjivpi/cijs /cal o&a TrapairK^aia TOVTOIS. 7rapa/co- 
\ov6el Be fJie^pi TOV Oepovs TO /j,ev KVOVV TO Be 
dv6ovv TO Be o-Trep/JLa TLKTOV, /M/cpdv ItffidSa teal 
/cevTpov e^ov ^paivofjuevov Be TO $v\\ov 
Tai /cal ov/ceTi /cevTel. 

*H Igiwj Be (frveTai /Jiev ov 7ro\\a%ov, pd 
\ov Be e&Tiv. diro Be TT}? pt&S l^earj^ o 

a/cavo? eTUTrefyvKev, wairep fJirj\ov ev 

1 O.KO.VIK)} conj. Bod., cf. 6. 4. 4 nn.; aKaveutij Aid. 

2 cf. Hes. Op. 582. 

3 ffdyicov conj. C. Hoffmann ; oyKov Aid. 

4 KvTjffis : i.e. flower-head, cf. Kvr}/j.a 6. 4. 3 ; Plin. 21. 94. 

5 awavcoSrys conj. Seal.; aKavOu>8r)s Aid. cf. 6. 4. 3 nn. 

6 cf. 6. 4. 3. T.'s information seems to be incorrect, as 



towards autumn. Indeed, generally speaking, all 
plants like the thistle-tribe l are late fruiting. All 
these plants grow both from seed and from the root, 
so that there is but a short period between the 
beginning of growth and the maturing of the seed. 

Golden thistle has not only this peculiarity, that 
it has a root which is edible, whether boiled or raw, 
but the root is best when the plant is in flower, and, 
as it becomes hard, it produces a juice. The flowering 
time 2 is also peculiar, about the solstice. 

The root of the sow-thistle 3 is also fleshy and 
edible ; but the swollen part * is elongated and not 
thistle-like 5 ; and, alone of the spinous-leaved plants, 
it has this peculiarity, in which it is the reverse of 
the chamaeleon, 6 (for that plant, though it has not 
spinous leaves, has a thistle-like flower-head). The 
flower of the sow-thistle, as it ages, turns into down, 
as do that of the dandelion 7 the tamarisk 8 w and other 
plants like these. In its growth 9 there is a succes- 
sion up to the summer, part forming flowers, part 
flowering, and part producing seed 10 ; this 11 has little 
moisture in it and has a sharp point. The leaf, as it 
dries, becomes flaccid and no longer pricks. 

Ixine does not grow in many places, and it has 
leaves on the root. From the middle of the root 
grows the seed-bearing thistle-head, which is like 

both of the plants which he calls x a P- a - i ^* (av ( see Index) have 
spinous leaves. 

7 oTraTrrjs conj. Sch., c/. 7. 8. 3; ndirvris U; SaTra^r/i P; 
8a0v7]S Aid. 

8 fjLvplKi]5 conj. Sch.; nvptvijs M ; /uvpph'Tjs Aid. 

9 c/. Plin. I.e. 

10 ffTTpfj.a T'IKTOV I conj. ; (Tir(pfj.aros Ald.H. ; crirfp- 
fj.or6Kovv conj. Sch. 

11 Text perhaps defective. 



fjid\a eTTitce/cpvfAijLevov VTTO TWV $v\\wv OVTOS 
Be eVl rov a/cpov fyepei jo Bd/cpvov evcrTOfJiOV, 
/cal TOVTO eciTiv rj d/cavQi/cr) //,a<7Tt^7;. rav- 


10 C H Be fcdfCTos Ka\ov/ji6vtj Trepl %lK\iav JJLOVOV, 
ev rfj 'EXXaSt Be OVK eo-riv. iBiov Be Trapa 
ra\\a TO <f)vr6v d<fiirj(ri, <yap evOvs CLTTO T??? 
pitys Kavkovs eTTiyeiov?, TO Be <f)vX\,ov e%et 
7r\arv KOL dfcavOwBes' KaXoixrt Be Toi/9 Kav\ovs 
TOVTOVS fed/crow eBwBi/jioi Be el<n, 7repi\7r6/jLevoi 
bv 7ri7ri/cpoi, KOI 0J](javpifyv<jiv avrovs ev 

ll "EtTepov Be /cav\bv bp6ov d^irjcriv, ov tca\ovcri 
TTTepviKa' yiverai, Be KOI ouro? eBcoBi/jios 7r~\,r)v 
a0ri<Tavpi.GTO<$. TO Be Trepi/cdpTTiov, ev w TO 
ajrep/jLa, rrjv fjiev fjiopfyrjv d/cavwBes, afyaipeOev- 
Twv Be rwv TraTTTTwBcov cnrep/jidrwv eBdoBifjiov 
KOI TOVTO teal e/jLcfrepes TW TOV (fooivi/co? ey- 
KetydXw' KdXova-i Be avTO a/cdXiav. TO, fjiev 
ovv <$>v\\aKav6a o-tceirTeov ev TOiavrcus Bia- 

V. Ta Be Kal Trapa TTJV aKavOav e%oi>Ta 
<[)v\\ov, olov Ta TOiavTa c^ew? ovwvis TravTa- 
Bov&a T/ot/5o\09 iTTTrotyeo)*; /jLvd/cav0os . . . . TG 
(T(f)6Bpa Kal TO (f>v\\ov e%ei (rap/cwBes' TTO\V- 

1 virb conj. Sch.; M Aid.; Plin. I.e. malum contectum sua 
fronde. 2 c/. 9. 1. 3. 3 cf. Plin. 12. 72. 

4 Plin. 21. 97 ; Athen. 2. 83. 

6 TrAaru add. Seal, from Athen. I.e., cf. Plin. I.e.; om. 
Ald.H. The ' stems' are the petioles of the leaves. 

6 attavuties conj. Sch.; anavOuSfs Aid. 



an apple and well hidden by l the leaves ; this on its 
head produces its gum, 2 which is pleasant to the 
taste, and this is the ' thorn-mastich.' 3 These 
plants and others like them are found almost 

4 But the plant called kaktos (cardoon) grows only 
in Sicily, and not in Hellas. It is a plant quite 
different from any other ; for it sends up straight from 
the root stems which creep on the ground, and its 
leaf is broad 5 and spinous : these stems are called 
kaktoi; they are edible, if peeled, and are slightly 
bitter, and men preserve them in brine. 

There is another kind which sends up an erect 
stem, called the pternix. This too is edible, but can- 
not be preserved. The fruit-vessel, which contains 
the seed, is in shape like a thistle-head 6 : and when 
the downy seeds are taken off, this too is edible and 
resembles the ' brain ' 7 of the palm ; and it is called 
skalias. 8 Such are the different characteristics in 
the light of which we may observe the spinous- 
leaved plants. 

V. Examples of plants which have leaves as well 
as spines are pheos 9 rest-harrow star-thistle caltrop 
' horse-pfieos ' 10 (spurge) butcher's broom n . . . , 12 
and it has a fleshy leaf : it is much divided and has 

7 i.e. 'cabbage.' cf. 2. 6. 2. 

8 ascaliam Plin. I.e. ; affKaXi/ipov Athen. I.e. Modern Greek 
cr/caATjpa. English ' bottom.' See Index KO.KTOS (2). 

9 $(ws conj. St,; 4>Aea>s Aid. of. 6. 1. 3. 

10 tiriroQews conj. Salm., cf. 6. 5. 2 ; !-mr6(pvov Aid. cf. Plin. 
21. 91. 

11 Diosc. 2. 125 ; Plin. 19. 151. 

12 Text defective : the end of one sentence is missing and 
the beginning of the next, containing the name of a plant. 
Gr attaches the following description to 0e'o>y. The plants 
presently described do not correspond to this list. 



e? Be /cal 7ro\vppiov, ov fjirjv Kara /3d0ovs 
T#9 pia<? e^ov. pXaa-rdvei, Be d^a TlXeidBi 
/cal T0?9 TrpwTOis dpoTois teal d(f)irj(Ti Tore TO 
(f>v\\ov ov yap IdTiv eTrereiov a\\a 

2 To Be T?)9 KaTTTrdpios IBiov, 
Trapa ravra' /cal yap TO 

e%ei, /cal TOV Kav\ov, ov% MCTTrep o </>ea)9 /cal 
tTTTTO^fft)? avdrcavOa 
Be /cal eiriyeiov /cal 
Be /cal dvOel TOV 6epov<$ /cal Bia/Jiei>ei, TO <j)vX\,oi> 
'\\wpov a%pi TLXeuiBos. %aipei Be vtydjjijjLOis 
/cal XeTTToyeiois xcopiow \eyerai, Be co? ev Tot? 
epyaa-i/AOis ov Oe\ei (frveaOai, /cal ravra Trepl rd 
darrj /cal ev evyeiow TOTTOIS <j)vo/jivr) /cal ov% 
(7i\(f)iov ev opeivols" TOVTO fj^ev <ovv> ov 

3 'O Be Tpij3o\o<; iBiov eyzi, Biort Trepi/capTri- 
d/cav66<> ecrTL. Bvo 8' avrov yevrj" TO jjiev yap 
(j)v\\ov epeftivO&Ses, erepos Be 

Be dju<f)co /cal TroXXa^r} 
ao-T9 Be /jid\\ov 6 $vX\d/cavo$ /ca 
Trepl Ta9 av\d<$. TO Be o-irep^a TOV [lev Trpw'iov 
anyaa/AwBes, TOV Be o^friov aTpoyyvXov eirifJieXav 
ev Xo/3a>. /cal TO, /j,ev ovv Trapd Ta $v\\a /cal 
d/cavOav e^ovTa G^eBov ev TOVTOIS. 

'H ' ovwvis ecrTL TTTopdd/cavOov eTreTeiov Be 
TO <f>v\\ov e%et TrrjyavtoBes TrapaTretyvKos Trap' 

1 a.p6rois conj. Bod.; apdrpots Aid. cf. 8. 1.2. 

2 Wre conj. St.; TOVTO Aid. 3 cf. Pall. 10. 13. 2. 

4 6 (pecas conj. St.; o<f>eo>s Ald.Bas.Cam. H. ; 6 <Aews mBas. 
6 Plin. 21. 91. 


many roots, but is not deep-rooting. It grows at the 
rising of the Pleiad, the first seed-time, 1 and then 2 
puts forth its leaf; for it is not annual, but lives 
longer than one year. 

3 Caper, as was said, is'quite distinct from these ; 
it has a spinous leaf and a spinous stem, whereas 
pheos* and ' horse-pkeos ' have no spines on their 
leaves 5 ; it has a single 6 root, is low-growing, 7 and 
has a creeping stem ; it grows and flowers in summer, 
and the leaf remains green till the rising of the 
Pleiad. It rejoices in sandy light soils, and it is said 
that it is unwilling to grow on cultivated land, and 
that though it grows near towns and in good soil, 
and not, like silphium, in mountain country. This 
account however 8 is not altogether accurate. 

9 A peculiarity of caltrop is that it is spinous- 
fruited. 10 There are two kinds ; one has a leaf like 
that of chick-pea, the other has spinous leaves. 
Both are low-growing and much divided, but the 
spinous-leaved form grows later and is found near 
enclosures. The seed of the early kind is like that 
of sesame, that of the late kind is round and blackish 
and enclosed in a pod. These may serve as examples 
of plants which have spines as well as leaves. 11 

12 Rest-harrow has spines on the shoots ; the leaf, 
which is annual, 13 is like that of rue, and grows right 
along the stem, so that the general appearance is 

6 Dioso. 2. 173 gives a different account. 
' cf. 7. 8. 1. 

8 ovv add. W. (in comm.) from G. 

9 Plin. 21. 98. 10 cf. 6. 1. 3. 

11 TO. fj.ev olv irapa TO. <f>v\\a conj. Sell. (o$v add. W. ) ; ret juev 
oiiv &<rnep ava<pv\\a Ald.H. 12 Plin. 21. 98. 

13 I have altered the punctuation ; irropOaKavOov, eTreVetoj/ Se- 
rb <j>. KT\. W. after UMP. 




ciKov TOV fcav\6v, axrre KaBdirep orretydvov rrjv 
o\i]v elvai fiopcfrrfv, Bia\afjLJ3avo/jLei'a)i/ 7ra\\ij- 
\wv Ko\o/3oav6r)<$ Be KOI e'A,/Vo/3o/cap7ro9 dBia- 
(frpaKTW <f>verai B* eV rfj yXio-^pa Kal yavcoBei 
KOI fjiakiara ev rfj (nropifjiM Kal yecopyovfievrj, 
Si? o Kal 7ro\efJLiov rot? yewpyols' Kal ecm 
Bv(Ta)\0po<;' orav jap \dftr} %(t)pas /9a^o?, wOei 
rat Kara) evOvs Kal Ka& eKacnov ero? (nrofyva'eis 
els ra 7T\dyia iraKiv e/9 TO erepov 
Kara)' cnrao-rea /JLCV ovv oX?y rovro 
verai rf)s 77)9 Kal cnTo\\VTai 
paov eav 8e Kal fJLiKpov cnro\ei$>6 y , cnro rovrov 
irdkiv fiXac-raver apxerai 8e TTJS (3\aa-rijo-6(0s 
Qepovs Tekeiovrai Se /jLeroTrcopov. ra fiev ovv 
a<ypia TWV fypwyavucwv eic TOVTCDV OewpeicrOa). 

VI. Ta Se ij^epa ftpa^eldv TIVO, eyzi Qecopiav, 
airep ev rot9 crT6(j)av(0/.iaTiKols eeri. 

Ta Be KaO' o\ov Treipareov irepl o-re^avw/jidrcov 
elireiv, 07ra>9 cnrav 7repi,\r](f)@f} TO yevos. rj yap 
<j>vai<$ IBiav riva e%et rd^iv, 
Be ra fjiev TOt9 (ppvyaviKois ra Be 
Tot9 TTOtcoSecrt* Bi o KaKelva (rvjj,7repi\,7j7rTeov 
7ri/jLifjLvrj(7KOfjievov<; &>9 av y o Kaipos, ap%afjievov<$ 
2 TrpwTov a?ro Twv (frpvyaviKwv. Bi^rj Be Y) rovrcov 

1 Evidently some conventional way of making a wreath. 

2 $ia.\a/jL0a.vofj.4i'(0v Tra\ \ri\cav COlij. W. ; 8mAa,uj8aj'o J uei>77i> vir' 
a\\r}\wv Aid. c/. Plat. Prot. 346 E, where the verb means 
' to punctuate.' 

3 KO\o&oai>6r]S ', cf. 8. 3. 3. 



that of a garland, 1 the leaves being set at intervals 
alternately along it 2 ; the flower is irregular, 3 and the 
fruit contained in a pod, 4 which is not divided into 
compartments. 5 It grows in sticky rich soil and 
especially in sown and cultivated land ; wherefore it 
is an enemy to husbandmen, and it is hard to kill ; 
for, when it gets hold of a piece of ground, it im- 
mediately pushes its roots down deep, 6 and every 
year it sends up new growths at the sides and the 
next year 7 it roots these again. Wherefore it has to 
be dragged up entire 8 ; this is done when the ground 
has been moistened, and then it is easier to destroy. 
But, if but a small piece is left, it shoots again from 
this. It begins to grow in summer and completes its 
growth in autumn. Let these examples serve for 
a survey of the wild forms of under-shrubs. 

Of cultivated under-shrubs (coronary plant*), with which are 
included those, coronary plants which are herbaceous. 

VI. The cultivated kinds need but a brief survey ; 
these 9 come under the class of coronary plants. 

Of coronary plants we must endeavour to give a 
general account, so that the whole class may be 
included. This group has a somewhat peculiar 
position, since it overlaps partly the under-shrubs, 
partly the herbaceous plants ; wherefore the latter 
must also be included and we must mention them 
as occasion serves, taking first the under-shrubs. 

4 f\\ofioKapTros conj. Sch.; e\\ofiodi'dris Aid. 

6 cf. 8. 5. 2. 

c wfletrai KO.TU conj. Sell. ; wfle? TO.> Aid. 

7 ets rb eTpov, KG. eros ; T< ere'py conj. Sch. 

8 (TTraerTea juej/ ovv #A?j conj. W.; araQfiffa. /j.ev ovrcas 0X77 Aid. 

9 eiirep conj. Sch.; eftrep UMAld.G. 

D 2 


rj Kara rrjv ^pe'iav. T&V JJLCV yap TO 
fjiovov %pijo~ifjLOV teal TOVTCOV TO jj,ev CVOCT/JLOV, 
&o~7rep LOV, TO B* avoajjiov, wo-jrep Bi6o~av0o<; 

TWV B Kal Oi K\COV<> Kal TO, (j)V\\a KOi o 

77 Traa-a <f>v0i$ eiJoo-yLto?, olov epirvhXov e\eviov 
ov TWV aXkwv. a^co Be (fcpvyavi/ca. 
TWV avOiicwv iroXkwv rj <f>vais <f>pvya- 

, 97 JJL6V e7TT6f09 01X70, fJLOVOV, f) &e 7r6\V- 

, 7r\rjv Iwvlas rrj<; fj,\aiwr}<>' avrrj 
yap atc\wv 0X0)9 a\\a Trpoa-pi%6<f)v\\os KOI ael- 
<^uXXo5, ft>9 Se Tti/69 <^a(TL /cal Swapevrj SS 6\ov 
<f)epiv TO avOos, eav Tpoirw Tivl OepaTrevrjrai. 
rovTo /AW iSiov av e%oi. 

T&v S a\\(ov fj,a\\ov Be rwv TTCLVTWV at fiev 
o\au /jiop^al o"%eBbv Traai fyavepal" el Be nvas 
aXXa9 IBiorrjra^ eyovai, ravras \e/CTeov, olov el 
ra fiev aTT\a Bo/cel Tot9 eiBeaw elvai ra Be e 

fiev ovv ra ^v\coBr) ) KaOdirep 6/?7ruXXo9 
eKeviov 7r\r)v el ra fj,ev aypia ra Be 
ij/jiepa /cal <.ra /j,ev> evocr/jia ra Be docr/jLorepd eari' 
TOVTCDV Be Kal ai OepaTrelai Kal at X&pai Bid- 
(fropoi Kal 01 ae/569. evia Be Kal TWV dvd&v, olov 
TO jj&Xav LOV ov yap efteiv BOKCL rovro Biafopav 

1 Plin. 21. 59. 

3 So Plin. I.e.-, Init Nic. ap. A then. 15. 31 calls this flower 

8 TroAAwj' conj. W. ; iro\\a UMAld. 

4 olov fl conj. W. ; O'TI Aid. 6 ovv conj. W. ; ciov Aid. 



1 These may be divided into two groups according 
to their uses. Of some only the flower is service- 
able ; and of these some are sweet-scented, as 
gilliflower, some scentless, as carnation 2 and wall- 
flower. Of others again the branches leaves and in 
fact the whole growth are sweet-scented, as with 
tufted thyme calamint bergamot-mint and the rest. 
Both groups however belong to the under-shrubs. 
And of the first-mentioned, those valued for their 
flowers, the growth is in most 3 cases that of under- 
shrubs, (in some annual merely, in others of longer 
duration) except in the violet ; for this is altogether 
without branches, its leaves grow close to the root, 
and it is always in leaf; while, as some say, it is 
able to bear flowers continuously, if it is tended in a 
certain way. This may be considered a peculiar 
characteristic of this plant. 

Of the others, or rather of all the group, the 
general appearance is in each case plain to all ; 
any peculiarities that they may exhibit we must 
mention, for instance, if 4 some appear to have but 
a single form, while others have various forms. 

Thus 5 those of woody character, as tufted thyme 
bergamot-mint calamint, have but one form, un- 
less one counts wild and cultivated, scented and 
scentless plants, as belonging to distinct forms ; 
and again there are with these plants differences 
of culture of position and of climate. Some also 6 
of the group valued for their flowers 7 have each 
but one form, for instance, the black ion (violet) ; 
for this does not appear to have different forms 

6 tvia Se /col conj. W.; ei>ioi Se UMAld. 

7 a.vQS,v in the sense of wQittiav 2, which perhaps should 
be read here. 



wcnrep TO \VKOV e^avrjs yap rj TOVTOOV 
Bia\\dTTOvaa, Kal en Brj /j,a\\ov 77 TWV Kpivwv, 
eiTrep Brf, KaOaTrep <f>acriv, evia /ecu rroptyvpa eari. 

4 TMV Be poBcov TroXXal Biatyopal Tt\rj6ei, re 
(f)v\\a)i> Kai o\iyoTrjTi fcaLTpa^vrtjri KCU \eioT7jTi 
/cal ev%poia /cal evoo-fjiia. ra fiep yap 
Tre^Ta^uXXa, TO, Be BwSetcdffrvXXa, Kal eiKo 

ra B' en, TroXXa) TrXetov virepaipovra TOVTWV evia 
yap elvai (fra&iv a Kal KdKovcnv e 
7r\i(na Be ra roiavrd eart, trepl 
ovroi yap \a/j,/3dvovTe<; eK rov Ylayyaiov (f>vrev- 
OVGIV eKel ydp yiverai TroXXa* <r/j,tKpd Be o~(f)6Bpa 
TO, eVro? </>uXXa- r; yap eK^voris avrwv oi/T&)9 
w(7T elvai TO, [lev eVro? ra 5' eWo? f OVK evoo-f^a 
Be ovBe /j,eyd\a rot? peyedeaiv. ev Be rot? jj.eyd- 

5 Xoi? evcoBrj /xaXXoi> &v rpa^v TO KOLTW. TO Be 
o\ov, wcTTrep e\e%0i], Kal fj ev^poia Kal rj evocrfiia 
Trapd TOL? TOTrou? eo-Tiv eVel Kal TCL ev yfj Ty 
avTy yivopeva Troiel Tiva nrapa\\ayr]v evocrfjuias 
Kal do(T/jiia<>. evoa //.orara ^e Ta ev l^vpi'^vr], Bi 
o Kal TO /jLvpov tfBio-Tov. avrXw? Be Kal TMV twv 
Kal TWV d\\a)V dvOwv aKpaTot, fjud\iaTa 

1 c/. 6. 8. In.; Diosc. 3. 102. 

2 Plin. 21. 14-21 ; Athen. 15. 29. 

3 i.e. of the bark. c/. Plin. 21. 17, scabritia corticis. 

4 Sc. in ' double ' roses. 

6 i.e. the hip; c.illed o/*<f)a\os Arist. Probl. 12. 8, where 
the same statement is made ; called p.ri\ov below, 6. 



like the white ion (gilliflower) in which the colour 
evidently varies ; as does still more that of the 
Hlies, if it be true, as some say, that there is a 
crimson kind. 1 

2 Among roses there are many differences, in 
the number of petals, in roughness, 3 in beauty 
of colour, and in sweetness of scent. Most have 
five petals, but some have twelve or twenty, and 
some a great many more than these ; for there 
are some, they say, w r hich are even called ' himdred- 
petalled.' Most of such roses grow near Philippi ; 
for the people of that place get them on Mount 
Pangaeus, where they are abundant, and plant 
them. However the inner petals 4 are very small, 
(the way in which they are produced being such 
that some are outside, some inside). Some kinds 
are not fragrant nor of large size. Among those 
which have large flowers those in which the part 5 
below the flower is rough are the more fragrant. 
In general, as has been said, good colour and scent 
depend upon locality ; for even bushes which are 
growing in the same 6 soil shew some variation in 
the presence or absence of a sweet scent. Sweetest- 
scented of all are the roses of Gyrene, wherefore 
the perfume made from these is the sweetest. 
(Indeed it may be said generally that the scents " 
of the gilliflowers 8 also and of the other flowers 
of that place are the purest, and especially the 

6 rfj aiTTJ conj. Sch.; roicivrr) U; roiavra M. 

7 &Kparoi /j.d\i<rra KeWi at 6<r/u.a( conj. Sch. after Saracenus 
on Diosc. 1. 25; Athen. I.e. (&Kparot jj.a.\iara na\ 6e~iai at 
offjj.a.i) ; aKparoi- fj.d\i(rra 5' exeivov of ocr.uaf Aid.; e/ce? at bffp.a.\ 
(rest uncertain) U. cf. C P. 6. 18. 3. 

8 ? violets ami gilliflowers : see Index. 



al ocr/iai, BiacfrepovTO)? Be rov KpoKov 
yap OUTO? BOKL 7rapa\\aTTi,v. (frverai pev ovv 
r) poBwvia Kal e/c TOV o-TrepuaTOS' e%ei Be VTTO TO 
avdo<$ ev TO> yii??X.ft) KVJjKU>Be<f rj aKavwSes, e^ov Be 
Tiva 'xyovv l^are eyyvs etvai rwv TrafnTw^iMv 
o-Trep/jidTWV ov jArjv a\\a Sia TO ^/jaSeco? Trapa- 
ryiveo-Oai (caTaKOTTTOvres, &>9 eXe^dr), TOV KCLV\OV 
<j>VT6vov(riv. eTriKaio/jLevrj Be Kal eTTLre/jLVOfjuevrj 
(f>epL TO avOof eo)fj,evr) yap egav^erai 
Ko'XH'OVTai. Bel Be Kal fjiera^vreveiv 
Kal jap OVTCO (fracrl KCL\\LOV yivecrdai, 
TO poBov. al B* aypiat, rpa-^vrepai Kal Tat? 
pdffBois Kal TO?? (j)v\\o^, ert Be avOos a-^pov- 
o"repov e^ovai Kal eXarrov. 

7 To 8e lov TO fj,e\av TOV \evKov Biacfrepei Kara 
re aXXa Kal KMT avrrjv rrjv Iwviav, on, ir\arv- 
(f)V\\6s Te Kal eyyei6(j) uXXo? Kal 

ea"Ti, 7ro\\r}v e^Qvcra pi^av. 

8 Ta Be Kpiva rf) pev XP OL $ T ^ v 

Biatyopdv. fjiovoKav\a Be evnv &>? eirl irav, 
BiKav\ei Be (TTraviw rd^a Be rovro %(>pas Kal 
aepo? Biafopas. KaO^ eKaarov Be Kav\bv ore pep 
ev Kplvov OTe Be TrXeto) ryiverai' /3\a(ndvi yap 
TO ciKpov cnraviWTepa Be ravra' pi^av Be 
rjv o-apKcoBr) Kal arpoyyvXrjp' 6 Be 

1 f>ia<f>fp6vT<i>s Se TOV icpoitov conj. Saracenus from Athen. 
I.e. ; Sm^epoWws S)/ TOV XP^ VOV Aid. cf Callim. Hymn to 
Apollo 83, whence it appears that an autumnal crocus (crocus 
sativua) is meant. See below 10. 

2 aitav>5es conj. Sch. from G, acanaceum ; dyflcDSes UMAld. 

3 TroTTTrwSaiv conj. Sell.; irpwrccv Aid. 

4 PHn. 21. 27. 


scent of the saffron-crocus/ a plant which seems to 
vary in this respect more than any other). Roses can 
be grown from seed, which is to be found below the 
flower in the ' apple/ and is like that of safflower 
or pine-thistle, 2 but it has a sort of fluff, so that it 
is not unlike the seeds which have a pappus. 3 As 
however the plant comes slowly from seed, they 
make cuttings of the stem, as has been said, and 
plant them. If the bush is burnt or cut over, it bears 
better flowers ; for, if left to itself, it grows luxuriantly 
and makes too much wood. Also it has to be often 
transplanted ; for then, they say, the roses are 
improved. The wild kinds are rougher both in 
stem and in leaf, and have also smaller flowers of a 
duller colour. 

4 The black ion (violet) differs from the white" 
ion (gilliflower) not only in other respects but in 
the plant itself, in that in the former the leaves 
are broad, lie close to the ground, and are fleshy, and 
there is much root. 

5 Krina (lilies) shew the variation in colour which 
has been already mentioned. 6 The plant has in 
general a single stem, but occasionally divides 
into two, which may be due to differences 7 in position 
and climate. On each stem grows sometimes one 
flower, but sometimes more ; (for it is the top of 
the stem which produces the flower 8 ) but this 
sort is less common. There is an ample root, which 
is fleshy and round. If the fruit is taken off, it 

6 Plin. 21. 25. The account of herbaceous coronary plants 
seems to begin here. cf. 6. 6. 10. 6 6. 6. 3. 

7 SiaQopus U ; Siatyopa W. after Sch. 

8 &\affTavet. But this word in T. has usually a more 
general sense. ? ' for in that case the top of the stem 
branches ' (lit. ' makes fresh growth '). 



d(f>aipov/jbvo<; eK^\aaTavei KOL 
icpivov 7r\rjv eXaTTov. TTOLGL Be Tiva Kal 
crvppoijv, fjv KOI (pvTevovanv, waTrep ei7ro/J,ev. 

'O Be vdpKto'cros rj TO \elpiov, 01 /j,ev yap TOVTO 
ol ' etceivo Kakovai, TO fj,ev eirl TTJ <yfj <f)v\\ov 
%e^, r jr\aTVTepov Be TTO\V, Ka6direp 

TOV Be KdvXoV Ct(f)V\\OV /LLV 7TOCi)B7) 

Be Kal ef aKpov TO avOos, fcal ev v/jievi TIV\ 
ev dyyeico <fcap7rov> /j,eyav ev i^d\a /cal 
Trj ^poLa a^j/naTi Be Trpo^fc^j. ouro? 8' 
Troiel ft\dcrTr](nv CLVTO/JLCLTOV ov ^v 
d\\d teal cruXXe'yo^re? Trrjiyvvovcri /cal TIJV pi^av 
e%ei pi^av aapKcoBrj <7Tpoyyv\r)v 
otyiov Be G^oBpa 1 fJueTci ydp 'ApKTOVpov 
r) civ drier is Kal irepl lafjfjLepiav. 

10 'O Be KpoKGS TroctiBtjs fjiev Ty (f)vcri, KaOdirep Kal 
vTa, 7r\r)v <f)v\\() crTevy, cr^eBov ydp wcnrep 
e<jTiv o^LavOes Be (T<j)6Bpa Kal 
TTpwlavOes, o7TOT6/9ft)9 rt? \ajui{3dvoi 
TTJV wpav </Jt,eTa> Tl\eidBa ydp dv6el Kal 
ev@v<$ B* afia TW (f)v\\(i) Kal TO 
BoKei Be Kal rrpoTepov pi^a Be TroXX?; Kal 
(rapK(t)Br)$, Kal TO o\ov ev^wov (f)i\el Be Kal 
Kal yiverai Ka\\t,a)v 

1 c/. 2. 2. 1 n., 9. 14 ; C.P. 1. 4. 4-6. Plin. 21. 26 describes 
a method of artificially producing crimson lilies from the 
bulbils of a white lily. " cf. Geop. 11. 20. 

2 cf. 6. 8. 1 and 3. See Index. 3 cf. 7- 13. 1. 
4 TTOC^STJ : cf. 4. 10. 3. 



germinates and produces a fresh plant, but of 
smaller size ; the plant also produces a sort of 
tear-like exudation, which men also plant, as we 
have said. 1 

The narcissus 2 or leirion (for some call it by the 
one name, some by the other) has its ground-leaves 
like those of the asphodel,, 3 but much broader, 
like those of the krinon (lily) ; its stem is leafless 
and grass-green 4 and bears the flower at the top ; 
the fruit 5 is in a kind of membrane-like vessel, 
and is very large, black in colour, and oblong in 
shape. This as it falls germinates of its own accord ; 
however men collect and set 6 the seed, and also 
plant the root, which is fleshy round and large. The 
plant blooms very late, 7 after the setting of Arcturus 
about the equinox. 

8 The saffron-crocus is herbaceous in character, Rke 
the above-mentioned plants, 9 but has a narrow leaf; 
indeed the leaves are, as it were, hair-like ; it 
blooms very late, and grows either late or early, 
according as one looks at the season 10 ; for it blooms 
after 11 the rising of the Pleiad and only for a few 
days. It pushes up the flower at once with the 
leaf, or even seems to do so earlier. The root 12 
is large and fleshy, and the whole plant vigorous ; 
it loves even to be trodden on and grows fairer 
when the root is crushed into the ground by the 

5 Kapirbv omitted in MSS.; add. Dalec. from Diosc. 4. 158. 
B irriyvvovffi : cf. 7. 4. 3 n. 

7 cf. C.P. 1. 10. 5 ; Plin. I.e. (a much confused passage). 

8 Plin. 21. 31-34. 

9 Sc. wpiVoj/ and vdpKurcros ; cf. 6. 6. 8 n. 

10 i.e. whether at the end of one season or the beginning of 
the next. cf. C.P. 1. 10. 5. Xapfrdvoi U ; Xa/jLpdvei Aid. 
add. W. 12 cf. 7. 9. 4. 



TT}? ptfys 1 Bi b /cal Trapa ra9 oSou? /cal ev 
rot? KporrjTois tcd\\i(TTOS. rj Be (frvreia CLTTO 

iWft v 

u Tavra /juev ovv ovro) yevvdrai. ra ' aXXa 
avQt) ra Trpoeiprj/jieva iravia (nrelpe'rai, olov 
hovia SioaavOos i<f>vov <^>Xof r)/jL6poKa\\e<;' /cal 
yap avra real al pi^ai fuXcoSei?' (TTreipercu Se 
KOI TI olvdvOy fcal yap teal TOVTO dvOwbes. rd 
fi^lt ovv av6iK,d (jye&ov ev rourot? /cal rot? opo'iot,*; 


VII. Ta Be Tpa Trdvra /JLW dvOel /cal crTrep- 
fj,o<t>opi, So/eel be ov irdvra Bid TO pr) fyavepov 
elvai TIVCOV TOP /caprrov eVel /cal TO 
ev'itov dfiavpov aXX' OTL ftpaSecos /cal 
Tepa>5 Trapayiverai, rfj (pvreia xpwvrai fj,d\\ov, 
2 w o-7re/3 IXe^Orj /cal fear dp%d<;. /cairoi Biarei- 
vovjai Tives a>? ov/c . e^ovrcdv Kapirov 01 re 
ireTTeipacrOat (frda/covres /cal TOVTWV elo~Lv, avrol 
ydp fypdvai 7ro\\d/ci<; /cal aTrorptyai /cal (nrelpai, 
teal ovSeTTtoTTore ^kaarelv ovre pirv\\ov ovre 
\eviov ovre cncrvfiftpiov ovre pivQav TT encipher 9 at 
ydp /cal TavTijs. dXX* o/zw? e/celvo d\r)0ecrTpov, 
r) re TWV dypic&v (frvcris eTTi^aprvpel' /cal yap 
ep7rv\\6<; evTLV aypios, bv /co/x/fo^re? e/c rwv 
opwv (f>VTevovai /cal ev ^IKV&VI /cal 'AOrfvycriv e/c 
rov "TjATjTTOV' Trap' aXXot? Be oXw? opr) 
Kal \6<poi, KaOdirep ev rfj pa/cy /cal 

1 irdrcf conj. Turneb. and others ; /carco Aid. 

2 KporrjTo'ts : Plin. I.e. iuxta semitas ac fontes. Did he read 
icpovvois 1 

3 avOiKa conj. Seal. ; aKat>0iica Aid. c/. 6. 6. 2. 

4 dAA' '6ri conj. W. from G ; *\\o St UMPAld. 



foot 1 : wherefore it is fairest along the roads and in 
well-worn places. 2 It is propagated from the root. 

These are the ways then in which the above plants 
are grown. All the above-mentioned flowers are 
grown from seed, as gilliflower carnation spike- 
lavender wall-flower martagon-lily ; these plants 
themselves, as well as their roots, are woody. 
Drop-wort is also grown from seed ; for that too 
is a plant grown for its flower. These and other 
plants like them may serve as examples of plants 
grown for their flowers. 3 

VII. All the others flower and bear seed, though 
they do not all appear to do so, since in some cases 
the fruit is not obvious. Indeed in some the flower 
too is inconspicuous, but, because 4 these grow slowly 
and with some difficulty, men propagate them rather 
by off-shoots, as was said at the beginning. How- 
ever some contend that they have no fruit : and 
there are men who have actually tried with the 
following plants 5 ; they have, they say, themselves 
often dried and rubbed out and sown the apparent 
fruit of thyme calamint bergamot-miiit and green 
mint (for even that they have tried) and there was 
no germination from such sowing. However, the 
account given above is the truer, and the character 
of the wild forms testifies to this ; for there is 
also a wild thyme (Attic thyme 6 ), which they bring 
from the mountains and plant at Sicyon, or from 
Hymettus and plant at Athens ; and in other 
districts the mountains and hills 7 are quite covered 
with it, for instance in Thrace. There is also a 
6 ol re . . . tlfflv transposed by Sch. ; in MSS. after 

6 Plin. 19. 172 ; Athen. 15. 28. 

7 \6<(>oi conj. W.; rtiroi Aid. 



Be nal raXXa BpifjiVTepav e^ovra rrjv 
e/OTTfXXo? 8' eviore /cal iravTeKws Ov/jiwBijf;' a 
Bfj\ov on, TavTrjv TTJV yevecnv Xa/mfldvei. 

'AffpoTovov Be /jLaX\ov drro cnrepiJLaTOS ft\a- 
(TTavei T) drro pity? KOI TrapcKTTrdSos' %aXe7ra>9 Be 
fcal CLTTO direpfjiaro^' Trpo/jLOO-^evofj.evov <Be> ev 
oarpd/cois, cocnrep ol 'A^coz^/^o? Kfjiroi, rov 6epov<$' 
SiKTpiyov yap (T(f)6$pa Kol oXco? eTri/cijpov KOI OTTOL 
6 r^Xto? <T(f)oSpa \dfjwrei' e/JL/Siwaav Be /cal a 
/jieya /cal la"%vpov /cal BevBpwBes wvirep TO 


/cal av%iici)Be(rTpov. 

'O Be dfjidpafcos a/JL^orepw^ tyveTai, /cal diro 
irapacrTrdBos /cal OLTTO o-Trep/jLaros' Tro'XixTTrep/jLov 
Be, /cal TO crTTep/jLa evoo-j^ov ocr/Ay /jLaXa/cwTepa" 
BvvaTai Be /cal fJLeTa$VTeveo-6ai. iro\vaTrepiJLov Be 
/cal TO dftpoTovov /cal ov/c aoa^ov. TOVTO Be pi^as 

opOds /cal KaTa j3d@ov$. e<JTi yap warrep 
^ov TTJ Tra^eia ra? 8' aXXa? <d(f)ii](Tiv> air 

6 B* dpdpaKos /cal 6 e/oTTfXXo? /cal TO 
cn(7v/ii/3piov /cal TO eXeviov eVtTroXatou? /cal 

tSet? /cal TappcoBew v\(t)Bei<> Be Trdcrai, 

e /JidX\ov TI TOV dftpoTovov /cal Bid TO 

/cal TTJ 

1 fviore conj. W. ; evlois Aid. 

2 Plin. 21. 57. Description of various forms of epirv\\os 
has perhaps dropped out after this word : c/. 5, 

3 i.e. from seed. TUVTTIV conj. W.; Trdvra UMAld.; 

4 Plin. 21. 34 : c/. C.P. 1. 4. 2. ^TOVOV . . . Otpovs, text 
nearly as given by Aid. and by UM (?) supported by Plin. 



wild bergamot-mint, and wild forms of the other 
plants mentioned, having a more pungent smell. 
Thyme is sometimes 1 quite like cultivated thyme.' 2 
Now it is plain that these wild forms possess this 
means of reproducing themselves. 3 

Southernwood actually grows more readily from 
seed than from a root 4 or a piece torn off (though 
it grows even from seed with difficulty) ; however 
it can be propagated by layering in pots in summer- 
time, like the ( gardens of Adonis ' 5 ; it is indeed 
very sensitive 6 to cold and generally delicate even 
where the sun shines brightly ; but, when it is 
established and has grown, it becomes tall and 
strong and tree-like, like rue, except that the latter 
is much more woody drier and less succulent. 

7 Sweet marjoram grows in either way, from pieces 
torn off or from seed ; it produces a quantity of seed, 
which is fragrant with a delicate scent ; it can also 
be transplanted. 8 Southernwood also produces much 
seed, which has some scent. This plant has straight 
roots which run deep ; it has, as it were, its single 
stout root, from which the others spring; 9 while 
sweet marjoram tnyme bergamot-mint and calamint 
have surface 10 roots which are much divided and 
matted ; in all these plants the roots are woody, 
but especially in southernwood, because of its size 
and because it is so dry. 

I.e. so far as that passage is intelligible but 5e before tv 
offTpaKOis add.W. ; after eV bffrp. supply ^\aff7avei. 

6 cf. Plat. Phaedo 276 B and Thompson's n. Sir W. 
Thiselton-Dyer in Companion to Greek Studies, 99, p. 65. 

6 cf C.P. 4. 3. 2. 7 Plin. 21. 61. 

8 pfTatyvTevea-Qai conj. Sch. from G ; /u6Ta</>iW0at Aid. 

9 fyl-nffiv add.W. 

10 Twro\aiovs conj. Seal.; M vo\\ovs MAld. cf. C P 2 
16. 5. 



Tov Be ep7rv\\ov iBios r) av%r)(Ti.<; rj TO>V /3\a- 
BvvaTai jap e<' oaovovv Tfpolevai, Kara 
%dpa/ca \a(3cov rj TT/JO? al^aaiav (j>VTev- 
r) KCLTW Kadie^ievo^' evav^eaTaTos Be 6t9 
<f)peap. eiSrj Be TOV /JLV r}/j,pov \afielv OVK 
ecm, KaOdirep eXe%^. TOV Be dypiov 
elvai. TOV jap ev ro?9 opecriv TOV /j,ev 
Tiva KOI Bpi/jLVTCtTov TOV 8* evocr/Aov elvai, /cal 

6 f 'lpa Be TT}? ^ureta? 7r\ei<TTa)v fJLeToirwpov, ev 
w crTrevBovcriv &><? Trpwra <f)VTeveiv ov fir^v aXX' 
evia fcal TOV rjpos (frvTevovaiv. airavTa (f>i\6crKia 
/cal <f)i\vBpa Kal fyiXoKOTTpa yLtaXtcrra* av%/j,ov Be 
Kal 0X0)9 oXiyovBpoTaTOs 6 epTruXXo?. 
q) Be %ai,pei, yLtaXtcrra Be Kal TTJ TWV \ofyov- 
pcov <j>a<rl Be Kal fteTatyvTeveiv Beiv TroXXaKw 
i(o yap. TO Be cncrv^^piov, wcnrep e\e%0r), Kal 
fj,r) jjbeTa^vTevofJLGVov. 

VIII. Twi^ 8' dvO&V TO /J,eV TtpWTOV K(j)aiVTai 

TO \evKolov, OTTOV fjiev 6 drjp fj,a\aK(*)Tpo<> evOvs 
TOV ^eijJbwvoSy OTTOV Be o~K\r)poTepo<$ vcrTepov, 
evia^ov TOV rjpos. d/ma Be TO) tco rj /MKpov TI 
vcFTepov Kal TO <J)\6yi,vov Ka\ovfJievov TO dypiov 

1 c/. Plin. 20. 245 and 246 (not from T.) ; O.P. 2. 18. 2 ; 
Diosc. 3. 38 ; Index (pnv\\os. 

2 c/. Plin. 19. 172, which refers however to 
Nic. ap. Athen. 15. 31. 

8 Plin. 21. 61. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, VI. vn. 5 -vin. i 

1 The growth of the shoots of thyme is peculiar. 
If it has a stake, or is planted against a wall, it can 
send them out to any length ; so also if it is let grow 
downwards ; indeed it is most vigorous when grown 
into a pit. 2 It is not possible to distinguish different 
forms of the cultivated kind, as has been said, but 
they say that of the wild kind (Attic thyme) there 
is more than one form ; for that of the kind which 
grows on the mountains one form is like savory and 
very pungent, while the other is fragrant and more 

3 The season for planting most of these is autumn, 
and then men hasten to plant them as early as 
possible ; however some are planted also in spring. 
All of them love shade, 4 water, and especially dung ; 
however thyme is patient of drought and, in general, 
needs moisture less than the others. These plants 
especially delight in the dung of beasts of burden ; 
and it is said that they should often be transplanted, 
for that it improves them, while bergamot-mint, as 
has been said, actually degenerates 5 if it is not 

Of the seasons at ivhich coronary plants flower, and of the 
length of their life. 

VIII. 6 Of the flowers the 7 first to appear is the 
gilliflower ; where the air is mild, it appears as soon 
as winter comes, but, where it is more severe, later, 
sometimes in spring. Along with the gilliflower, or 
a little later, appears the flower called the wild wall- 

4 fyiXoffKLa conj. Seal. froinG ; QiXoima. UMAld. cf. Plin. I.e. 

5 f^iffrarai conj. Seal, from G, deyenerat ; e^rao-Toi MAld. 

6 Plin. 21. 64-66; Athen. 15. 26 and 27. avflwv : ? in the 
sense of avOiKwv, as in 6. 6. 3. 

7 rb conj. Seal.; rov Aid. 




ravra jap wv ol o-T(f>avr)7r\o/coi ^pwvrai TTO\V 
e/CTpe^et, TWV a\\cov. fiera Be TavTa o vdp- 
KIO~O~O<$ /cat TO \6ipiov, </cai TWV dypucov dve/Jico- 
vrjs 76^09 TO Ka\ov^,evov opeiov,> ical TO TOV 
y8oX/3oO /ccbBvov e/jL7r\e/cov(7i <ydp evioi /cal TOVTO 

619 TOU9 0-T6$>aVOV<>. 7Tt Se TOVTOl? r) OlvdvQl] 

teal TO fJieKav tov /cal TMV djpicov o re e'Xeto- 
%/9fcro9 KCU r?79 dvepwvrjs 77 \eijJLWvia Kakov- 
pkvri /cal TO ^i(j)Lov KCU vdicivOos fcal o-^eBbv 

2 00^0^9 aXXo9 %/3ftWat TWV bpelwv. TO Be poSov 
vGTepel TOVTWV /cal TekevTalov f^ev <f>aiveTai, 
TrpwTov 8' aTroXetTret TWV eapivwv oXiyoxpovia 
tydp TJ avdrjcris. oXiyo^povia Be /cal TWV a<y- 
picov TO, \oL7rd 7T\rjv Tijs vaKivOov /cal TTJS dypias 
/cal 71)9 (TTrapTrjs' avTrj Be Bia/j,ev6i /cal TO \VKOV 
lov /cal eTi TrXeta) TO (f>\6<yivov TO Be Brj fj,i\av lov, 
axTTrep eiprjTai, Be* eviavTov OepaTreias 
a)<ravTQ)S Be /cal rj olvdvBrj, /cal <ydp TOVTO a 
KOV fjbev 7rowSe9 Be Trjv <f>vonv, edv 

/cal dfyatpf) TO avOos /cal yu-?; ea 

/cal TL TOTTOV evi\ov e%r)' TO Be av0o<; 

/cal \ev/cbv KaOdirep TWV dypioov . . . TavTa 

ovv w(T7rep eapiva (fraiverai. 

3 Ta Be Oepivd /naXXov ij Te \v%vl<; /cal TO 

/cal TO Kplvov teal TO tyvov /cal 6 

1 Evidently both distinct from the vdpKurvos fj \etpiov of 
6. 6. 9 ; 6. 8 3. See Index. 

2 /cal T-Stv . . . opeiov ins. Sch. from Athen. I.e. with 
alteration of bpeiwv to ayptuv. cf. Plin. I.e. 

3 i.e. the flower of muscari, mentioned in this way because 
elsewhere (e.g. 1. 12. 1) the edible root is in question, which 
was properly called &o\p6s. 

4 cf. 9. 19. 3. 6 See Index. 



flower. These, of all the flowers that the garland- 
makers use, far outrun the others. After these come 
pheasant's eye 1 and polyanthus 1 narcissus (and, among 
wild plants, the kind of anemone which is called 
the ' mountain anemone ') 2 and the ' head ' 3 of purse- 
tassels ; for this too some interweave in their gar- 
lands. After these come dropwort violet, and of 
wild plants, gold-flower, 4 the meadow kind of 
anemone corn-flag hyakinthos (squill), and pretty 
well all the mountain flowers that are used. The 
rose comes last of these, and is the first of the 
spring flowers to come to an end, as it is the first to 
appear, for its time of blooming is short. So too is 
that of the rest of the wild plants mentioned, except 
hyakinthos^ the wild kind (squill), and also the culti- 
vated (larkspur) ; this lasts on, and so does the gilli- 
flower, and for a still longer time the wallflower, 
while the violet, as has been said, 6 blooms throughout 
the year, if it receives tendance. So too dropwort 7 
(for that too is one of the plants valued for their 
flowers, though it is herbaceous 8 in character) if 
one pinches off and removes the flower instead of 
letting it go to seed, and if, further, 9 it has a sunny 
position. The flower is clustering and white, like 
that of the wild . . . . 10 These then are, we may 
say, the plants of spring. 

11 The following belong rather to summer : rose- 
campion carnation krinon 12 (lily) spike-lavender and 

6 6. 6. 2 ; cf. C.P. 1. 13. 12. 7 cf. 6. 6. 11. 

8 iro&Sfs : sense not obvious ; euwSes conj. Dalec. cf. C.P. 
1. 13. 12. 9 tri conj. W.; gr* UMAld. 

10 Ut labruscae G, perhaps a guess : see olvdvOii in Index. 

11 Plin. 21, 67 and 68. 

12 Kplvov Sch. from Atheri. I.e.; so also Plin, I.e.; KypivQoi 



6 <&pvyw en Be 6 TTO^O? 
OUT09 8' ecrrt Strro?, o fJLev e^cov TO avdos 
Trf vaKivOw, o $e ere/jo? a^pou? \evfcos, q> 
Ttu Trepl rov9 Ta<oi>9' /cat xpoviwrepos ovros. 
dvOel Be Kal T] Ipis ToO Oepov? /cal TO arpovOiov 
KoKov fjievov rf) /j,ev otyei tcakov TO avOos aovpov 
8e. peroTTwpov Be TO \eipiov TO erepov Kal 6 
tcpoKOs, o Te opetvbs aoo-fios /cal 6 ^/ie^09* ev0v<$ 
yap di>0ov<n, Tot? TrpwTot? vBacri. xpwvrai Be Kal 
T&V dyplayv rq> T% 6vaK,vdov fcapTrfi Kal rw 
avdei TO) T^? fjii\aKO<>. 

Kal Tat? jj,ev wpais ovrax; eKacrrcov rj ryevecns. 
a>9 Be a7rXca9 eiTreiv ovBels Bt,a\ei7rerai, %p6vos 
ovB* eGTiv avavdifc, aA,Xa Kal 6 ^eifjiwv evet KCLI- 
Trep a<yovo<$ BoKoiv elvai Bia rr]v Kard"^rv^v TWV 
/jiTO7ra)pivwv /AeTa\a/ji/3av6i>T(i)v, eav Be Brj Kal 
yu-aAa#o9 y, TroXXcS /xaXXoz^. 7rXco9 yap Trdvr rj 
ra TroXXa Kal eTreKreiverai, T7J9 otKeias copas, Kal 
eav 6 T07T09 ei5etXo9 17 /JiaXXov Bi? o Kal o-vve%eia 
^povoi uev ovv OVTOI Kal wpai Kara 

6 Bto9 Be Iwvias ^ev TTJS \evKrjs erij 

rpia' ryrjpaa-KOVda Be eXarrovrat Kal Ha \VKO- 
repa (frepei. poBa)VLas Be nrevre ra jrpbs rrjv 
aKfjLrjv firj eTrucao/J^vijfi' xeipw Be Kal ravrrj^ ra 
poBa yrjpao-KOvarjs. 7r/?09 evoGfjiiav Be Kal po&cov 
Kal Iwv Kal TWV d\\a)v avO&v ^ki<JTov o To?ro9 

1 c/. C.P. 1. 4. 1. 

2 c/. the Eng. plant-name 'love-in-absence'; see ir66os in 

3 Aewcbs . K\fvKos, 'whitish,' Athen. I.e. 

4 Evidently the vdpKiffffos % \floiov of 6. 6. 9 ; c/. 6. 8. 1 n. 



the Phrygian sweet marjoram ] ; also the plant called 
' regret,' 2 of which there are two kinds, one with a 
flower like that of larkspur, the other not coloured 
but white, 3 which is used at funerals ; and this one 
lasts longer. The iris also blooms in summer, and 
the plant called soap-wort, which has a beautiful 
flawer but is scentless. In autumn bloom the other 
kind of narcissus, 4 the crocus, both the scentless 
mountain form and the cultivated one (saffron - 
crocus) ; for these bloom directly the first rains 
come. The fruit 5 of the cotoneaster and the flower 
of the smilax, both of them wild plants, are also 
used in garlands. 

Such are the seasons at which each appears ; and, 
to speak generally, there is no interval of time nor 
flowerless period, but even winter produces flowers, 
for all that it seems to be unproductive by reason of 
the cold, since the autumn flowers continue into 
winter, and to a much greater extent if the season 
be mild. For all things, 6 one may say, or at least 
most of them, extend beyond their proper season, 
and all the more if the place be sunny ; so that there 
is a continuous succession. These then are the 
periods and seasons at which the various flowers are 

7 The life of the gilliflower is at most three years ; 
as it ages it degenerates and produces paler flowers. 8 
A rose-bush lives five years, after which its prime 9 
is past, unless it is pruned by burning 10 ; with this 
plant too the flowers become inferior as it ages. 
Position and a suitable climate contribute most to 

6 KapTry : PHn. l,c. apparently read &vQet. 

6 iravr $ conj. St.; tt6.vrt] Ald.H. 7 Plin. 21. 69. 

8 foconj. St.; acl AW. 

9 fcrjuftr cofij, Seal; irV- Aid. 10 of. 6. 6. 6. 



Kal 6 drjp Trpbs eicaarov 
ev AlyvTTTG) <yap rd /JLCV aXXa TTCLVT aoar^a /cal 
KOI dpco/jLara, at Be fivpplvat, Oav/jiacrral 
Trporepelv Be <f>aori TWV evravOa Kal 
poBa /cal ta /cal ra a\\a civdrj /cal Bi/jujvy, /cal 
Bia/jieveiv Trkeico TCOV Trap' rjfiiv rj OVK 
%pbvov ravra. 

Ao/cet Be TTO\V 717)09 evo<Tf.u.av Bt,a<pepeiv, 
Xe%^?;, /cal 6 eviavrbs rolos rj roto? 
ov fiovov eTTOfi^pLa^ /cal au^ot? d\\a /cal rat 
/cara Kaipov yivecOai /cal vBara /cal Trvevfjtara 
/cal aTrXw? ra? rov ae/?o? //.eraySoXa?. ra Be ev 
rot? opeviv a>9 avrXw? el^relv Kal poBa Kal la Kal ra 
aX\.a <AraXw? fJiev avOelv> rfj Be oa-fjifj 7ro\\d 
vet/oft) <yivecrdai. Kal Trepl fJLev TWV GTefyavw- 
toV Kal aTrXw? TWV typwyaviKwv o-%eBbv ev 

TCH5 OyLt-OtOt? (TTlv T) I 

1 ? ? violets and gilliflowers ; so also below. 

2 Plin. I.e.; cf. C.P. 6. 18. 3. 

8 6v0r? conj. St. from G ; avavBij Aid. cf. C.P. 6. 19. 4. 

4 Plin. 15. 37. 



the fragrance of roses gilliflowers 1 and other flowers. 
Thus in Egypt, 2 while all other flowers 3 and sweet 
herbs are scentless, the myrtles 4 are marvellously 
fragrant. In that country it is said that the roses 
gilliflowers and other flowers are as much as two 
months ahead of those in our country, and also that 
they 5 last a longer, or at least not a shorter, time 
than those of our country. 

And, as has been said, the particular season ac- 
cording to its character, makes a great difference to 
the fragrance, not only by reason of rains and 
droughts, but also according as rain, wind, and in 
general, the changes of climate occur or do not occur 
at the fitting moment. Also it appears that in 
general roses gilliflowers and the rest bloom well on 
the mountains, but many of them have there an 
inferior scent. 6 Concerning coronary plants and 
under-shrubs in general these examples and others 
like them suffice for our enquiry. 

5 ravra conj. W. ; TOVTOV Aid. 

6 &V0T) TTJ OOTiTJ 1TO\\<f Aid. ; &l>01) TTJ 8e 7TOAA& UM, 

whence Sch. and W. conj. that some such words as na\u>s /xeV 
have dropped out and avfletV has been altered to &vQ-q. cf. 
C.P. 6. 20. 1. 




I. ^Trofjievov Be rot? elprjpevots Trepl rwv 

t7T6r>' TOVTO ydp l(TTl \OITTOV TWV % 

yevwv, ev w crv/ji 

TO \a%avr)pbv /ecu TO (JtTwSe?. teal Trpwrov 
irepl rov Xa^avtoSovs \eKreov dpa/j,evov<> airo 
TWV r)juLpcov, eVel yv(0pi/j,a paKkov 

Etcrt $r) T/oet? aporoi Trdvrwv rwv 
ev ot? e/cacrra (TTreipovcri Siaipovvres raw wpcus. 
6*9 fJ,ev ovv o %ei/jipiv6<i, aXXo? 8e 6 
Be 6 /Jiera^v TOVTWV pet)' r)\iov 

Ka\ov(Ti 8' oirrfc>9 ov TT/OO? rrjv 
OVT<; d\\d TTyOO? Tr)V yeveaiv Kal 
TTJV xpelav 6fcd(TTOV 67Ti r] rye 
ev TO?? evavriois yiverai. TOV 
yap dp%rj fjuera rpoirds Oepivas TOV 

os, ev <j> (JireLpova-i pdfyavov p 

teal rd /ca\oi>jjiva eiridTTOpa' ravra 
5' ecrrl revT\iov OpiSa/civr] ev^cd^ov \diradov 
vdjrv Kopiavvov av^Oov fcdpSajjiov /ca\ovai 8e 

1 c/. a P. 3. 20. 7 and 8. 



Of the times of sowing and of germination of pot-herbs. 

I. Next we have to tell of herbaceous plants : for 
this class remains of those which we distinguished 
at the outset, and it includes to some extent the 
classes of pot-herbs and of cereals. And first we 
must speak of the class of pot-herbs,, beginning with 
the cultivated kinds,, since it happens that these are 
better known than the wild kinds. 

1 There are three seed-times for all things grown 
in gardens, at which men sow the various herbs, 
distinguishing by the season. One is the ( winter ' 
seed-time, another the 'summer/ and the third is 
that which falls between these, coming after the 
winter solstice. These terms however are given in 
regard not to the sowing, but to the growth and use 
of each kind ; for the actual sowing takes place, one 
might almost say, at the opposite seasons. Thus, 
the ' winter ' period begins after the summer 2 
solstice in the month Metageitnion, 3 in which they 
sow cabbage radish turnip, and what are called 
' secondary crops/ that is to say, beet lettuce rocket 
monk's rhubarb mustard coriander dill cress ; and 

2 Beptvas conj. Seal.; xetjuepu/as U(?)MP 2 Ald.G (ed. Bas. and 
Par. but not ed. Tarv.). 
8 July. 5 before M. om. Sch. 



Kdi trp&Tov TOVTOV T&v apoTtov. TOV Be Bev- 
Tepov TraXiv fieO* f)\lov rpOTras TOV TafirfKiwvos 
Wvfay ev (D cnrelpovo't, KCLI Trrjyvvova-i Trpdaov 
o~e\ivov yrfOvov dBpdtyagvv. TOV TDITOV Be, bv 
/ca\ovo~t, depivbv, TOV M.ovvv%i,wvos' ev TOVTW 


dvBpd^vrj OvplBpov. iroiovvTai Be TrXe/ou? dpo- 
TOU9 TWV ofjioitov tcad' efcda-Tijv &pav, olov pa(f>a- 

ci/jiov TWV a\\a)v. Traffi Be <nrelpeTai, rot9 

TO, eTTiaiTopa. 

veTai B 1 OVK ev t<roi9 irdvTa %p6voi<$, d\\a 
TO, fjiev OOLTTOV TO, Be ftpaBvTepov 6(ra Bvo-^vrj. 

Td^KTTa fJLV OVV WKIJULOV fCCtl (SKlTOV Kttl 6#fft)- 

fjiov teal TWV xei/Ae pwwv pa<f>avi<$' Tpirala yap 
o>9 elTreiv. OpiBaictvai, Be TeTapTalai r) TreyUTrr- 
alai. critcvos Be /cal /coXo/cvvTrj irepl r9 irevre 
rj ef, ol Be fyacriv eTrra- jrporepov Be /cal Oarrov 

6 (TIKVOS. dvBpd'^V'r) B 1 eV TT\eLo(Ti TOVTtoV. 

6ov Be TeTapTCUov. icdpBa/jLOv Be /cal VCUTTV 
ala. TevT\LOv Be Oepovs /JLCV e/cralov 
Be Be/caralov. dBpd<j)aj;v? Be oyBoaia. 
Be Be/caraia. nrpdaov Be /cal yrjOvov OVK ev 
tcroi9, d\\a TO fjiev evvea/caiBe/caTaiov evia^ov 
Be elicoa-Talov, yjjfivov Be Be/caTalov rj BcoBe/ca- 
TOIOV. Kopiavvov Be Bvo-faes' ovBe yap e6eh.ei 
(3\a<rTdvetv TO veov eav /jurj j3pe%0fj. Ov/jL/3pa Be 
/cal opiyavos ev TrKeLoo'iv r) Tpid/covTa. Bvcr- 
(frvecTTaTov Be TTUVTCOV TO o~e\ivov Teo~o~apafco- 
crTalov yap (f>ao~iv ol ra o~vvTO/jL(*rrepa 

1 January. 2 April. 3 Plin. 19. 117. 

4 Turv xA* 6 P 1 ''""' : cf. 7. 1. 1. 



this is also called the ' first' period of cultivation. 
The second period begins after the winter solstice 
in the month Gamelion, 1 in which they scatter or 
plant the seed of leeks celery long onion orach. 
The third period, which is called the ' summer' 
period, begins in the month Munychion 2 : in this are 
sown cucumber gourd blite basil purslane savory. 
Moreover they make several sowings of the same 
herb at each season, as of radish basil and the 
others. And at all the periods are sown the 
' secondary crops.' 

3 Not all herbs germinate within the same time, 
but some are quicker, others slower, namely those 
w r hich germinate with difficulty. The speediest are 
basil blite rocket, and of those sown for winter 4 
use, radish ; for these germinate in about three days. 
Lettuce takes four or five, cucumber and gourd about 
five or six, or, as some say, seven ; however, cucumber 
is earlier and quicker than the others. Purslane 
takes a longer time, dill four days, cress and mustard 
five. Beet in summer takes six days, in winter 
ten, orach takes eight, and turnip ten. Leek 5 
and long onion do not take the same time, but the 
former nineteen to twenty days, the latter ten to 
twelve. Coriander germinates with difficulty ; indeed 
fresh seed will not come up at all unless it is 
moistened. 6 Savory 7 and marjoram take more than 
thirty days ; but celery germinates with the greatest 
difficulty of all ; for those who make the time com- 
paratively short say forty days, and others fifty, and 

5 irpaffov conj. Bod.; irpdffiov P 2 Ald.H. 

6 ftpex e fi con J- Bod. cf. O.P. 4. 3. 1 ; eA^f) Aid.; ^A^j) 
P.jBas. ; so also G. 

7 of. C.P. 4. 3. 1 ; Plin. 19. 7. 



ol Be TrevrrjKOQ-raiov, fcal rovro Kara rtdvras 
rovs dporovs* emarreipovo'i yap rives errl rrdaiv. 

f/ OX&>9 Be oaa Kara TrXetov? wpa? crrreiperai, 
ravr ovBev Odrrov re\eia yiverai rov Oepovs. 
Kal OavfJiaarov el /cal /j,r)6ev rj &pa o~v u/3d\\erai 
/cal 6 drjp 7rpo9 TO Oarrov, eav Be jJiO^Orfpa Kal 
tyvxpa Kal TW depi TrepiaKeTrr)? fipaSvrepov eVet 
Kal %ei/JL(i>V(0v T) evSiwv km^ivo^kvwv rot? dporois 
ore /AW ftpa&vrepov ore Be Odrrov r) /3 
Siatyepet, Be ravra Kara rov$ dpbrovs 
TTpwiairarov yap ev rot? evei\oi<$ Kal 

f H? yap aTrXw? elrrelv ev n\eloGi Bel ra? atria? 
vrro\a(Be'iv r&v roiovrcw, ev re rot9 
avrols Kal ev rfj %w/?a Kal TW depi Kal rals 
als eKacrra arcelpovGi Kal ^eiaoovwv Kal evoiwv. 
aXXa rovro fiev crKerrreov, e<jb' wv re rrapa\\dr- 
rovcriv 01 %povoi, Kau e<p wv ov' KCU yap rrjv 
pa<j)avi,Ba $>aaL rives rpiraiav Kal Oepovs Kal 
'Xeifitovos, TO Be revr\iov, cocrrrep elpyrai, 7rapa\- 
\drrei Kara ras wpa$. %p6voi 8' ovv ovroi rfjs 
/3\aarr)(re(*)<; elai Kal \eyovrai Ka(? eKa^rov. 

kiafyepei Be rrpbs rb Odrrov Kal ftpaBvrepov 
Kal 7; rwv (TTrepadrcov rraXaiorrjs. rd fjiev yap 
drro vewv rrapayiverai Odrrov, olov rrpdaov yrjOvov 

1 &pas Vo.H. ; x^P as UM ; so also G. 

2 TcAeto conj. W. (conim.) ; ye TTO\\O. MSS.; T^ TroAAo 
Vo.Sch.W. (text); yiverat conj. Sch. from G ; ylvevOai Aid. 

3 Kal TT) atpi . . . PpaSvrepov : grammar doubtful and text 
perhaps defective : so given in UM ; ol 6 afyp 



that too, at whichever period it is sown, for some 
sow it as a ' secondary crop ' at all the periods. 

Generally speaking, those herbs which are sown at 
more than one season 1 do not mature 2 faster in the 
summer. Howbeit it is strange if the season and 
the state of the atmosphere do not contribute at all 
to quicker growth, and if, when there is an un- 
favourable cold season and the atmosphere is cloudy, 
these conditions do not tend to make growth slower, 3 
seeing that, when stormy or fair weather follows the 
sowing, germination is slower or quicker accordingly. 
And there is another thing which makes a difference 
as to the raising of the various herbs ; germination 
begins earlier in sunny places which have an even 

As a matter of fact, to speak roundly, the causes 
of such differences must be found in several different 
circumstances, in the seeds themselves, in the ground, 
in the state of the atmosphere, and in the season at 
which each is sown, according as it is stormy or fair. 
However it is a point for consideration with which 
herbs the time of sowing makes a difference and 
with which it makes none ; thus it is said that 
radish germinates on the third day whether it be 
sown in summer or in winter, while beet, as has been 
said, behaves differently according to the season. 
Anyway such are and are said to be the seasons 
of germination in each case. 

4 Another thing which makes a difference as to the 
rapidity with which the seeds germinate is their age ; 
for some herbs come up quicker from fresh seed, as 

trpbs rb PpaSvTfpov conj. Sch. (with /uox^- K. tyvxpa supply 
T) &pa p). 

4 Plin. 19. 118. Se conj. Seal.; ykp Ald.H. 



KO\OKwrr)' evioi Be Kal Trpo/Bpe^ovo-i rov 

(7LKVOV TT/DO? TO OdrrOV rj V <yd\aKTl f) l> vBari. 

TO, 6 drro TraXaiwv, olov vekwov revr\iov fcdp- 
Bafjiov 0v/ji/3pa Kopiavvov bpiyavov eiTrep /jirj 
<(f}vreverai> avra OLTTO rov veov, KaOdirep 
i$iov Be fyaaiv eTrl rov TVT\IOV &v j 
yap &ia<f>v<T0ai irav evOvs a\V varepov 
TO Se KOI T& exofjuevw eret, KOL TM rpirw, Si' o 
ex TToXXoO cTTrep/jLCLTOS o\i,yov {3\aa"rdveiv. 

Se TWV o-TrepfJidrcov, eav dBpvvOevra 
/iez^et TT/JO? rrjv wpav rrjv eavrov KOI 
ov Trporepov efc/3\acr raver KOI Kara \6yov earl' 
Kal >ydp 7rl rwv dypiwv opwjjiev crv^alvov, eav 
fjLrj <j)0apfj. at Be TeXetw(7et9 rwv Kapirwv arcav- 
rwv ryivovrai rov Oepovs, Trporepov Be Kal Odrrov 
ft)? aTrXw? eLTrelv rcov Trporepov cnrapevrcov. Bia- 
<pepei Be Kal r; wpa' ra yap ev rals Oepfjirifjiepiai^ 
dTrapevra Barrov eKKav\el Kal eKa-Trep/biarovrai, 
KaOdirep patyavls 7077^X^9. evia Be OVK eviavaia 
(pepet, rov KapTrbv d\\d Bieva, KaOdrrep aeKivov 
TTpdaov ryrjOvov, a Kal Biauevei %p6vov Tr\eiova 
Kal OVK eariv eVeVeta- rd yap TroXXa rovrcov daa 
rfj reXeicoo-ei rwv orTrepudrcov avaiverai. 

Tldvra Be to? elrcelv ocra eKKav\el Kal re\eiol 
rov KapTrov diroreXeiovrat, Kara TO cr^^tta TOU 
K rcov Kav\wv e^euv aKpe- 
ocra uovoKav\a, KaOdrrep Trpdaov 
Kal yijOvov Kal Kpo/^vov Kal crKopoBov. 

<3>i\vBpa Be Kal <f)t\oKOTrpa irdvra, fjuaXkov Be 

1 (pvrevfTai avra conj. W.; ov rb UMAld. 

2 Sc. soaking. 



leek long onion cucumber gourd ; (some even soak 
the seed of cucumber first in milk or water, to make 
it germinate quicker). Some come up quicker from 
old seed, as celery beet cress savory coriander 
marjoram (unless indeed they are raised x from fresh 
seed in the manner 2 which we have mentioned). 
There is, they say, a singular feature about beet 3 ; 
the seed does not all germinate at once, but some of 
it not for some time, some even in the next or in the 
third year ; wherefore it is said that little comes up 
from much seed. 

Any of the seeds, if they are ripe when they fall, 
last till their own proper season and do not sprout 
till then. And in this they are consistent ; for we 
note that the same thing happens with the seed of 
wild plants, unless it is destroyed. However all 
mature their fruits in the summer, though sooner 
and quicker, generally speaking, when they are sown 
earlier. The season also 4 makes a difference ; things 
sown in the hot season push up their shoots and go 
to seed sooner, as radish and turnip. Some however 
bear their fruit not in the same year but in the next, 
as celery 5 leek long onion, which plants also last 
a longer time, and are not annual ; for most herbs 
wither with the ripening of their seed. 

Generally speaking, all those that push up shoots 
and mature their fruit reach their perfection of form 
in having side-shoots branching from the main stem 
except those which have but a single stem, as 
leek long onion onion garlic. 

All these herbs are lovers of water and of dung, 

3 cf. C.P. 4. 3. 2; Plin. U. 

4 Seconj. W.; yap Aid. H. 
6 Plin. I.e. 



rd da6eveo-repa /cal 7rXetoz>09 eTT^u-eXet'a? Beo/^eva, 
rd Be /cal Tpocfrrjs. 

II. ^verai Be irdvra dirb rov trTre/o/zaro?, evia 
Be /cal CLTTO Trapa&TrdBos /cal /c\covo$ /cal pi^rjs. 
OLTTO /j,ev 7rapao~7rdBo<; rj pdtyavos' Bel yap Tt, /cal 
pi^wBes 7rpoo~\a/3eiv. UTTO Be TWV j3\ao-ro)v Tnj- 
yavov opiyavos W/CIJAOV dTrotyvrevovat, yap /cal 
rovro orav o-TTidafjaalov rj fiel^ov <yewr)rai 
et9 TO ijfjiio'V. d'jro plty]S Be G/copoBov /cal 
/cal /3oX$09 /cal apov /cal a?rXw9 ra roiavra TWV 
/cetyaXoppi^cov. fyveTai Be /cal ei TIVWV al pi^au 
Biapevovcriv eirl 7r\eiova %pbvo 
ovT(ov. on Be aTrb o-Trep/jLaros Trdvra 
(fravepov /cal yap TO Trrjyavov, OTrep ov (f>a(TL rives, 

d\\d PpaBews, Bi' b /cal dTro^vrevovaiv. 

tt f\ 5,\>\/o i/ / r \ */t* 

(Jcra oe airo pifys (pverai, rovrwv rj /JLCV pia 

Xpovtos avrd Be e7rerei6/cav\a, Bi b /cal rrapa/B^a- 
(TTavovaiv al pi^at TWV TOIOVTCOV /cal .yivovrai 
ov fiovov ev ro?9 ^epoL^ teal /crjTrevo- 
d\\d /cal ev ro?9 dypiois, wcnrep eljrofJLev, 
olov /3oX/9ot9 yr)6voi<s cr/ci\\at,<; /cal ro?9 d\\oi<;. 
B* evia /cal rcov /jirj K,e<f)a\oppi%wv 
Be, olov o~e\ivov /cal revT~\iov' d<f>iao-t, 
yap pl%a<$ (/>' wv (frvovrai $v\\,a /cal /cav\oi. 

1 Plin. 19. 121. - c/. C.P. 1. 4. 2. 

3 Set yap TI QP 2 ; ael ydp n Ald.H.G; Sch. suggests 5e for 
yap, missing the sense. 

4 jSAaffTwv corresponds to KAwvbs above, 



and especially the weaker ones, which require more 
attention or in some cases more feeding. 

Of the propagation of pot-herbs, and of differences in their 

II. 1 A11 these herbs are propagated from seed, and 
some also by a piece torn off, a shoot, or a piece of 
root. Cabbage is propagated by a piece torn off, 2 
since it is essential 3 in this case to take a piece 
which has root attached to it. From cuttings 4 are 
grown rue marjoram basil ; for slips of this too men 
plant when it has grown to the height of a span 
or more, cutting off half the plant. 5 By root 6 are 
planted garlic onion purse-tassels cuckoo-pint and in 
general such bulbous plants. Such propagation is 
also possible in cases where the roots persist for 
more than a year, though the shoots last but for a 
year. And it is plain that all these herbs can be 
grown from seed ; for even rue can (which some 
deny), though the process is slow, and so cuttings 
are also taken. 

Of those which are propagated by a piece of root 
the root is long-lived, though the plant itself may be 
annual ; wherefore the roots of such plants make 
offsets and so increase ; and this is true not only of 
plants cultivated in the garden, but also of wild 
plants, as we have said, for instance of purse-tassels 
long onion 7 squill and so forth. Some plants even 
which are not bulbous s but longer-lived make offsets, 
as celery and beet ; for these send out roots from 
which grow leaves and stems. Long onion and 

5 cf. C.P. 1. 4. 3. 6 i.e. offsets. 

7 yndvois om. some editors, as not being wild. 

8 i.e. and so annual. 

r 2 


7rapaf3\ao~TdvL Be KOI ^tfOvov KOL rrpdo-ov real 
7rapa<p>vei tcaTwOev olov /3o\/3(*)Sr] rtvd /ce^aX^, 
ef 179 r) /SXaoT^o'^ yiverai TWV (f>v\\(ov, avav- 
OevTOS Be TOV /cav\ov KOI TOV cnrepfiaTOs d(j)aipe- 
6evTO<$' aXXa Sid TO fjirj ^prjai/jias elvai ra? 
TOVTCOV K<f>a\d<> ov avXXeryovcriv et? ijpacriav, Si? 

3 o /cal ov (f)VTevovo~i. fd^a Be ravra Kai o/Aoyevfj 
KCU avveyyvs TTCO? rfj rov rcpofjivov fyva-ei, Si o 
teal ov Oavfjuao-Tov. aXX' oyLto/w? [teal] eVl 

KOI r)fjLpa)V /cal dyptwv, oo~a xpovicorepa 
eariv eirereiofcavXa Be, TOVTWV /cal al pi^ai 
fi\ao-Tdvovo~iv, wo"jrep /cal eVl TWV (fr 
/cal rwv Qa/JiVtoSwv aXX' eVt rwv /cpo/jivwv /cal 
o-/cop6S(0v /cal j3o\(3wv /cal waTrep dpidfjios rt? 
yiverai TOVTCOV. rj Srj ryevecris, wo"nep eiprjTai, 
T/O^W? eaTiv, aTrb aTrepfjiaTOS fiev TfdvTwv, diro Be 
/cav\ov /cal pi&s TWV elprj^evwv. 

4 Tcov Be Kav\cov KoXovadevTwv iravra fjbev GO? 
GiTrelv /3\ao~Tavei TrKrjv TWV aTro/cavXcov, e/ji(f)ave- 
crTara 8' waTrep /cal els xpeiav CO/CI/JLOV OpiBa^ 
pd<f>avo<;. /cal r^9 fjiev OpiSa/cos rjSiovs (^aal rou? 
7raXt/i./9XacrTet9 elvai /cav\ov<f TOV ydp Trp&Tov 
ojrcoBrj ical m/cpov elvai co? aTreTCTOv ol Be TO 
evavTiov oTcwbeaTepovs TOVTOV? aXX' 6&)? dv a)o~iv 
avraXol fyaiveaOai y\VKVTepovs. aXX' eVt -7-779 

1 irpdffov conj. St.; irpdfftov Ald.H. 

2 Sia rb ^ conj. W. ; ^ Sict rb UM(?)Ald. 

3 i.e. offset bulbs. 

4 W. omits /*/ (Ald.UM(?)) after av\\eyovffi. 

6 i.e. the plant is increased by seed only and not by offsets. 
c/. 7. 4. 10 ; Plin. 19. 103. 

6 dpoius oonj. Sch.; '6^s PAld.H.(UM ?). 

7 eTreret^/cavAa conj. Sch.; firiyfidrfpa PAld.H. 



leek l also make offsets, sending out a ( head ' below, 
like the bulb of purse-tassels, from which the leaves 
spring; but this only takes place when the stem 
has withered and the seed has been removed. But, 
as 2 the ' heads ' 3 of such plants are not useful, they 
do not collect them 4 for storing dry ; wherefore also 
they do not plant these. 5 It may be that somehow 
these are akin and closely allied to onion, wherefore 
what has been said is not surprising. However in 
all those plants, both wild and cultivated alike, 6 
which have an annual stem, 7 but yet live longer than 
a year, there is an outgrowth of the roots, just as 
there is in under-shrubs and shrubby plants : while 
in onions garlic and purse-tassels even a number, 8 
as it were, of such roots is formed. In fact, 9 they 
are reproduced in three ways, as has been said ; from 
seed in all cases and from the stem 10 and root in 
those specified. 

11 Almost all shoot again if the stem is broken 
(except those which are stemless), but most obviously 
basil lettuce cabbage, which are, as it were, broken 
for a practical reason. Indeed they say that the 
stems of lettuce which thus grow again are sweeter, 12 
for that the original stem has a taste like fig-juice 
and is bitter, as being not properly ripened. Some 
however say that the later stems have the taste of 
fig-juice more than the original one, but that, so long 
as they are tender, they appear sweeter. Be that as 

8 apid/mbs is clearly corrupt, and has displaced an unusual 
word for which Sxrirep apologises. 

9 8)/conj. Sch.; 5e Aid. 

10 /cauAoC is here that part of the plant which is above 
ground. u Plin. 19. 122. 

12 7/8U;s Vo.mBas.H., so too G, Plin. I.e., Athen. 2. 69; 
UAld. cf. C.P. 2. 15. 6. 



pa(f)dvov rovro ofio\oyovjj,evov, o>9 el 

a-rrjaeiev rjStwv d<f>aipe6evr<*)v ye rwv <j)v\\a)v irpo 

rov Sia/cav\Lo~ai. 

&iaiievovo~i Be ai pi^ai rf\iovwv, aXX' ai pev 
fSKaardvovcri rtaKiv ai Be ov. pafavls yovv KOI 
yoyyv\ls Bia/jbevovcri, 77)9 r m^\r)OeLcrit]^ a%pi, 
Oepovs KOI av^rjcnv \a/jL/3dvovcriv, OTrep TTOIOVCTI 
rives e^eTrirrjSe^ TWV KtjTrovpSyv ov {3\ao-rdvov(n 
Se ouS' dtyiacri (f)i>\\ov ov$* et Ti9 a^eXot rrjv 
eTricreo'ayfMevrjv yrjv. ISelv 8e rovro /cal ejrl TWV 
a\\cov ecrrl. rd Be TrXetcrra TWV \a%dva)V fiovop- 
pi'a TT) Tra%eia /card ftddovs pity KOI ydp oora 
7rapa(f>vi ra9 IcroTra^el^ Tavras, wcnrep ae\i,vov 
/cal revT\iov, airo rfjs //-e<7^9 7Tft)9 17 Trapd^vai^ 
eaTL /cal OVK ev0v<> airo r^9 /o%^9 77 cf^Ldi^' IK 
Be TCLVTI]^ rrjs yu/ta9 dirrfpTTjVTai, al aTrocfrvdSes ai 
fju/cpal fcal r^9 pa(f>avi8o<; /cal Trjs yoyyv\i8o<?. 
/cal avrai [juev Brj TTCLGI (pavepal Sid rr]v ^peiav. 

? H Be rov revr\iov pia JJLCV /jia/cpd /cal ira^ela 
/cal opOn, tcaOaTrep ri rwv pa&aviStov, aTro&vcreis Be 

>/ / < V \ C- / ' \ \ \ f \ C>\ 

e^eu 7ra^eta9 ore pev ovo ore be tcai rpeis ore be 
/cal fj^iav, ra9 Be fJLi/cpds e/c TOVTWV. (rap/ccDB^ 
Be rj pia /cal rfj yevaei y\vxela /cal fjoela, BL o 
/cal wjjirjv eaOiovo-i Tive<$' o Be ^>Xoto9 ov Tra^i/9 
ovSe dfyaiperbs, w&Trep 6 rwv pafyavioutv, d\\d 
lia\\ov olo9 o TWV iiriro(Te\ivwv. wo-avrax; Be 
/cal TI r^9 dBpa(f)dvo<; pia /j,ev t9 y8a^o9 e/c 
Be aXXat. 

1 &\affTT)(rifv conj. Sch.; fiXa.a'rhffti Aid. 

2 oi8' el rts Ald.H.; et /x^ TIS conj. Seal, supported by G. 

3 fK . . . /JLtKpal conj. W.; els 8c raurrjv T^V i) air' 



it may, it is admitted that in the case of cabbage the 
stem is sweeter if it should have grown l again after 
being broken, provided that the leaves are stripped 
off before the plant runs to stalk. 

In most cases the roots persist, but they do not in 
all cases produce fresh growth. Thus radish and 
turnip persist till summer, if earth is thrown on 
them, and they increase in size ; and some gardeners 
do this deliberately; but they do not make fresh 
growth nor send out leaves, even if one 2 removes the 
earth heaped over them. And this may also be 
observed in other plants. However, most pot-herbs 
have the single stout root which runs deep ; for even 
in those which produce these side-roots of equal 
stoutness, as celery and beet, the side-growth comes, 
as it were, from the middle root and it is not 
separate to start with ; but to this single root are 
attached the small out-growths, 3 both in radish and 
in turnip. These instances are familiar to all because 
of the use 4 which is made of these plants. 

The beet has a single long stout straight root like 
that of the radish, and has stout out-growths, some- 
times two, sometimes three, sometimes only one, and 
the small ones are attached to these. The root is 
fleshy and sweet and pleasant to the taste, wherefore 
some even eat it raw. The ' bark ' is not thick and 
cannot be detached, like that of the radish, but 
rather resembles that of alexanders. In like manner 
the root of orach is single and runs deep, and other 
roots are attached to it. 

re Kal rrjs airo^vaSos teal /.iiKpa Ald.H. ; so also M, omitting re. 
W.'s restoration of a very corrupt text is at least consistent 
with what follows in 6. 
* i.e. for food. 

7 1 


7 ^Aovoppi^oTaTOV Be TOVTCOV TrdvT(ov TO \a- 
iraOov ov yap e%t 7ra%e/a? aTro^utre^? aXXa 
T9 XeTrra?' ftaOvppi^orarov Be Trdvrwv, e^ei 
yu-etfa) rpiMV rjfjUTToBicov TO 8' aypiov 
Tro\vKav\ov Be teal 7ro\VK\a8ov KOI r) o\r) 
Te\iwOel(ra TrapaTT^rjaia rfj rov revT\Lov 

Be /col rov aypLov KOL 0X0)9 Be 
ra)i> \a%dvwv co? elirelv Bia/juevei yap 
OTTOCTOVOVV %povov W9 (fracriv. e%6t Be crap/ccoBrj 
TTjV pl^av KOI eviKfJLOV, &i o Kal l^cupeOelcra %fj 
irdXvv xpovov. 

To S' wfcifjiov fjbiav fj,V TTJV Tra^elav rrjv Kara 
a9 e/c 

"Evict, B* OVK e'Xei TTJV jj,tav TTJV opdrjv, olov TO 
/3\irov, aXX' evOv ?roXXa9 ef a/cpov Kal evTra^et^ 
/cal /JLarcpOTepas T^9 dBpa<j)dj;vos. 
8 Tcoz/ 3e pi^wv ^vXwBeararai TraG&v at TOV 
, KaOaTrep /cal 6 fcav\6<?. 77 ydp TOV 

. elcrl ydp &>9 a7rXw9 elirelv Tracrwv al 
fj,ev crapKGdBeis al Be v\coBei,<>. <(7apKti)Bet<i> } olov 77 
ToO TevT\iov Kal TOV G\.ivov Kal iTT7roa-e\Lvov Kal 
\airdOov Kal pa<f)aviBos Kal 70771^X1809 Kal r ndv- 
fjid\icrTa TWV Ke(j)d\o^apa)V ovBe ydp dva^v]- 


1 cf. 1. 6. 6. 

2 ras Aid., cf. ras 8e /J.IKPO.S 6 ; TLVO.S conj. W. c/. Plin. 19. 
98 (who mistranslates). 

c/. 7. 6. 1 ; (7. P. 3. 1. 4. 4 See^Index, 



Monk's rhubarb 1 however has a single root in a 
truer sense than any of the others, for it has no 
stout out-growths of root, but only the 2 slender 
ones ; its root also runs deeper than that of the 
others, being more than a foot and a half long. The 
wild sort 3 however has a shorter root, and has 
several stems and branches, and its shape, as a 
whole, when fully grown resembles that of beet. 
Cultivated monk's rhubarb moreover is longer lived 
than the wild form, 4 and, in general, we may say, 
than any other pot-herb, for, they say, it may live 
any time. It has a fleshy root, 5 full of moisture, 
wherefore, if pulled up, it will live some time. 

Basil has the single stout root, the one which runs 
deep, and the others at the sides are slender and 
fairly long. 

Some herbs, as blite, have not the single straight 
root, but a number of roots which start directly from 
the top and are of a good stoutness 6 and longer than 
those of orach. 

The roots of basil are woodier than those of any of 
the other herbs, as also is its stem ; for those of blite 
orach and the like are less woody. In general we 
may say that the roots of any 7 of these herbs are 
either woody or fleshy. Examples of fleshy 8 roots are 
beet celery alexanders monk's rhubarb radish turnip, 
and especially all ' heavy-headed' 9 kinds, for the 
roots of these do not wither up altogether even when 
they are dried. Examples of those with woody roots 

6 p'iav conj. Sch.; vdpita, Aid. 

6 Plin. I.e. seems to have read a different word from 
ei/Traxets, or to have misunderstood it. 

7 Tcaffiav conj. W. ; ira/>' S>v UMP ; also Ald.H., omitting a. 

8 ffapicwSzis add. Seal, from G. 

9 i.e. bulbous ; cf. 1. 6. 8. 



al TOV GDKL/JLOV /cal /3\irov teal d 
/cal ev(t)/j,ov /cal dvrfOov [/cal \a7rd6ov] /cal 
/copidvvov /cal a-TrXtw? TO>Z> vevpo/cav\a)v e^ei jap 
BTJ /cal TO dvrjdov /cal TO /copiavvov ovra povoppi^a 
gv\(t)Si] re rrjv pi^av KOI ov /j,a/cpdv ovSe ra? 
XeTTTtt? dTrocfrvdSas e^ovaav vroXXa?" 7ro\v/cav\a 
be a/A(f)(t) /cal TroXvo^a, $S o /cal ov /card \6yov 


a Be ravrd ecrnv, olov QpiSag dv- 
j, rfj opdrj /cal Tat? t? TO, 7T\dyia. rj &E 
wcnrep ov/c e^ei rd$ Toiavras dirofyvaeis 
aXXa JJLOVOV rds XeTTTa?, /cal jj,d\t,ara Brj povop- 
ptov ft)? eiTTeiv. aTrXco? 77 iravra rd Oepivd 
fSpa^vppi^a' /cal <ydp 6 (ri/cvos /cal 77 KO\OKVVTIJ 
/cal fj ffi/cva /cal Sid Trjv wpav /cal tcra)? eT^/xaXXo^ 
Sid rrjv (f>V(7iv, ijirep vvvr]KO\ovOr)Ke rfj wpa. r) Se 
/jLeratyvrevo/jievr) OpiSat; Ppa^wrepav e%ei 
pi^av TT}? cnrapeio-r)?' Trapa/3\acrTdvi yap /c 
7T\a f yiwv //-aXXoz^* /3pa%VTepav Se /cal rj dypia TT}? 
rjfjiepov, /cal etc TWV avwOev 7ro\VKav\orepa. 

III. ' Kv6el Se TWV jJLev d\\Q)v e/ca&Tov dOpoov, 
TO Se MKi/Jbov Kara p,epos, rd /cdrco irpwrov el^ 
orav ravra diravO^crrj rd dvw, Si o /cal TTO\V- 

1 After a!>7)0ou Aid. H. have /cai \airdeov : bracketed by W. 
after Sch. 

2 diro^uaSas conj. Seal.; aTro(f>v\\d8a$ Aid. 

a TO.VTO. conj. Sch.; ra roiavra UM ; roiavra Aid. 
4 Athen. 2. 79. Sch suggests that the name of a plant 
has dropped out after Sxrirfp : ? rj av 



are basil blite orach rocket dill : coriander, and in 
general, those with fibrous stems ; for in dill and 
coriander, which have a single root, the root is 
woody and not long, and the slender side-roots 2 from 
it are not numerous ; but both plants have several 
stems and branches ; wherefore in neither of these 
plants does the part above ground correspond to the 
part which is below. 

The following 3 have short roots : lettuce and purs- 
lane, in which both the straight main root and the 
side ones are short. 4 Lettuce may be said to have 
no such side-roots, but only the slender ones, and 
may be called in the strictest sense a plant of a 
single root. In general all summer herbs have short 
roots : we may include cucumber gourd and bottle- 
gourd, both because of the season to which they 
belong and perhaps still more because of their 
character, which corresponds to the season. How- 
ever the transplanted lettuce has a shorter root than 
one that is raised from seed, since it is more apt to 
send out side-growths ; also the wild kind has a 
shorter 5 root than the cultivated, and the part above 
ground has more stems. 6 

Of the flowers and fruits of pot-herbs. 

III. 7 A11, except one, of these herbs produce all their 
bloom at once, but basil has a succession of flowers, 
the lower part of the plant flowering first, and then, 
when that bloom is over, the upper part. Wherefore 
its season of bloom is a long one, like that of the 

5 fipaxvrepav conj. Sch.; fipaxvrfpa Aid. 

6 &vu>Qev iro\vKav\oTfpa conj. Sell, from G ; Si/or ra 8e TTO\VK 
Aid. cf. Diosc. 2. 136. 7 Plin. 19. 100. 



ev ry dvOelv, KaOdirep /cva/jLos /cal TT}? 
7roa9 TO rj\iorpomov ica\ov[JL,evov /cal d\\a Be rwv 
dypicov. dvOe.1 Be real 6 GIKVOS TTO\VV 
/cal yap eTTifiKacrrdveiv rovrw ye (TVfi/3aivi. 
Be avdf] TWV /AW eK\evica TWV Be i&r]\ivoiS'f} 
Be jjiiKpov 'eTTLTrop^vpL^ovra, ev^povv 8* ovOev. 

Ta Be (Tire plectra Biatyepei, /cal rot? 
ra pep yap TrXeto-ra o~Tpoyyv\a ra Be 
ra 8' av 7r\area /cal <f)V\\(t)Bi}, KaOdnrep ra 
dBpa(/)dj;vos' o/noiov yap ro> rov ertX^>/ov' ra Be 
(rrevd /cal ypaju,fjb(*)Brj, KaOdirep rov KVfiivov. /cal 
rot? xpcopao-iv o/xotft)?, ra [jbev fjbi\ava ra Be 
gv\a)Brj ra Be \evKor^pa. rcdvra Brj e\\o/3o- 
(TTTepfjiara r) yv/jivocrTrepfjLara r) efj,<f)\oioa7repfjLara 
rj TraTTTroo-Trep/jiara' pafyavls /j,ev yap /cal vairv 
/cal yoyyv\l<; e\Xo/3oo-7rep/jiara, tcoplavvov Be /cal 
pdpaOov /cal avr]Qov /cal KV/JLIVOV yvfjuvoa-Trep/jLara, 
/3\irov Be /cal revr\iov /cal dBpd(f)aj;vs /cal 
WKL/AOV ejUL(f)\oLO(77rep/jLara, OpLBa/ctvrj Be rcanrco- 

TLdvra Be 7ro\v/cap7ra /cal 7ro\v/3\a<Trrj, TTO\V- 
/capTrorarov Be TO KV^LVOV. iBiov Be /cal o \eyovai 
Kara rovrov cfracrl yap Beiv Karapacrdai re /cal 
(3\a<r(f)'r]iLLe2v &7reipovras, el yLteXXet /ca\bv eaeeOai 
/cal TTO\V. 

Be rrdvra /lev tw? eliretv 7T\rjv rov 
9 6 o-?T09' OUT09 yap 

1 For the collective sense of irJo (- ra TrowSrj) cf 1. 3. 1. 

2 iroA&j/ XP VOV conj. W., wfiich at least gives the required 
sense ; KCI\OV/JI.I>OS Aid. 

3 /j.n\ivoiSes : cf. 6. 2. 8. 

4 ? 'orange.' 5 Plin. 19. 119. 

7 6 


bean, and among herbaceous plants l that of the 
plant called heliotropion, and also other wild plants. 
Cucumber also has a long period 2 of bloom, for this 
plant has a second growth. The flowers are in some 
cases whitish, in others quince-yellow, 3 in others 
somewhat reddish 4 ; but the flower is never of a 
bright colour. 

5 The seeds too differ in shape ; most are round, 
but some are oblong ; some again are broad and leaf- 
like, as those of orach, for the seed of this is like 
that of silphium ; others again are narrow or 
marked in lines, 6 as those of cummin. They also 
vary in colour, some being black, some the colour 
of wood, 7 some paler. The seeds of all are either 
in pods or naked, or have an integument or have a 
pappus. Radish mustard and turnip have their seeds 
in pods ; coriander fennel dill and cummin, have 
naked seeds ; those of blite beet orach and basil are 
enclosed in an integument ; those of lettuce have a 
pappus on them. 

All have numerous fruits and numerous shoots, 
but cummin has the most 8 fruits of all. 9 And there 
is another peculiarity told of this plant : they say 
that one must curse and abuse it, while sowing, if 
the crop is to be fair and abundant. 

Nearly all of these, except cummin, are hard to 
dry for keeping, unlike corn 10 ; for this, when once 

: cf 4. 12. 2. ; canaliculata Plin. I.e. 

7 ? ' brown W. 7 9. 3. 

8 cf. 8. 3. 5 ; G P. 4. 15. 2. 

9 cf 9. 8. 8; Plin. I.e. applies this to &KI^OV, Pall. 4. 9. 5 
to ir-fiyavov. 

10 ff'iros- OVTOS yap I conj. ; ovros yap UMH. ; P omits 
yap ', ff'iros t>s W. after Sch. ; nee modo frumcnti consistunt, 
quod G. 



dBpvvdfj Ta%v fyipaiveTai teal aTroiriTrrer Bva- 
typavTOTepa Be TO, e/jL^XoLoa-Trep/AaTa KOI TOVTOJV 
4 </jLci\i(TTa TO wKifjiov. aTTCLVTct, Be %ijpav0VTa 
Tro\vKap7TOTepa yiveraj, Bi? o> /cal Tcpoa^ai- 
povvTes avTa %r)paivova-iv. aTravra Be 7ro\v%oa 
/cal 7ro\vo-7rep/jLara, 7ro\VKap7r6rarov 8e TO 

8e TO, fjicv aKpo/capTra, /caOaTrep 
TTpdaov Kpofivov TO, Be TrXayio/capTra /jLa\\ov, 
olov paQavls yoyyv\ls /cal TO, TOiavTa' TO, B' 
ayLt^orepo)?, olov (B\iTov dBpd<J)av$' dfjiffroTepa 
yap Tavra /cal etc TOV TrXayiov, /cal TO ye (3\iTov 
Trap' e/ca<TTov o^ov irpoaKaG^fJLevov e^ei TO 
/9oT/3Lw5e9. TO, B' e/c Tca\aiOTepwv cnrep- 

OciTTOV /CKaV\l, Ta^KTTa Be TO, K TWV 

vTWV <TTI <ydp rt? dfc/j,r) /cal TOVTOOV. dva 
\6yov Be /cal TO /caXXo? d/co\ov6el TWV . . . eav 
ra a\\a Trjv airrrjv e^wcri Oepaireiav. 

Ao/cei Be /cal els TO avTo dOpoa fle/uevcov /caXXico 
ryive<r6ai /cal fSKaaTavew OVTW jap TO TOV 
Tfpdaov /cal TO TOV ve\ivov TiOeaaiv a 
els oOoviov /cal yivovTai /jiejd\a. 

^Vfi/3d\\TaL Be TI /cal 6 TOTTO? "irpos 
<yovv, OTav TIS /AeTa(f)VTevr] TCL 
/caTa/cpoveiv rj\iKov av /3ov\rjTa 
TO azKivov TiOevai Be /cal ev oOoviw iraTTaXov 
/caTa/cpovcravTa /cal 7r\r)a-avTa /coTTpov /cal 71)9. 

1 /j.d\i(rra ... Si' & missing inUMAld.Bas.; text as restored 
by Sch. from Cam., G and Plin. I.e. 

~ TO ye $\(TOV coni. W. : r6 ye irXsiffTOV U ; r6 re irXsiarov 

3 e'/</cay\er : c/. 7. 1. 7 ; 7. 4. 3, and esp. C. P. 4. 3. 5. 

4 After &KoAoy0et riev follows a lacuna of one and a half lines 



it is ripened, quickly dries and is shed, and the herbs 
whose seed have an integument are harder still to dry, 
especially basil. All however, when dried, produce 
more fruit : wherefore l it is the custom to gather the 
seed early and dry it. All of them are prolific and 
produce many seeds, but basil produces most of all. 

Examples of those which produce their fruit at 
the top of the stem are basil leek onion : of 
those which produce it rather at the sides, radish 
turnip and the like ; of those which produce it in 
both ways, blite and orach ; both of these produce it 
at the side as well as at the top ; in fact blite 2 has 
its seed in clusters, closely attached to each branch. 
Some push up their shoots 3 fairly soon from old 
seed, but seed from plants in their prime is the most 
rapid ; for these plants too have a time when they 
are at their best. The beauty of the plant also 
corresponds 4 in proportion, provided that equal care 
in 5 other respects is shewn in cultivation. 

6 It likewise appears that, if a quantity of seed is 
sown in the same place, the resulting crop comes up 
and germinates better ; thus they tie up seed of 
leek and celery in a piece of cloth 7 before sowing, 
and then there is a large 8 crop. 

The position also contributes to growth ; at least, 
when celery is transplanted, they suggest that one 
should hammer 9 in a peg of whatever size one 
wishes to make the celery ; and also that one should 
sow the seed in a piece of cloth 10 after hammering 
in a peg and filling the hole with dung and soil. 

in UMAld. ; text as given by Cam., which however omits 
TWV ; TUV (TTretpoyLteVcov H.; TWV TOIOVTWV Vo.Vin. 

5 cf. 7. 4. 7. 6 Plin. 19. 120. 7 cf. C.P. 5. 6. 9. 

8 ue-yaAa conj. St.; /j.fyd\cu Ald.H. 

9 Made clearer C.P. 5. 6. 7. 10 cf. C.P. 5. 6. 9. 



Be KOI Tofc G")(j]^a<T(,v e^ofjiOLovrat Kal 
T07TO9' ^ yap aiKva ojjLOioaxrf/jLtov yiverat, ev 
to cuv Te6r) dyyeitt). 

Kal Bia<f)opav \a/jL/3dvei Kara rou? ^Vfjuov^ 
evia TrpoOepaTrevOevra rcov o-Trep/jbdrcov, olov TO 
TOV GIKVQV eav ev yd\aKTi (3p%awTe<$ cnrel- 
pcoa-iv. a\\a ra pev roiavra tVa)? ol/ceiorepa 
7779 OepaTreias. 

IV. Tevrj Be TWV /mev cart. TrXetw rwv S' OVK 
ecrnv, olov wKifjiov \a7rdQov /3\irov /capSd/jiOV 
ev(0/jiov d$pa(j)d%vos fcopidvvov dvrfOov Tnjydvov 
rovTO)V yap ov (fraa-iv elvai <yevovs &ia(f)Opdv.> 
rwv Se ecrrt, patyavl&os pa(f>dvov revr\iov <TIKVOV 
KoXoKvvTrjs KVJJLLVOV (T/copoSov piaKivr)s. Siai- 
povcri Be rot? re (frvXXois KOI rals pi^cus Kal rot9 

2 Olov 7779 patyavlBos <yevrj KopivOiav 

Aeio0aoriav> djjLwpeav ^oiwriav evav%eo~TaTr)v Be 
rrjv KopivOiav, rj Kal Trjv pi^av e^ei yvfJLvrjv 
wOeiTai yap et9 TO avco Kal ov% co9 at aXXat Karco. 
TTJV Be AeioQaaiav, r)V evioi KciKovcri SpaKiav, 


5. 6. 7. 

2 a77e(y . \a/j.&dvi om. UMPAld. ; StaQopav Se /cat Cam.; 
TO'TT^- Siaifxlpeiv 5e /cal H.; 07761^ conj. W. from C.P. 5. 6. 7 ; 
wal ia(f)opai> conj. Sch. C/. (7607). 12. 19. 6. 

8 c/. 7. 1. 6 ; (?eop. 12. 20. 3. 

4 After e?i/cH there is a lacuna in UMAld. ; Cam. supplies 
yevovs Siatyopdv rtav 8e avdira\tv ir\tiw yfvij ; H. has TrAeteo yfvr) 



Some things again come to resemble in their shape 
even the position l in which they grow : thus the 
bottle-gourd becomes like in shape to the vessel 2 in 
which it has been placed. 

Moreover differences in taste are acquired in some 
cases when the seed has been treated specially 
beforehand ; for instance, the seed of the cucumber 
produces a fruit with different taste if it is soaked 3 
in milk before sowing. But such matters belong 
perhaps more properly to the subject of cultivation. 

Of the various forms of some pot-herbs. 

IV. Of some herbs there are several kinds, but of 
others only one, as basil monk's rhubarb blite cress 
rocket orach coriander dill rue ; of each of these 
they say that there is 4 but one kind. But of others 
there is more than one, as radish cabbage beet 
cucumber gourd cummin garlic lettuce. Differences 
are marked in the leaves, the root, the colour, the 
taste, and so forth. 

Thus of radish they recognise these various kinds 5 
the Corinthian, that of Cleonae, the Leiothasian, 
amorea, the Boeotian. The Corinthian is said to 
be the strongest in growth, and it has an exposed 
root ; for it pushes upwards, and not downwards like 
the others. The Leiothasian 6 is called by some the 

ou8e yevovs Sia<f>opa.v rcav 8e\iv TrAetco yevrj ; Plin. 19. 123 
rather supports H. ? read as in H. : ruv 8e ecm is perhaps 
an attempt to fill the lacuna. 

6 c/. Plin. 19. 75 and 76, who gives a kind called viride in 
place of T.'s a/iwpe'o : see below. After /Sa^aytSos there is a 
lacuna in UMAld. (but U has TV 8e p.6pav Boiom'ai'). Text 
restored from Athen. 2. 48 (c/. Plin. I.e.). Cam.H.Bas. (also 
Vo.Vin.(?)) give substantially the same. 

6 The name suggests Thasos, off the Thracian coast. 




717)09 roi>9 %6/A<wz>a9. rrjv Be Bo/- 
coTiav yXvKVTaTrjv Kal TO> ayfipaTi 0Tpoyyv\qv, 
ov% axTTrep TTJV 1&.\ewvaiav paKpav. oacov 8' av f/ 
\eta ra <uXXa, y\VKVTepai KOI rjBiovs, ocrwv 6 av 
Tpa^ea, Bpi/nvTepai. 7^09 Be TL Trapa ravra 

O"TIV O 6%l TO <f)V\\OV V%(t)/jiG) OfJLOiOV. pCL(f)a- 

vlBo$ /jLev ovv ravra. 

Toyyv\iBo$ Be ol JJLCV fyacrw elvai ol 8' ov 
fyacriv, XXa ry appevi KOI rfj OrjXeia Bia<j)epiv, 
yiveaflai Be ere TOV avTOv (nrep/JLaros d/jL^co. 
TT/jo? Be TO a7To6r)\vveo-6ai Trtjyvvvcu Beiv pavd?' 
eav yap TTVKVCLS, Tratra? aTrappevovaOai,, TOV CLVTOV 
Be TpoTrov Kav ev 777 fjio^drjpa aTrapaxn' BS o KOI 
ppaTKJiLov /ueTCKpepovTes (f>VTevov<ri, ra9 
/cal 7rXar6ta9. eo"Ti Be Kal TO aTrep/jua 
TT) otyei TO %eipov /cal (3e\Tiov <f>avep6v r^9 ftev 
yap %/3>7crT>}9 \eTTTov T^9 Be juLO^O^pd^ dBpov. 
/jLevrj Be %aipei, KOI avTrj /cal 
yap a/j,a y\VKaiveo-0al re Kal TTJV 
6t9 Trjv pi^av TpeTreaOai Kal OVK et9 TCL <f)vX\a. 
ro?9 Be VOTIOIS Kal ra?9 evBiaw KKav\ei Ta%v. 
TOVTO fJiev ovv \6yov BeiTai 7779 ojJbOLoxrews ev 
elvai r 

1 Diosc. 2. 112 mentions a kind called by the Romans 
ap/jt.opdKioi'. Plin. 19. 82 has armoracia and says that this 
was called armon in Pontus ; Sch. suggests that the latter 
name may have given rise to both armoracia and d^uwpeo. 

2 Plin. 18. 129, cf. 19. 75 ; A then. 9. 7. 

3 Trrjyvvvai. The verb is vised of planting seeds singly ; cf. 
6. 6. 9 ; 7. 1. 2 ; 7. 5. 3. 



Thracian radish, and it stands the winter best. The 
Boeotian is said to be the sweetest arid to be round 
in shape, not of a long shape like that of Cleonae. 
Those kinds whose leaves are smooth are sweeter 
and pleasanter to the taste, those whose leaves are 
rough have a somewhat sharp taste. Besides the 
above-mentioned kinds * there is yet another, whose 
leaves resemble those of rocket. These then are 
the different kinds of radish. 

Of the turnip 2 all do not agree that there are 
several kinds, but some say that the only difference 
is between the 'male' and the ' female,' and that 
both forms come from the same seed. In order 
to produce ' female ' plants it is said that the seed 
should be sown 3 thinly, for that, if it is sown thick, 
the result is all ( male ' plants ; and that the same 
result follows if the seed is sown in poor soil. 
Wherefore, when they are shifting plants for 
seeding, 4 they plant the seedlings 5 wide apart. 6 
Good and inferior seed can be easily distinguished 
by their appearance ; the seed of a good plant is fine, 
that of a poor one coarse. Both this plant and 
radish like exposure to winter ; for it is supposed 
that this makes them sweeter and that they are 
thus made to grow roots rather than leaves. With 
a south wind and warm weather they run up quickly. 
It needs explanation that both plants should thus 
adapt 7 themselves in special ways. 

4 irpbs ffVp/j.aTiffiJLoi> conj. W. ; rovs ffirfpfj.a.Tia'fji.ovs Aid H. 
cf. 7. 5. 3. 6 eicfvfffts : cf. 3. 3. 7. 

6 Kal TrAareios corrupt. 8ieffTr)Kvias (W.) gives the required 
sense ; but there may be a loss of some words, irAoreias in- 
dicating that the object is to produce broader plants, cf. 
C.P. 5. 6. 9 and Sch.'s note. 

7 TTJS 6/j.oiuHrtws probably corrupt : no correction suggests 

a 2 


4 Tr}9 Be pa<f)dvov Tpi^rj Biaipov/jLewtjs, ouXo- 
<f>vX\ov re KOI \ei,o<j)v\\ov teal rpirrj^ TTJS dypias, 
<TI dypia> TO fjbev <j>v\\ov e%6i, \etov fii/cpbv Be Kal 
7ro\vK\aBo$ KOI 7ro\v<pv\\os, ert, Be 
pi/J,vv Kal <f)ap/jLaKa)Sr), Si o KOI 
7T/309 ra? KoCKias avrw xpwvrai, ol larpoL OJLLOLWS 
Be KOI ev eKeuvaLS So/covo-i Siatfropal /ca& e/carepav 
eVel ao-Trepfjiov TI yevos avrwv ea-nv rj /cafco- 
(TTrep/jiov. TO & o\ov f) ov\rj -7-7)9 
repa KOI /JLeya\o(f)V\\OTepa. 


TOV fjie\avo<; KCLI o^yoo-Trepfjiorepov, o /caXovcri 
rives ^tKe\t,fc6v. 

f Oo-at;Tft)9 Be teal Tr^9 piBaKivw rj yap \evKrj 
y\v/cvrepa Kal a7ra\a)repa. yevrj Be avrrjs early 
a\\a rpia, TO Te 7r\aTv/cav\ov teal aTpoyyv\6- 
KavKov /cal Tpfcov TO KaicwvLKov avTr) Be TO fj,ev 
<f)v\\ov e^ei oveoXuyiKwfe, opOrj Be /cal euaufr)9 /cal 
a7rapd/3\acrTo<; e/c TOV /cav\ov. TWV Be 7r\aTiwv 
ovTO) Tives 7r\aTV/cav\oi, yivovTat, MO~T eviov? 
<f>a0l Kal Ovpais %prj(T0ai Kt]TrovpiKal^. TO Be 
o?rwS69 ecfioBpa /cal fM/cp6(f)V\\ov teal \evtco- 
KavXoTepov eoitcev dypia. 

Twv Be G\iva>v Kal ev Tot9 $v\\oi<; Kal ev TOIS 
Kav\ol^ at Biatyopai' TO fjuev yap TCVKVOV Kal 
ov\ov /cal Baav TO <$v\\ov e%i,, TO Be pavoTepov 
Kal 7r\aTVTpov Kav\ov Be jmei^o). TOVTCOV Be 
Tfa\iv Ta fjbev \ev/co/cav\a TO, Be Trop^vpo/cavXa rj 
7roi/ci\6/cav\a' TO B' o\ov ajrav TO TOLOVTOV 

1 Athen. 9. 9 ; Plin. 19. 80. 2 Wild radish. See Index. 


1 Of cabbage three kinds are distinguished, the 
curly-leaved, the smooth-leaved, and thirdly, the 
wild form. 2 The wild form 3 has a small round 
leaf, it has many branches and many leaves, and 
further a sharp medicinal taste ; wherefore physicians 
use it for the stomach. Between the other two 
kinds 4 there seem also to be differences, inasmuch 
as one of them bears no seed or only inferior seed. 
In general the curly-leaved kind has a better flavour 
than the smooth and it has larger leaves. 

5 So too with beet ; the white kind has a better 
flavour than the black and produces fewer seeds ; 
some call it ' Sicilian ' beet. 

So too with lettuce ; the white kind is sweeter 
and tenderer. Of this plant there are three other 
kinds, 6 the flat-stalked, the round-stalked, and the 
Laconian ; the last-named has a leaf like the 
golden thistle, 7 but is erect and strong-growing and 
has no side-shoots 8 from the main stem. Of the 
'flat' kinds some have such flat stalks that some, 
they say, use them to make a garden trellis. 9 The 
third kind, which has much milky juice and small 
leaves and a whiter stem, is like a wild plant. 

10 In celery the differences between the various 
kinds lie in the leaves and stem ; one kind is close 
and curly and has rough leaves, the other is more 
open in growth and flatter, but has a larger stalk. 
Again there are kinds with stems white, red or parti- 
coloured ; and in general all such forms resemble 
more the wild kind. 

3 r, aypla add. W. 

4 eKflvais conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. ; IKC'IVC? Ald.H. 

6 Athen. 9. 11 ; Plin. 19. 132. 

6 Plin. 19. 125. 7 Athen. 2. 79. 8 c/. 7. 2. 4. 

9 ostiola olitoria Plin. 19. 125. 10 Plin. 19. 124. 



Be Kal /co\o/cvvTr)s TOV pev elvai fyaai 
yevrj 7-779 B* ovte elvai, tcaOdirep rr}9 patyavlBos /cal 
n}9 yoyyv\iBo<i, a\X' ev TW avTw yevet ra? fjuev 
j3e\Tiov<; ra? Be %eipov<;. TOV $e aucvov rpia, 
AarccDVi/cbv CKvra\iav Bot,(*)Tiov rovrwv Be 6 fjuev 
AaKcwitcbs vSpev6fjLvo<; /3e\TiO)V, 01 & erepoi 

7 Aiacfrepei, Be yevei /cal ra tcpo/iva /ecu ra 
a/copoBa. 7r\eia) Be TOV Kpo/j,vov TCL <yevr), olov 
TCL KCLTO, Ta<; ^ajpas 7rt,Ka\ov/j,eva 2<(ipBia KviBia 
^a/jLoOpd/cta, Kal 7rd\iv TO, d^iavia Kal a^iaTa 
/cal 'Ao-/ca\ct>vi,a. TOVTcav Be Ta /J,ev <rr)Tavia 
fjLLKpa ry\v/cea Be ev fiaXa, Ta Be o-^iaTa /cal 
d<r/ca\(i)via /cal rat? Oepaireiais Bia(f>epovTa /cal 
Brj\ov OTI Trj (frvo-ei' TO yap O-^LCTTOV rw /J,ev 
yeifJLWVL fieTa Trjs KOfjur]^ e&cnv dpyov, a/j,a Be T&> 
ripi TCL <f>v\\a Trepiaipovcri Ta efco /cal Ta d\\a 
OepaTrevovo-f TrepiaipeOevTcov Be TWV <f>v\\wv 
Tpa ft\a<JTdvei /cal daa./cdTco o")(i%Tai, BS b 
tca\ovcn a^iaTa. ol Be /cal 0X0)9 fyaal TCCLVTWV 
Beiv, OTTO)? J) Bvva/jiis 6t? TO /cara) /cal fir) cnrep- 

8 juiO(f)vf). TWV Be ' Ko-Ka\wviwv IBia 

fjuova ydp <ou> GyiGTa KCU coaTrep dyova CLTTO 
Tt Be ev avTois dvavgi) /cal 

1 Athen. 3. 4 ; Plin. 19. 68. 

2 Plin. 19. 101-104. 

3 2ap8ta conj. Meurs.from Plin. I.e. ; ydpSia Ald.H. 
* i.e. making offsets. 

5 'AffKa\(i>via, whence P^ng. shallot ; though this name is 
applied to K. o\iaTov. 6 rJ> add. W. 



As to cucumber and gourd, it is said that 
there are various forms of the former, but of the 
latter, just as in radish and turnip, the differences 
are only between better and inferior individuals. 
1 Of the cucumber there are three forms, the 
Laconian the cudgel-shaped and the Boeotian. Of 
these the Laconian is better with moisture, the 
others without it. 

2 There are also various kinds of onion and of 
garlic ; those of the onion are the more numerous, 
for instance, those called after their localities 
Sardian, 3 Cnidian, Samothracian ; and again the 
' annual ' the ' divided ' 4 (shallot) and that of 
Ascalon. 5 Of these the annual kind is small but 
very sweet, while the divided and the Ascalonian 
differ plainly as to their character as well as in 
respect of their cultivation. For the ' divided ' 6 
kind they leave untended in winter with its foliage, 7 
but in spring they strip off 8 the outside leaves and 
tend the plant in other ways ; when the leaves 
are stripped off, others grow, and at the same 
time division takes place under ground, which is 
the reason of the name 'divided.' 9 Some indeed 
say that all kinds should be thus treated, in 
order that the force of the plant may be directed 
downwards and it may not go to seed. The 
Ascalonian kind has a somewhat peculiar character ; 
it is the only kind which does not 10 divide and 
which does not, as it were, reproduce itself from 
the root ; moreover in the plant n itself there is no 
power of increasing and multiplying; wherefore 

7 K<fyi7js cuffiv conj. Seal. ; Koi^fffuis UMP 2 Ald. 

8 irepiaipovffi conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. and Gr ; irepidyova-i 
P. 2 Ald.H. 9 c/. Pall. 3. 24. 3. 

10 ov add. Seal. n ie. the part above ground. 


Si o KOI ov Tnjyvvovaw aXXa (nretpovcriv avrd 
/cal (nreipowiv o-^re 777309 TO eap, eW* orav 
rjarj jnera^vTevovor Tekeiovrai Be ovrw 
a//,a rot? aXXo9 ^ ^al Trporepov 
e%aipel(r6ai' 7T\eova Be ypovov eaOevra ev rfj 
<pvrevdevTa oe KCLV\OV alri<ji /cal 
fyvei JJLOVOV, elra Kevovrai /cal avaiverai. 
TOVTCOV [lev ovv roiavrr) res T] <j)vais. 
9 kiafyepei 8 evia /cal rot? ^pw^ao-iv ev 'Icrcra) 
yap ra /JLCV a\\a o/jioia rot? aXXoi?, \ev/ca Se 
(T^oSpa rfj XP ot> &' $p et <v &e (fracriv o/j,oia rot? 
^ap&iavols. ISitordrr) Se r] ^ucrt? rj rwv KprjTi/cwv, 
irapa7r\r](Tia be rpoTrov TIVCL rot? 'Acr/caXwi/toi?, el 
fjurj apa /cal f) avrr). ev K.prjrr) <ydp eari rt 761/09 
o (TTreipojjievov fiev pi^av vroiel <^vrevop,evov Be 
KCLV\OV /cal <nrepiJLa, /ce<pa\r)V Be ov/c Itjyei, J\VKV 
Be TW %fyLt&)' rovro yap olov avdira\iv e%ei rot9 
10 aXXo9. airawra yap Trrjyvvfjieva /cal /3e\ria) 
/cal OaTTOV Trapayiverai. Trdvra Be (j)vreveraL 
per 'Apfcrovpov en 0ep/jLrj$ ovar]s TTJS 77)9, OTTO)? 
ra vBara Tre^vrevfjieva /cara\a/jL/3dvrj. /cal oXa 
Be (pvTeverai, fcal Biare^vofieva irapa rr}V /cefya- 
Xr;V. ov% o/bioiai Be al eKp\aaTr)<jeis, aXX' e/c 
TOV /cdrco yiverai fcpb/juvov, e/c Be rov avco 

: cf. 7. 4. 3 n. The word evidently has a dif- 
ferent sense here ; cf. 10, where iryyvvca and Qvrevw seem to 
be synonymous. 

2 OVTCK) conj. Sch. from G ; TO?* &\\ois Aid. 

3 i.e. instead of being raised from seed. cf. what is said 
7. 2. 2 of the offsets 


many do not plant 1 these, but raise them from 
seed ; and the sowing is made late, towards the 
spring; and then, when the seed has germinated, 
they transplant. And the plant arrives at maturity 
so 2 fast that it is taken up with the others or even 
earlier ; whereas, if it is left a longer time in the 
ground, it rots. If planted on the other hand, 3 
it sends up a stem and merely produces seed, and 
then shrivels up 4 and withers. Such then is the 
character of these. 

Some also shew differences in colour; thus at 
Issus 5 are found plants which in other respects 
resemble the others, 6 but which are extremely 
white in colour ; and they bear, 'it is said, onions 
like those of Sardis. Most distinct however is 
the character of the Cretan kind, which resembles 
to some extent that of Ascalon, if indeed it be not 
the same. For in Crete there is a kind which when 
sown produces a root, but when planted produces 
a stem and seed but has no ' head ' ; 7 and it is 
sweet in flavour. This kind in fact has just the 
contrary character to the others ; for they all 
grow better and faster when they are planted. 
All are planted 8 after the rising of Arcturus while 
the earth is still warm, so that the rains may come 
upon them after planting. They are planted 9 
either entire or else in sections made by cutting 
at the 'head.' The growth which results is not 
uniform ; from the lower part comes an onion, 

4 Kevovrai conj. St. from G exinaniuntur ; Kaivovrai Aid. 
6 "l<rff(f conj. Sch. from G and Plin. I.e.; 1<ri? UM ; vi\a<? 
Ald.H. ' 

6 &\\ots conj. Sch.; Ae^/ons Aid. 7 Sc. bulb. 

8 (pvreveTcu conj. Sch. ; Qverat Aid. See next "note. 

9 (pvrevfrai M ; (ftverai Aid. cf. C.P. 1. 4. 5. 

8 9 


fJiovov opOov Be BiaT/jLTjOev 0X0)9 aftXa&Tes 
<TTL. TO Be yrfreiov /caXovfievov d/ce<j)a\6v n /cal 
axTTTep av^eva fiaicpov G^OV, o6ev /cal rj /3\daTt]o-i<; 
d/cpa' /cal eTU/ceipeTai 7roXXa/a9, Mcnrep TO irpd- 
<rov, Bi o teal (TTrelpovaiv avro KOI ov tf>VTVOVffi. 
TCL fjiev ovv Kpopva cr^eBbv ravras e^et ra? IBeas. 

11 To Be a/copoBov <j)VTevTai [lev pi/cpov Trpo 
TpOTrwv f) fjLera T/ooTra? ^laipov/jLevov Kara ye\y6is. 
Biafopa Be eanv avrwv TJ re r&v otyiwv TT/JO? 
TO, TTptola,' 7>o? yap TI rvy^dvet roiovrov o ev 
e^rjKOVTa rj/jiepais re\eiovrai, /cal /jueyeOei, teal 
fjutcpOTrjTi. teal TW /neyeOei 761/09 TI Bid<j)op6v 
ecrri, fJid\L<JTa Be TO Kvjrpiov tcaXov/jLevov TOIOVTOV, 
oirep ofy e^rova-iv aXXa 7Tyoo9 TOU9 /JLVTTWTOVS 
^pwvTCiL, /cal ev rfj rpi^et OavpaGTOv TTOLel TOV 
oy/cov e/CTrvev/jLaTovfjuevov. KOI ert, r<a /j,r) e%eiv 
evia T9 yeXyeis. rj Be yXv/cvTtjs /cal rj evcoBia 
/cal f) dBporrjs a^eBbv Trapd T9 %w/>a9 yiverai 
Kal T9 OepaTreias, w&Trep /cal rwv a\\a)v. 
ovTai Be /cal dirb (nrep/jLaros d\\d fipaBeco?' 
TTpcorw ydp erei /ce(f>a\i]V r)\i/cr)v irpdo-ov 
ftdvei, TW B* vaTepov ye\yi,BovTai, /cal rw rplrw 
Tekeiov yiverai, /cal ovBev ^elpov aXX' eviol ye 

12 /cal /cd\\i6v (f>acri, TOV TTTJKTOV. Trjs Be pi^ris rj 
yevecris oz)% o/xota TOU T6 o-rcopoBov /cal TOV 
/cpo/jLvov aXXa ToO jjuev o~/cop6Bov OTav dvoiBrjarj 
rj ye\yl$ /cvprovTai Trdaa /cal evTavOa avt;r)0e2cra 
BiaipelTai rrd\iv els T9 ye\yeis /cal e% evos TroXXa 
yiveTai TCO re\etova-0ai, Tr)V Ke^a\r)v, TO Be 

1 i.e. bulb; cf.9. 11 6. 2 c/. 7. 2.2. 

Plin. 19. Ill and 112. 


from the upper only foliage ; while, if the plant is 
divided vertically, no growth at all takes place. The 
kind called horn- onion has no l head/ * but has as 
it were a long neck, at the top of which comes the 
new growth ; it is often cut, like the leek ; where- 
fore it is raised from seed and not planted. 2 Such 
then, one may say, are the forms of the onion. 

3 Garlic is planted a little before or after the solstice, 
when it divides into cloves. 4 There are different kinds 
distinguished as late or early, for there is one kind 
which matures in 5 sixty days. There are also 
differences as to size. There is one kind which 
excels in size, especially that variety which is called 
Cyprian, which is not cooked but used for salads, 
and, when it is pounded up, it increases wondrously in 
bulk, making a foaming dressing. There is a further 
difference, in that some kinds cannot be divided into 
cloves. The sweetness of taste and smell and the 
vigour depend on the position 6 and on cultivation, as 
with other herbs. Garlic reaches maturity from seed, 
but slowly, for in the first year it acquires a ' head ' 
which is only as large as that of the leek, but in the 
next year it divides into cloves, and in the third is 
fully grown, and is not inferior, indeed some say it 
is superior, to the garlic which has been planted. 7 
The growth of the root in garlic and onion is not 
the same ; in garlic, when the clove has swollen, the 
whole of it becomes convex 8 ; then it increases and 
divides again into the cloves, and becomes several 
plants instead of one by the maturing of the ' hoad,' 

4 ye\yeis conj. Seal, from G (nudeatim divisum) ; ytvi) Aid. 
t> (v conj. Sch.; ZQtv UMAld. 

6 x^P 05 conj. Dalec. ; &pas UMP 2 Ald. 

7 Sc. not raised from seed. 8 So W. renders. 



/cpo/jivov evflvs etc rrjs pi>&<> a\\o teal a\Xo irapa- 
(friijcri,, /caQdjrep KOI /3o\j3ol KOI cnci\\a Kal Trdvra 
TO, TOiavTa. /cal yap ra /cpo/j,va /ecu ra cr/copoBa 
fir] dvaipovvTWv a\V ecovTtov TroXXa yiveTai. 
fjzepeiv Be (fraffi /cal TO o~/c6poBov ejrl TT)? (frva-vyyos 
(TKopoSa /cal TO Kpopvov /cpo/jiva' irepl fj^ev ovv 
ra)V ryevecrewv l/cavws elprjaOco. 

V. <&i\v8pa Be Trdvra TOL a\\a \d^ava Kal 
(f>i\6/co7Tpa 7r\r)V Trrjydvov, TOVTO Be tj/cio-ra <j>i,\6- 
KoiTpov. ra ^eifjuepiva Be oi>% TJTTOV T&V 6epiv&v 
Kal ra eTTi/crjpa rwv la^vpMV. /cojrpov Be 
rrjv o-vp/jiarlriv, rr)v Be rwv v 
dv Bid TO fJid\i(rTa eglttfld&ffBai' 
Be Trjv KOTTpov dfia T& (Tiropw fjidXiCTTa avvava- 
01 Be /cal cnreipovTes 7ri/3d\\oucri' 
Be /cal TTJ dv9 pa)7rivrj a)fj,f) TT/JO? TTJV 
%v\a)<riv. (friXsvBpoTepa Be ra %i/j,pivd TCOV 
Oepivwv Kal Ta da-devrj TWV la^ypwv, UTI Be ra 
Beopeva Tpo<f>rjs. (bi\vBpa /cal TO 
Kal TO yrjOvov /caiToi cftaai Tives ov 
, edv TO Trp&TOV eTriyevrjTai t? r) 
2 TWV Be vBaTCOV apicrTa TO. iroTL^a /cal Ta 

Be Ta d\v/cd /cal BvcrjuLavfj, Bi? o /cal 

e/c TWV ^T(ov ov %pr)(TT' &v}Ji7repL>epei yap 
dyaOd Be Ta e/c Bios' TavTa 

1 c/. 7. 2. 2 and 3. 

2 Qvffiyyos conj. Casaub. on Athen. 2. 78 ; ffQvpiyyos UM 

Aid. See LS . 

3 Kal rb Kptpvov conj. Sch. ; Kal TO. Kpopjuva UMAld. 

4 Plin. 19. 156. 



while the onion puts out another and another growth 
straight from the root, as do purse-tassels l and squill 
and all such plants. For both onions and garlic 
multiply if they are not removed but left alone. 
They say also that garlic produces garlic heads on 
the stalk, 2 and that the onion in like manner pro- 
duces onions. 3 Let this suffice for an account of 
their ways of growth. 

Of the cultivation of pot-herbs ; manure and water. 

V. * All the pot-herbs are lovers of water and of 
dung, except rue, which does not at all like dung ; 
this is true of the winter no less than of the summer 
herbs, and of the tender no less than of the strong 
ones. The dung which is most commended is that 
which is mixed with litter, while that of beasts of 
burden is held to be bad, because it is most apt to 
lose its moisture. Dung which is mixed with the 
seed is most in request, but some cast the manure 
on while they are sowing, and they also use fresh 
human dung as a liquid manure. 5 The winter crops 
like moisture more than the summer ones, and the 
weak more than the strong, as well as those which 
specially need feeding. Onion and long onion also 
love moisture, though some say that they do not 
require it, if at the outset it has been applied 
twice or thrice. 6 Fresh cold water is the best, and 
the worst is that which is brackish and thick : 7 
wherefore the water from irrigation ditches is not 
good, for it brings with it seeds of weeds. Rain 

6 Lit. 'for their liquid-manuring.' cf. C.P. 3. 9. 2, where 
Xv\caffis must have the same sense. 

8 Plin. 12. 182 and 183. 

7 5v<r/j.avri UMAld.; St/tr/xeioj H. 



yap Bofcet Kal (j)@eipeiv rd Orjpia [yivo/j,eva] rd 
yovi/ma KareaQiovra, fyacrl Be rives ovre rot? 
aiKvois (TVfjL^epetv ovre rot? Kpo/J,vois. dpBevovai, 
Be ra fjuev d\\a rcpwl rj rrpbs ecnrepav, OTTO)? /JLTJ 
Kade-fyrirai, TO 8e WKI/JLOV fcal jAeo-tj/ji/Bpias' /cal 
yap SiaftXao-rdveiv Oarrov $avi 0pfjuy ro rrpwrov 
dp&evo/Jievov. ro Se TTO\V \lav vScop Sored cru/i,- 
<f)pew aXX&>5 re /cal edv [yu,?;] e%r) icorrpov 
7roXXa/t9 yap rreLvrjV ra \ayava fyavi, Kal ravra 
yvwpi^eiv rovs e/jLTreipovs rwv Krjrrovpwv. 

MeratyvreuojAeva Be rrdvra KdXklw Kal /u-etfw 
yiverar /cal ydp rd rwv rrpdaav peyeOii Kal rd 
rwv pa<f>avLSa)v e/c per a^vr etas. /jLa\io-ra Be 
/jira<f>vrvov<Ti, TT/OO? rov? (TTrep/jLarKr/jiovs' /cal 
rd fjuev a\\a vrrofjAvei, olov yr)6vov rrpdcrov 
pdtyavos (Ti/cvos (7\tvov yoyyv\l$ 6pl8at;, <rd 
$e> y\io"%pco<>. arravra 8' evav^evrepa /cal 
myyvvfjbevwv rwv (Tirep^drwv rj o-7reipo/j,eva)v. 

Srjpia Be yiverai, rats /jiev pa^amo- 
rfj Be pa^dvw Kafjurai Kal o-/C(t)\r)/ce?, /cal ev rfj 
OpiBa/civr) /cal ev TO?? rrpdaois Kal ev aX,Xoi? Be 
7r\eio(Tiv al Trpa&OKOVpiBes. ravras l^ev ovv rf 
dOpoi(r6el<Ta drc6\\vari, Kal orav 

i ")6vif.(.a. H. ; yit>6/j.fva yAvifjia. UM Aid. ; ? TO TO 
ytvi/jLa. Either yiv6/j(.fva or y^vtfia seems to be due to ditto- 
graphy. For yovi^a cf. C.P. 1. 15. 1 : ras yovl/j.ovs apxas. 

2 Ko0e\^rjTot conj. Sch. after Plin. I.e. ; /cada^Tot P 2 Ald. 

3 txV K^irpov conj. Dalec.; /t)j ex? K. Aid.; 
conj. W. cf. 7. 5. 1, xv^uffiv, C.P. 3. 9. 2. 

4 Plin. 19. 183. 



water is good, for it also appears to destroy the pests 
which devour the young plants. 1 Some however say 
that rain-water is not good for melons nor for 
onions. Most herbs are watered in early morning 
or at evening, so that they may not be dried up 2 ; 
but basil is watered even at noon, for it is said that 
it grows more quickly if it is watered at first with 
warm water. In general water seems to be extremely 
beneficial, especially if it is mixed with dung 3 ; for, 
they say, pot-herbs often are hungry, and experienced 
gardeners can recognise when this is so. 

4 All herbs grow finer and larger if transplanted ; 
for even the size of leeks and radishes depends on 
transplantation. Transplanting is done especially in 
view of collecting seed 5 : and, while most herbs 
bear it well, as long onion leek cabbage cucumber 
celery turnip lettuce, others bear it less well. 6 All 
however make better growth and are larger if the 
seed is planted 7 rather than scattered. 

Of the pests ivhich infest pot-herbs. 

8 As for pests, radish is attacked by spiders, 9 
cabbage by caterpillars and grubs, while in lettuce, 
leek, and many other herbs occur ' leek-cutters.' 10 
These are destroyed by collecting green fodder, 11 or 
when they have been caught somewhere in a mass 

5 <nrpna.Ti<T/j.ovs conj. Seal.; <nrfp/j.aTiKovs UMAld. cf. 7. 4. 3. 

6 TO Se y\t(rxp<>)S conj. Sch., adding TO 8e : y\i<TXp<n>s U; 
y\iffXpoi M ; y\iffxpos Aid. ; y\^x K1/ conj. Seal. Sch. also 
conjectures TO \l<rxpa see LS. s.v. 

7 vijyvvnevwv : cf. 6. 6. 9 ; 7. 4. 3. 8 Plin. 19. 177. 

9 4-uAAot : cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 39. 1. 

10 irpaffoKovpiSes : ? leaf-maggots, cf. Arist. H.A. 5. 19. 20 ; 
Geop. 12. 9. 

11 KpdiTTis conj. R. Const.; Kpaais Aid. 



aOpoa TTOV Ko,Ta\df3r)' (friXoKOTrpov ' ov TO Orjpiov 
dvaBveTai teal evBv&a fcoi/Aarai ev rfj Koirpw, Bi 
o Brj pdBiov Orjpeveiv aXXw? ' ov/c GCTTL. rcu? 
Be pa<f>av'i(Ti 77/305 Ta? -^uXXa? 7rpoo~(f)0pov TO 
6po/3ov<>. Trpbs Be TO JJL^ yiveaOat 
ov $>a<rt,v elvai fydpfjuatcov ov&ev. VTCO 
Be TO acrTpov WKI^OV fjiev \evfcaiveTai Kopiavvov Be 
d\fia. Ta fjuev ovv (TVfiftalvovTa Bid TOVTCOV 

T&v Be (TTrep/jidTWV Ta [lev e<TTW l 
Ta Be ddOevecrTepa TT/OO? Bia/Jiovrjv 
fiev olov Kopiavvov TevT\iov irpdaov 
VCLTTV ev^wfJiov Qvfjuppa, aTrXft)? ra Bpi/juea 
dcrOeve<JTepa Be ytfOvov, TOVTO ydp OVK ede\t 
dBpd(j)av<> WKL^IOV KoKoKvvTr] o~i/cvo<>, 
Ta Bepivd TWV %eijjiepi,v(tiv paXkov. Bia- 
fjievei Be ovBev 7r\eov TCTTapwv eTwv wcrre eTi, 
elvat Trpbs roi'5 (nropovs' d\\d Bieva 
f$e\Tiw, Ta be Tpieva ovBev ^eipa), TO B* 
VTrepTeivov ijBrj ^elpov. 

11/309 Be Trjv jJia^eipiKr^v %peiav eVt vrXetw Sia- 

1 KOirpos adpoa irov KaraXaftrj Aid. ; Koirpov aOpoav TTOV ns 
KarafiaXr) conj.W. after Sell.; icdirpov aQp6av conj. Seal. 

2 <pi\6KOTrpov 8' "bf rb Oyptov avaSverai Kal e^Srtro conj. W. ; 
<pi\6irovov rb 6-fipiov dfoSeuerai Kal e^ als Koifj.arat UMAld. ; 
<pi\virfov conj. R. Const., but W.'s conj. is confirmed by 
Geop. I.e. The change of gender in evdvffp, is strange. 

3 Trpbs TCLS i^uAAos irp6ff<popov rb mBas. ; ^uAAas irpbs rb Aid. 
H. ; irpbs ras \j/v\\as ap/ce? rb conj. W. 

4 ifvAAas Aid.; Kaunas conj. Sch. followed by W. 

5 cf. Geop. 12. 7 ; Pall. 1. 35. 8 ; Plin. I.e. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, vn. v . 4 -6 

of dung, 1 the pest being fond of dung emerges, and, 
having entered the heap, remains dormant there 2 ; 
wherefore it is then easy to catch, which otherwise 
it is not. To protect 3 radishes against spiders 4 it is 
of use to sow vetch 5 among the crop ; to prevent 
the spiders from being engendered they say that 
there is no specific. 6 Basil turns pale about the 
rising of the dog-star, and coriander becomes 
mildewed. 7 In these instances we may observe 
the accidents which occur to pot-herbs. 

Of the time for which seed of pot-herbs can be kept. 

8 Of seeds some have more vitality than others as 
to keeping ; among the more vigorous ones are 
coriander beet leek cress mustard rocket savory, 
and in general 9 those of pungent taste ; among the 
less vigorous are long onion which will not keep 
orach basil gourd cucumber ; and in general the 
summer herbs keep less well than the winter ones. 
No seed will keep more than four years so as still 
to be of use for sowing ; though it is better in the 
second year, 10 in some cases it does not deteriorate in 
three years, 11 but after that time 12 deterioration 

However for cooking purposes seed will keep a 

6 Plin. 19. 176. 

7 a\fj.S. conj.W.; aA^cu MAld. ; aA/xafrercu Vo. Vin.; oXyuorai 
mBas. c/. 8. 10. 1 ; C. P. 6. 10. 5. In all three places W. 
introduces this word, comparing tyupiav cpvcnfiav, etc. 

8 Plin. 19. 181. 

9 air\cas conj. St. from G ; &\\ws Aid.; &\us U. 

10 SieVo conj. Seal.; 5i' eW UMAld.H. 

11 ra 5e rpieva conj.W. ; Sia 5f rpels UMAld.H. 

12 inrepTetvoit conj. Seal.: c/. 8. 11. 5; virep yatov UMAld.; 



VOL. H. H 


7T\rjv daOevecrrepa ravra avayrcaiov elvai 
Sid TJ]V avairvorjV Kal TTJV (7K(o\iJK(i)criv. <^6opd 
Be fjLa\i(TTa fJiev VTTO rwv Oypiwv yiyverai yap ev 
CLTTCLCTI /col rot? SpifjiicTLV, rjKKTTa Se ev rw criKvwvr 
ov j^rjv a\\a KOI e^i/c/jua^o/jieva Tri/cpd yiverai rfj 
ryeva-ei, Si? o /cal TT/OO? rrjv ^pelav ^eipco. Kal 

VI. Hepl Se TMV dypicov Kal TWV KO\OV pe 
apovpaiwv Treipareov O/JLOIWS elirelv. Tv<y%dv 
rd fjiV ofjiwvvfjia rot? t]^epOL^' ajravra yap 
rd yevrj ravra Kal aypia, Kal o"%$bv TCL ye 7ro\\d 
IT a paired Lav e-^ovra rrjv 6-^nv rot9 rj^epois, wXiyp 
rot? yc <pv\\oi,<> eXttTTft) ravra Kal rpa^vrepa 
Kal rot? Kav\oi$ Kal /jLaXtara rot? %fXot9 Bpifj,v- 
Tepa Kal lo-^vporepa, KaOdnep r\ re 6v/jL/3pa Kal 
TI opiyavos ij re pd(f)avo<> Kal TO Trrfyavov eTrel 
Kal TO \a7ra0ov aypiov, KaiTrep eva-ro/mwrepov rov 
rjfjuepov ov, rbv ^v\bv 0/1,0)9 o^vrepov e^ei Kal 
TOVTW fj,d\KTTa $ia<f)epei,. Trdvra Se Kal ^tjporepa 
TWV rj/iiepwv, Kai i&cos awry TOVTW ra ye 7ro\\d 
Kal SpijAvrepa Kal la^vporepa. 

'I5to)9 Be rj pdcfravos e%ei irapa rd d\\a rovs 
al \eiorepovs r? 

1 i.e. drying-up ; cf. Plat. Tim. 85 A. 

2 <r Kw\"f]Kcaa iv conj. Sch. ; K&Xvaiv Aid.; <TK(i3\^]Ki}ffiv conj. 
R. Const. 

3 (TiKvuvi Aid.: perhaps here a general term for cucumbers, 
gourds, etc. ; amviav M ; criKvcp conj. W. 

4 Plin. 19. 185. 



longer time, except that such seed must necessarily 
become less vigorous by reason of ( evaporation ' 1 
and destruction by worms. 2 The chief cause of loss 
is vermin ; for vermin occur in all the seeds, even 
those which are pungent, though least in the gourd 3 
tribe ; such seeds however, as they lose their moisture, 
become bitter in taste and inferior for use. Let 
this suffice for an account of the seeds and in general 
of herbs cultivated in gardens. 

Of uncultivated herbs: the wild forms of pot-herbs. 

VI. 4 We must now endeavour to speak in the same 
way of the wild kinds and of those which are called 
uncultivated herbs. Some of these have the same 
names as the cultivated 5 kinds ; for all these kinds 
exist also in a wild form, and most of them resemble 
the cultivated kinds in appearance, except that in 
the wild forms the leaves and also the stalks are 
smaller and rougher, and in particular these forms 
are more pungent and stronger in taste, for instance, 
savory 6 marjoram cabbage and rue ; the wild monk's 
rhubarb (dock) indeed, though it has a pleasanter 
taste than the cultivated, yet has 7 a sharper flavour ; 
and this is the chief difference. Moreover all the 
wild kinds are less juicy than the cultivated, and 
perhaps this is the very reason why most s of them 
are more pungent and stronger. 

A peculiarity of ' wild cabbage ' as compared with 
the others is that its stems are rounder and smoother 

conj. Sch. ; clpf)/j.fvois Aid. The correction would 
seem unnecessary but that Aid. gives flprj^tvois in 4 where 
7/jue'pouj is required. 6 cf. Diosc. 3. 37. 

7 6v, T^ I conj. ; rlv 8e MSS.W. 

8 76 conj. Sch. ; rt UMAld. 

H 2 


pov, teal T)JV TOV <f)v\\ov irpba-Oecnv e/ceivrj /Jiev 
%ei 7T\aTelav avTrj Be TrepifapecrTepav, /ecu avro 
Be rb $>v\\ov dycovoTepov eVet TO, <ye a\\a 
Tpa%VTepa teal rot? /cav\ols KOI rot? (f)v\\ois. 

'H Be yoyyv\l<; /cal TTJV pi^av e%ei f^a/cpav /cal 
pa<f>aviSct)Sr) /cal TOV xavXov ftpa^vv. 

pt,&a/civr] Be TO re (>v\\ov ftpa^vTepov TTJS 
r)/jLpov, /cal T\ov/jLvrj<; d/cavOovTai, /cal TOV 
Kav\ov oyu-o/o)?, TOV oTTov Be Bpijjivv teal fyapfjia- 
/ca)Brj. (f)V6Tai B* ev rat? apovpaw omfofcrt 8' 
avTrjv VTTO Trvpa^Tov, /eai (f>aai /caQaipeiv vBpa)7ra 
teal d%\vv air* o<l)0a\/J,wv dird^/Giv teal apye/jia 
d<f)atpelv ev yd\a/eTi juvat/eeiy. 

To 5* iTTTTOcreXivov /eat e\iocre\ivov teal bpeo- 
(T\ivov teal 7rpo9 eavTO, Bia(f)opdv e%et teal 
TO r}fj,pov TO fjiev yap e\eioae\ivov TO Trapd 
o%6TOU9 teal ev rot? \eai ^vo^evov 
T /cal ov Baav ylveTai, Trpoaejuicfrepes Be TTW? TW 
ae\iv(d /cal Trj oafj,fj /cal TW %fXw teal TW o"\^- 

fJbaTl. TO 3' ITTTTOO-eXiVOV (f>V\\OV fJbeV 6yU,06/?69 TW 

e\eiO(re\ivw, Baav Be teal fjLeya\oKav\ov teal Trjv 
pi^av waTrep pafyavls ej(i TO 7rd%o<> i^eKaivav 

teal 6 tcapTros, jjiiyeOos Be pel&v opoffov. 

8' d^co <j)acrl 7r/)09 (TTpayyovpiav elvai 
ev oiv<p y\v/eel \ev/cq) teal rofr \i0ia>cri' (frveTai, Be 

conj. Sch. ; rpax^Tepov Aid. , which contradicts 
what has just been said. 

2 Plin. 20. 20 ; Diosc. 2. 110. 

3 T(\eov/*fvr)s conj. W. ; reAcoiVepoj U; Tf\eiovfj.fvov P 2 Ald. 
cf. C.P. 4. 3. 5. 



than in the cultivated kind, and, while in the latter 
the attachment of the leaf is flat, in the wild kind 
it is rounder, and the leaf itself has less angles ; in 
other cases the wild form is the rougher l both in 
stem and leaf. 

2 The wild turnip has a long root, like that of the 
radish, and a short stem. 

The wild lettuce has a shorter leaf than the 
cultivated kind, and, as the plant matures, 3 it 
becomes spinous ; the stem is also shorter, while the 
juice is pungent and medicinal. It grows in fields ; 
they extract its juice at the time of wheat-harvest, 
and it is said that it purges away dropsy and takes 
away dimness of sight and removes ulcers 4 on the 
eye ; for which purpose it is administered in human 

5 ' Horse-celery ' (alexanders) ' marsh-celery ' and 
' mountain-celery ' (parsley) differ both from one 
another and from the cultivated kind ; ' marsh- celery,' 
which grows by irrigation-ditches and in marshes, 
has scanty leaves, 6 and is not of close habit, 7 yet it 
somewhat resembles the cultivated kind in smell 
taste and appearance. ' Horse-celery ' has a leaf 
like that of the marsh kind, but is of close habit 
and has a big stalk, and its root is as thick as a 
radish and black ; 8 the fruit is also black, and in 
size is larger than the seed of a vetch. They sav 
that both kinds are serviceable in cases of strangury 
and for those suffering from stone, being adminis- 
tered in sweet white wine. Both kinds grow equally 9 

4 9. 9. 5 ; Plin. 20. 58 ; Diosc. 2. 136. 

6 Plin. 19. 124. 

6 fj.av6<f>v\\ov : Plin. Lc. seems to have read fj.ov6(pv\\ov. 

1 Diosc. 3. 64. 8 Diosc. 3. 67. 

9 bpoiois conj. Sch.; o^ws Aid. 



6/jLOicos Travraxov' yiverai Be /cai n Bd/cpvov 
aurov o/JLOiov rfj fjLvppci,' ol Be fyctcriv 6'X&)9 

To Be opeoaekivov fiei^ov? ert Biafopds e%ei' TO 
fj,ev yap <f>v\\ov eoi/ce Kwvelw, pia Be \eTTTT), TOV 
e /capTTOV e%et icaOdirep avr)6ov jr\r)v eXttrrw 
BiB6a<Ti, Be TOVTOV ev olvw avaTrjpw T&V r yvvai- 

Be oX,ft>9 da-vfjL^XrjTa rot? ^/xe'yooi? earl 
/card <ye Toy? ^fXoi)? KCU ra? Bvvd/Jtets, wcnrep 
o re aypios Kal o fjfjLepos, aXV e/c TT}? 
e%ei T^ o/jLOioTrjra, KaOdirep Kal ev 
TO?? ffrecpavoo/JLao'iv r) la)via' TO 7^/9 <fru\\ov e^ei 
Trapo/JLOiov. TOVTMV fJbev ovv ev Tot? elprjjuevois at 

VII. Twv 5e dpovpaio)v \eyofjLevcov /jLerd ravra 
prjreov, teal 0X0)9 el n TroiwBes evnv o fjur] rvy- 
%dvei /3pa>Tov. KokovfJiev <yap \d%ava rd irpbs 
Trjv rjfJLerepav %peiav ev Be TO> KCL& 1 o\ov KaKelva 
7repie%Tai, oY o /cal Trepl eicelvwv \e/creov. \d- 
yava fiev Brj Kal rd roiavra Ka\etrai, Ki%6pi] 
%6vBpv\\a viro'xpipls rjpiyepcov, /cal 0X0)9 

rt conj. Sch.; rb Aid. cf. 9. 1. 4. 

P 2 Bas ; &\us Aid. ; ? air\ws W. 

tf) conj. Sch.; Kovic? Aid. c/ 1. 5. 3 n. 

j. Cornarius on Diosc. 3. 67. and Dalec. ; 
U I Aid. cf. Diosc. /.c. 

r]/j.4pois H.; flp-rjfjLfvots LJMAld. c/. 7. 6. 1 n. 
See Index, CTIKVOS. 

7 i.e. which gives them a common name. 

8 ef TI TrotwSe's e<TTiv H. ; tyyenrotwSfs U; ^7 



everywhere. There is also a sort l of gum which 
exudes from the plant, like myrrh, and some say that 
it is 2 myrrh. 

' Mountain-celery ' (parsley) exhibits even greater 
differences ; its leaf is like that of hemlock, 3 the 
root is slender, and the fruit 4 like that of dill, but 
smaller ; it is given in dry wine for diseases of 

In some cases however the wild kinds are not in 
the least like the cultivated 5 in taste and properties ; 
thus the wild and the cultivated cucumber 6 are quite 
different, and their resemblance 7 is due only to their 
general look, as, among coronary plants, there is 
resemblance between the wild and the cultivated 
kinds of gilliflower ; for the leaves are alike. We 
have then described the differences which these 
plants present. 

Of other uncultivated herbs, which may be classed with pot -herbs. 

VII. Next we must speak of the differences found 
in the herbs called ' uncultivated,' and in general in 
any herbaceous plants 8 which are not edible. For 
we give the name of ' pot-herbs ' to those which are 
cultivated for our own use, but in a wider sense the 
term includes these also ; wherefore we must speak 
of them too. 9 Under the name ' pot-herbs ' are 
included also 10 such plants as chicory dandelion n 
khondrylla u cat's ear groundsel, and in general all 

9 Plin. 21. 89. 10 Kol add. Seal. 

11 otTraTTTj (or airorrj) conj. Sch. ; a^a/oj Aid. The latter is a 
leguminous plant mentioned 8. 5. 3, etc. : for airaTrr) cf. 6. 4. 8; 
7. 8. 3; 7. 11. 3; for spelling see notes on the last two 

12 x^"fy>t>A\a conj. Salm. from Plin. I.e., cf. 7. 11. 4 n. ; di'- 
S P i>a\a Ald.G. cf. Plin. 21. 105; Diosc. 2. 133. 

I0 3 


oo~a KixopitoBrj /ca\LTai Bid rrjv ofJLOLOTrjra TWV 
<})v\\a)V rrdvTa yap TTO)? e^eprj e^ei TW Ki^opiy 
Trd\iv /cav/ca\ls ev9pv(TKOv rjBvoo-fjLov. ol Be /jivpia 
d\\a Kakovaw, a/cdvBi^ KOI oaa d\\a Toiavra 
arfcavBt/ccoBr), rpayoTrwywv, ol Be KO^V KaKovaiv, 
o rrjv fj,ev pi^av e%ei paicpav real y\v/celav rd Be 
<f>v\\a rw tcpoKw b/j,oia 7r\r)V f^aKporepa, rov 
/cav\bv Be fipa'Xyv, e<f> ov Tr^v Ka\v/ca fjieyd\r)v 
/cal e'f aKpov fjieyav TOV Trdinrov TrdXiov, d^ ov 

'OyLtotft)? Be /cal ocra d\\a Totaura? 


evia rydp Seirai TrvpuxTea)^, cb&Trep yu-aXa^ /cal 
reurXl? KOI TO \diraOov /cal rj d/caXv^r) teal TO 
TrapOeviov TOV Be CTpv^vov /cal W/JLOV ea6iovo~iv, 
ov /cal ev/crjirevTov Ttves TrpoTepov .... /cal erepa 
Be 7r\eico TOVTMV, ev ol? KOI o 7rapoi/j,ia6jjiev6s 
Bid TTi/cpOT'rjTa /cop%opos e%a)v TO (j>vX\ov 
TrdvTa Be TCL fjiev erreTeia ra Be eVe- 
Teio/cav\a Tvy^dver ra jjiev yap e^avaivovTai 
TWV Be Bia/jLevovcriv et9 ir\eiw yjpovov al pifai' 
cr^eBov Be ov/c eXarrw ra TotavTa ecrTi. 
3 <&veTai Be ra /lev /cal drrb TWV pi^wv /cal drrb 
TWV (TTrepfjidTwv, ra Be eTepa fiovov aTrb o~Trep- 

conj. Sch.; ravra Aid. 

v : Sch. conjectured tvOpvcricos, form corrected by 
L.Dindorf ; IvBovciKov Ald.G. cf. Plin. 22. 81. 

3 Plin. 27. 142 ; Diosc. 2. 138. 

4 Ka\v| : cf. 8. 2. 4 ; 8. 4. 3. 

6 irdinrov conj. W.; ira.yti'r'bv UMAld. ; iruyaiva. H. cf. Diosc. 
I.e., where Saracenus corrects nap-ros toirdinros. 

6 Toiavras (sc. herbaceous) PmBas.; roiavra ras Aid.; ray 
auras conj. W. 


those that are called l ( chicory-like ' because of the 
resemblance in the leaves ; for to a certain extent 
the leaves of all these are like those of chicory ; and 
we may add kaukalis chervil 2 green mint. Some 
include under the name countless others, as wild 
chervil and all plants that resemble it, and goat's 
beard, 8 which some call home (' hair '), which has a 
long sweet root and leaves like those of the crocus, 
^ut longer, and a short stem, on which is set the 
sheath 4 ; this is large, and on the top is the large 
mass of grey pappus, 5 from which it gets its name of 
' goat's beard.' 

In like manner all those may be included which 
have a similar 6 appearance, but juices suitable for 
food whether raw or cooked ; for some need the 
action of fire, as malakhe (cheese-flower) beet monk's 
rhubarb nettle and bachelor's buttons ; while garden 
nightshade 7 is also eaten raw, and some in former 
times 8 considered it worth growing in gardens. 
There are also many more, including the plant 
which has become proverbial 9 for its bitterness, blue 
pimpernel, which has a leaf like basil. All these are 
either annual or have annual stems ; for some of 
them wither away altogether in one season, while of 
others the roots persist for a longer time, and to this 
class belong the majority. 

Some of these plants grow from roots and also 
from seed unless in some cases they come up 

fSuSifj.os : c/. 7. 15. 4. The American 
' wonder-berr}'.' 

8 Trp6rfpov Aid.; *vp6Tfpov Bas. ; uvo/j.affai> conj. W. Text 
probably defective. 

9 K^pxopos ev Xa.xo.vois is the proverb, cf. Ar. Vesp. 239, 
Schol. ; Plin. 21. 183, ( = ' Is Saul also among the prophets? ) 



el fjirj TL /cal avTo/j,aTov. t] & 
/cal TOVTWV /cal TMV d\\a)v TWV jjLev a/j,a rot? 

6TOIS (TTl [ACT* l(Tr}/jipiaV, olov aTTttTTT;? 

, TWV Be /zera TlXeidSa, KaOajrep KOI KI^O- 
plov /cal a"%eBbv TWV d\\a)v rwv Ki%opici)8a)v. KCLI 
ra jULev evOvs a/Aa rfj {3\aaTij(Ti TO avOos a^ir^cn, 
KaOaTrep rj d(j>ia, ra 8e vcrTepov ov TroXXco, fcadd- 
irep TI avejJLtovri, ra be ajua r& r)pi KOI K/cav\et 
/cal avOel, KaOdirep TO /ci^opiov /cal TO, /a^optwBr) 
fcal TWV dfcavOiK&v oaa \a"^avw^. 

&ta<f)opd 5e TWV dvdwv TTO\\IJ, Trepl 179 eV rot? 
rrpoTepov eiprfTai' (T^ebov ydp IGTI /cotvbv aTrdv* 
TU>V evta Se /cal 0X0)9 dvavOr), KaOaTrep /cal TO 
eTTLtreTpov. crv^aivei 8e rot? d/Aa rw /cav\w TO 
dvdos d(f)ieiO'i Ta^elav elvai Tr)V aTrdvOrjcriv' TrX^y 
j] /JLV dTrdirrj yrjpda-avTos TOV rrpMTOv rrdXiv 
aXXo /cal aXXo Trapa^vei, /cal TOVTO rroiel Trap 
o\ov TOV ^eifjiwva /cal TO eap d%pi TOV Oepovs. 
7ro\vv 8e xpovov /cal 6 rjpiyepwv. TO, B d\\a ov 
TOVTO, KaOaTTep ov&e 6 icpotcos OVTG 6 evoa- 
ov& o XefAro? ovd^ o d/cavO(t)Bij<i' OVTOI Se 

VIII. Kot^ 5e Siacjiopd TrdvTwv TU>V Troico&wv 
7) TOidSe" TO. pev yap ZGTIV opOoKavXa /cal vevpo- 

1 Sf after TUUTUV om. W. 

2 oTraTTTjs (or dirc^TTjs) conj. Sch. ; O^OKTJJ U; a^)a6<j MAld. 
c/. 7. 7. 1 n. Plin. I.e., however, has aphace. 

3 (irlTTfTpov conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. ; Tri/j.erpov UMAld.G. 
c/. Hesych. 4 ay\y conj. Sch.; Kapvy UMAld.G. 



spontaneously. The growth alike of these * and of 
others takes place in some cases with the first rains 
after the equinox, for instance, dandelion 2 rib- 
grass and the plant which some call buprestis ; 
in other cases after the rising of the Pleiad, for 
instance, chicory and most of the plants of that 
class. Some produce their flower immediately at the 
time of making growth, as lesser celandine, some not 
long after, as anemone, while some as soon as spring 
comes send up both their stems and flower, as chicory 
and the plants which resemble it, and those spinous 
plants which come under the head of pot-herbs. 

There is much difference in the flowers, of which 
we have spoken already ; for such difference is a thing 
common to all ; and some are altogether flowerless, 
as stonecrop. 3 Those which produce their flower 
with the stem 4 quickly shed the flower ; except that 
dandelion, 5 when the first flower is past its prime, 
produces another and yet another, and continues to 
do so right through the winter and spring up to the 
summer. Groundsel 6 also blooms for a long time ; 
the others however do not do this ; for instance the 
crocus does not, neither the scented (saffron crocus) 
nor the white nor the spinous kind, 7 which last are 

Of the, differences in stem and leaf found in all herbaceous 

VIII. A distinction which is found in all herbaceous 
plants alike is the following : some have straight 

5 avdin] 'yrjp^ffavTos COnj. W. ; aTTrjyrjpdffavros U ; airoyrjpd- 
travros MAld. ; a<j>dicn avoynpaffavros H. cf. Plin. I.e. ; 7. 7. 1 n. 

6 cf. C.P. 1. 22. 4; Plin. 25. 106. 

7 See Index. This plant can only have been called KpoKos 
because it produced a yellow dye. 



fcav\a, rd Be eTTiyeioKav'Xa, KaOdrrep 

a/cdvBit; (TiKvos dypw TO Be rf\iorpomov en 


dKav0ct)Be(ri,v OVGIV rpi/3o\o<> KOI TJ Kdrrrcapis KOI 
aXXa 7r\ioy /cal yap e/ceivcov rj Bia(f)opa irXeiwv. 
evia Be 7Tpia\\6Kav\a, /AT) e^ovra Be TTOV irpoo- 
ireo-wo-iv eiriyeioKavKa, KaOdirep eireTLvr] /cal a-Tra- 
pivr) Kal aTrXw? &V 6 /cav\o$ X67TTO? Kal /iaXa/co? 
ical fjiaicpos, C o Kal (frvovTat, ravra a>9 eVt TO 
nrav ev aXXot?" /cowr) Brj Kal avrv) 77 Biacfropa 
ou fjiovov rwv TroicoBwv Kal (frpvyaviKwv 
Kal TWV OafJivw^MV Kal yap rj eXif Kal eri 

2 "Ert Be Kal rwv TroicoBwv rd fiev 7ro\vKav\a rd 
Be jJiovoKavXa' Kal rwv fMovoKav\a)v rd fjuev drra- 
pdj3\acrra Kara rov Kav\ov rd Be TrapaftXacmKd, 
KaOdrrep Kal ev rot9 rjfjbepois r\ re pacf>avl<; Kal 
aXX' drra. rfo\vKav\a Be a>9 a7rXa)9 elrrelv rd 
emyeioKavXa, /jLOVoKav\a Be Kal 6\iyoKav\a rd 
6pOoKav\a. rovrcov Be drrapdjB\a(Tra rd Xeto- 
Kav\a Kpofjivov rcpdaov (TKopoBov, wcnrep Kal ev 
Tot9 rjfjiepois Kal rd jjiev evOvKavXa rd Be <JKO\IO- 
Kav\a Kal rovrwv [rot9 ^/iepot9] VTrdp^ei. 

3 Aia<j)opd Be ris Kal roidBe rcov TroiayBwv ecrri' 
rd pep ydp e7riyei6(f>v\\a rd B* emKav\o(^v\\a 
rvy%dvei, rd S* dfjifyorepws. eTnyeio$>v\\a /ttX 1 

conj. Cornarius ; etrereioKavXa Ald.H. 
2 cf. 7. 15. 1 ; Diosc. 4. 190 and 191 ; Plin. 22. 57. 



and fibrous stems, some prostrate stems, 1 as malakhe 
(cheese-flower) wild chervil ' wild cucumber' (squirting 
cucumber) ; while heliotropion' 1 has this character 3 to 
an even greater extent, and so, among spinous plants, 
have caltrop caper and several others ; for in these 
too the above-mentioned distinction is even more 
marked. Some again have clasping stems, but if 
they have nothing on which to throw themselves, 
their stems become prostrate, as epetine bedstraw and 
in general those which have a slender soft long stem ; 
wherefore these in general grow in the midst of 4 
other plants. This point of difference too is common 
not only to all herbaceous plants and under-shrubs, 
but also to shrubby ones ; for helix (ivy) has a clasping 
stem, and, still more, smilax. 

Again of herbaceous plants too some have several 
stems, some only one ; and of the latter some have 
no side-shoots along the stem, while others have 
side-shoots, for instance, among cultivated plants 
radish and some others. Those with prostrate stems 
have generally more than one, while those with 
erect stems have but one or a few. Of these those 
with smooth stems have no side-shoots, as onion leek 
garlic the wild, as well as the cultivated forms ; 
and of these 5 again some have straight, some crooked 

There is also the following point of difference in 
herbaceous plants : some have their leaves on the 
ground, some on the stem, some have both characters. 
The following have ground leaves crowsfoot 6 the 

3 roiovrov conj. Sch. from G ; TOVTWV Aid. 

4 ev ; G seems to have read <-TT . 

5 ro'ts T] Depots probably repeated by mistake from above. 

6 cf. G.P. 2. 5. 4; Pl'in. 22. 48; Diosc. 2. 130. 



/copwvoirovs dvOefJLOV d$>vX\av6e<$ dyxov&a Troa 
dvefjLWvrj dirapyia apvoyXwcrcrov CUTT CUTTY]* eTU/cav- 
\6<f)vX\.a Be /cprjirls dv6e/j,ov TO (frvXKwBes XOJTO? 
\evKoiov ttyLi</>OTe/?a>9 Be TO Ki%6piov /cal yap eVt 
TWV /cav\wv dfjua rat? e/c^vo-eai rat? dfcpe/jLovi/cals 
K(f)vei TL /cal av6o$' /cal TWV <J)v\\aKdv0G)v evia, 
TrXrjv aKavOtobeo-i KOfjuSfj, /caOaTrep 6 <roy/co9. 

IX. "E<7Tt $ /cal ra per a/capTra TO, Be Kcip- 
7rifJ,a. KOI oXa)9 Twv iroicoSwv TO, /j,ev a^pi TWV 
<t)v\\a)V a^iicvelTat,, TO, Be /cav\bv e^ei teal avOos 
Kapirov Be ov. TO, Be /cal Kapirov wcnrep TeXeio- 
<j>vo~iv, el prf TI /cal avev TOV dv0ov<f /capiro- 
, wcnrep 7rl TWV BevBpwv. 

Be /cal TCL (f>v\\a o"%eBbv ov/c e\arro- 
GIV d\\d iT\eLoa'i Biacfropais rj TO, TWV BevBpcov 
teal 777305 avTa Be etcelva Biafiopds e%ei' /j,eyi,<TTiiv 
fjLV a>9 elirelv OTL ra /lev diro fj,io"%ov Trpoo-Tretyvfce, 
Ta Be aura /mev ft>5 a7rXa)9, TO, Be Kav\i/cfj TIVI 
Trpoafyvvei. /cal TWV fJLev ev TTJ (S\aaTr)aei, irpo- 
Tepel <o /tai'Xo9>, TWV Be TrXetcrra)^ ra <f>v\\a, /cat 
bv ev Trj dp%fj /jLeyicrTa yivovTai /cal /jidXicrTa 
TO, Be e/c TWV BevBpwv irpowOel Tiva 

1 a(f>v\\av0fs placed after &v9f/.iov by Sch. ; in Aid. placed 
after bve^vr,. cf. 1. 14. 2; Plin. 21. 56. 

2 07rct7T77 U ; airdr-n Aid. cf. 7. 7. 1 n. 
8 cf. 1. 13. 1. and Index. 

4 fK<pvei TI Kal MSS.; 1 tt(f>vei (f)v\\ov re KO.I W. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, vn. vm. 3 -ix. i 

anthemon whose flowers have no petals 1 (wild camo- 
mile) alkanet grass anemone hawk's beard plantain 
dandelion 2 ; the following have leaves on the stem 
ox-tongue the anthemon which has petalled flowers 3 
trefoil gilliflower ; while chicory has both kinds of 
leaves ; for this plant produces, 4 as well as leaves, a 
certain number of flowers on the stems at the points 
where the side-shoots are attached. Similar too are 
some of the plants with spinous leaves, but not those 
that are altogether spinous, as sow-thistle. 

Of other differences seen in herbaceous plants in general, as 
compared with one another and with trees. 

IX. Again some are barren, while others bear 
fruit, and, speaking generally, of herbaceous plants 
some get as far as producing leaves only, others have 
a stem and flower, but no fruit ; some again have 
fruit as the completion of their development, while 
some bear fruit even though they have no flower, as 
is the case with some trees. 

5 The leaves of herbaceous plants again differ in 
hardly fewer, nay, even in more, ways than those 
of trees, and further, they present differences as 
compared with these, the chief being perhaps that 
some are attached by a leaf-stalk, some are attached 
directly, some attached with cauline appendages. 
And in some herbaceous plants the stalk 7 is the first 
part to grow, but in most the leaves, which almost 
at the outset grow to their largest and are best for 
eating ; whereas the leaves of trees always push out 
first a sort of stalk. 

5 Plin. 21. 100. 

6 i.e. petiolate, sessile, and decurrent respectively. 

7 6 Kav\bs add. Sch. from G. 



2 Aiacpepovcri be KOI rot? avOecrt TTO\V' ev fjiev 
yap rot? BevBpecn TCI ye TrXeto-ra Xeu/ca, ra Be 
fjLiKpov 67ri7rop(f)vpiovTa, TO, Be TTocoBrj Kal xXocoBrj, 
Kj(pcocrjjievov Be dvdivco < ovBev ev Be rot? TTOICO- 
Becri rwv avOwv > TroXXal Kal TravToSctTral %poial 
KOI a/cparot, real pe/juiy/uevai teal evoo-jAOi Srj /cal 
aoo-fioi elviv. /cal ra fiev SevSpa rr)v avGrjaiv 
aOpoav Troielrai, TOVTCOV S' evia /cara yu-e/oo?, cocr- 
TTe/9 eXe^drj Kal Trepl rov wicL^ov, Si o /cal TTO\VV 
%p6vov avOel, Kadairep a\\a re 7ro\\a /cal TO 

ffklO TpOTTLOV Kal TO Kt,%6plOV. 

3 IloXXat 8e /cal TWV pi^wv $ia(f)opal /cal rpoTrov 
nva al TOVTCOV (fravepcoTepai' elcrl yap al fjuev 
^uXcoSet? al Be o-ap/cwBeis /cal IvcoSeis, wtTTrep /cal 
TCOV rj/jLepwv, /cadciTrep at re TOV GITOV /cal TT}? 
Troa? T>}9 7r\iaTij<f. avT&v Be TOVTCOV 6/cacrTat 
7rXet<TTa9 e^ovcri Siatyopcis ^pco/jLaat 

fjiois fJieyedecTLV' al fj,V yap \ev/cal al 8e 
al 8* epvdpai, KaOdirep r\ re TT}? dy%ovcrr)s /cal TOV 
epevOeBdvov al B* cocnrep avQal /cal ^vXoeiBeis' 
val y\vtcelai Be /cal Tri/cpal /cal Bpi/j,eiai /cal 
evcoBeis teal /ca/ccoBeis, /cal zviai ^ap^aKoo^e^, a>? 
ev aXXot? eipijTai. 

4 &ia(f)0pal Be /cal TCOV crap/ccoScov al p,ev yap 
(TTpoyyvkai, al Be Tcpo^Kei^ Kal ffdXavcoSeis, 

da(f)oBe\ov /cal /cpo/cov /cal al /j,ev \eirv- 
, cocrTrep 1} TOV /3o\/3ov /cal TJ}? o-Ki\\,r)s real 
/3o\/3coBei<> Kal Kpo/J>vov Be Kal ytjdvov Kal 

1 c/. 1. 13. 1. 

2 ouSec . . . av6>v add. Seal, from G (/(expoxr/ueVcDi' Se av0iK$ 
iro\\al UMAld.) ; avQivcf for av6ut$ conj. W., who also added 
rwv a.v9S>v. See LS. av6iv6s. 



There is also much difference as to the flowers 
between herbaceous plants and trees ; for in trees l 
most of the flowers are white, while some are slightly 
reddish, others are greenish or greenish-yellow, but 
none of them 2 have distinct gay colours; while in 
herbaceous plants the flowers shew many and various 
colours, both simple and in combination, and further, 
some of them are scented, others not. Again 3 trees 
produce all their bloom at once, while some herba- 
ceous plants have a succession of flowers, as we said 4 
of basil ; wherefore it is in flower for a long period, 
as are many other herbs, such as heliotropion and 

There are also many differences in the roots, and, 
in a way, the differences in these are more obvious ; 
some are woody, some fleshy and fibrous, just as in 
the cultivated kinds, as are those of corn and most 
kinds of grass. Again the roots themselves exhibit 
in each case very many differences in colour smell 
taste and size ; some are white, some black, some red, 
as those of alkanet and madder ; some are yellowish, 5 
or the colour of wood. 6 Again there are roots which 
are sweet, bitter, pungent, fragrant, evil-smelling ; 
and some are medicinal, as has been said elsewhere. 

There are also differences between those with 
fleshy roots ; the roots of some are round, of some 
oblong and acorn-shaped, as those of asphodel and 
crocus ; 7 some consist of several layers, as those of 
purse-tassels squill and others which belong to 
that class, onion long onion and others like 

3 &oar/j.oi tlffiv. Kal ra /j.fv conj. W. ; &OCT/J.OI. Kal tviwv TCI p\v 
Ald.H. " 7. 3. 1. 

6 &<rirep MSS. ; irXelarai conj. W. 

: c/. 7. 3. 2. 7 c/. 1. 6. 7 ; 6. 6. 10. 



o<ra Touro9 o/jioia. at Be o/uaXet9 teal 
/cal fj,a\a/cal BC o\ov /cal wo~7Tep a<$)\oioi, 
TOV apov at Be <j)\oibv e^ovai 777)09 rfj ffaprci, 

rj rov KV/c\a/j,lvov /cal Tr?9 
airacrai 8' al evooSeis rj <y\v/celai 
fcal eScoSi/AOi, 0^8' al iriicpal affpcoTOi 1 aXX* oaai 
a/3Xa/3et9 elcrt, TW crcoyLtart yw-era TTJV Trpoafyopdv 
eviai yap yXvrceiai, fjiev Oavdai/uoi & fcal vocr<*>$eis, 
5 al Se TU/cpal /j,ev fj /cafca>&eis axpeXi/jiOi, Be. rov 
avrbv Be Tpojrov /cal (j>v\\a /cal Kav"\oi, KaOdirep 
TOV d^TLvOiov /cal TOV /cevTavpiov. Bia<f>opa Be 
/cal /caTa TTJV (B\darTr](j LV /cal /caTa TIJV avQrjcriv, 
olov dp^ofjievov xei/J-wvos /cal JJ,O-OVVTO$ /cal 
rjpos rj Oepovs r) fjieTOTrwpov. /cal eVt TWI 
wv Be o/jLoicos TW ftpwTovs elvai /cal ey%v\ov$ 
/cal (j)v\\a teal crTrepyu-ara teal pta<}' /cal ei 
aurot? rourot? /caTa rou? xvXovs, olov 
/cal ^>pifjbVTr]Ti /cal y\v/cvT7jTi /cal 
/cal rat? aAAeu? rat9 TOiavTais a?rXw9 re /cal 
/caTa TO fjua\\ov. r9 fiev ovv Biacpopas ev 

TOfTOi9 \rjTTTeOV. 

X. AiyprjfjLevcov Be /caTa ra9 w/3a9 e/cdaTcov 
7T/709 re ra9 /3\ao~Tij(Ti<i /cal /caTa T9 dvffrfcreis 
/cal T\ei(i)(reis TCOV tcapjrwv, ovBev dvaf3\aaTdvei, 
TTpb T^9 ol/ceia? wpas OVTC TWV pio(f)va)v ovTe 
o~7rp/jLO(f)V(j<)V, ttXX* e/cao~Tov dvafjievei TTJV 

1 /cal conj.W.;^ Aid. 

2 T(f jSpwrous tlvai Kal f'y%v\ovs tvlois COllj. W. ; rb 
flvai Kal KavXobs ilvai Ald.H. Text probably defective. 



these. Some are smooth loose and soft through- 
out, and, as it were, without 'bark,' as those of 
cuckoo-pint, while some have a ' bark' attached to 
the fleshy part, as those of cyclamen and turnip. 
And not all those that are fragrant or sweet or 
pleasant to the taste are also l edible, any more than 
all those that are bitter are uneatable ; any (whether 
sweet or bitter) that are harmless to the body after 
being eaten are edible ; for some that are sweet are 
deadly and dangerous to health, while some are 
beneficial even if they are bitter or have an evil 
smell. The same may be said of the leaves and 
stalks, as in the case of wormwood and centaury. 
There are also differences in the time of growth and 
of flowering, the season being variously the beginning 
or middle of winter, or again spring, summer, or 
autumn. So too is there in like manner a differ- 
ence in the fruits, which 2 in some of these plants 
are edible and juicy, as well as 3 the leaves seeds 
and roots. And in these cases there are further 
differences in the taste (of those which are edible 
and juicy), which may be sharp, pungent, sweet, dry, 
or exhibit other similar differences, either altogether 
or in degree. These are examples of the differ- 
ences which we find. 

Of the seasons at ivhich herbs grow and flower. 

X. Each plant having its proper season for growth, 
flowering and maturing of the fruit, nothing grows 4 
before its proper season either of those grown from 
a root or of those grown from seed, but each awaits 

3 KO.I frifas seems irrelevant. 

4 conj. W. ; avafrXaffTei KOI AU1.H. 

i 2 


oiKeiav ovB* vrro rwv vBdrcov ovBev rrdo"xpv evict 
yap depivd KOfjiiBrj Kal rfj j3\a(m](Tei KOI TJJ 
dv6r)<rei t KaOdrrep 6 re (TKO\V/JLO<; /cal 6 aiKvos 
dypios, wcrirep /cal rrepl rwv (frpvyaviKwv eKe^Or) 

7Tpl KOVvfys re KOI KaTTTrdplBo? Kal TWV d\\(i)V 

ovBev jdp ovbe eiceivwv dvOel Kal ftXacrTdvei Trpo 

2 TT}? oiKeias w/oa?. Bi o KCLV ravrrj &6%ai,V av 
Sia<f)pLV rcov Sevbpcov. TWV /iiev yap dfjua TTCO? 
irdvTWV TI 77^9 rj /SKdvTtjGis, el Be jj,rj Kara /miav 
ye wpav w? eiTrelv TOVTWV Be ev TroXXat? fid\\ov 
Be ev dirdaais rj (3\d(TTri(ns Kal eri jMaXXov rj 

ware ei ' rt? eOeXei, Karavoelv cr^eBov 
yiverai KaO* 6\ov eviavrov Kal rj ft\,dcr- 
Kal r] avOrjCFw alel ydp erepov ef erepov 

Trdcras Kara\a/ji/3dvei, ra? w 
olov yLtera rrjv d'jrd'jrrjv KpoKOS carat Kal 
Kal 6 rjpiyepwv Kal ra d\\a ^eifjiepivd, perd Be 
ravra rd ypuvd <Kal 9epivd> Kal fJLerorrwpivd. 

3 TroXXa e, wcTTre/o eXe-^Orj, Bid rb Kara fjuepos dvOelv 
eTTir -elver cti rat? wpaw evia yap ovrcos dv6el, 
Kaddrrep ij re drrdmr) Kal rb 6vo%i\<; Kal rb 
Ki^opiov Kal rb dpvoy\a)(T(Tov Kal d\\a" Bid Be 
rrjv (Tvve%iav Kal rrjv TrepiKardXrj'^riv rrjv v7r J 
d\\tj\(i)v ov (j)aiverai paBiov ev eviois ovB* opicrai 

jrpwra ftXacrrdvei Kal rrola btyi(B\a<jrri' 
ei ri$ viroOolro rov erou? rrjv dp^rjv riva 

ouS'conj.W. ; otf0' Aid. 2 Reference not discoverable. 
oTraTTTjj/ conj. W.; a.Qa.K'nv UMAld. c/. 7. 7. 1 n. 
KP^KOS conj. Sch. (adding 6) ; %pos U (corrected) ; Kpos M ; 
. Aid. ; rb KPOKOV mBas. 
Kal Oepiva seems to have dropped out. 

8ia T}> /cara nepos avde'tu conj. W.; Kal T>V Kara ^ue'pos avQeuiv 


its proper season and is not l affected even by rain. 
For some are plants which belong properly to 
summer as to their growth and their flowering, 
as golden thistle and squirting cucumber, as was 
said 2 of shrubby plants and of konyza caper and 
the rest ; for of these too none blooms or grows 
before its proper season. Wherefore in this respect 
too these plants would seem to differ from trees. 
For trees make their growth all at once or nearly 
so, or at all events we may say that they do so 
all at one season ; but the plants of which we 
are now speaking have their times of growing and 
still more of flowering at many or rather at all 
seasons ; so that, if one will consider it, both the 
growing and the flowering are almost continuous 
throughout the year ; for one continually succeeds 
to another, so that all seasons are covered ; thus 
after the dandelion 8 will come the crocus 4 anemone 
groundsel and the other plants of winter, and after 
these those of spring summer 5 arid autumn. Some 
again, as was said, because they do not produce all 
their bloom at once, 6 cover a longer season ; for 
there are some that thus bloom, for instance 
dandelion 7 bugloss 8 chicory plantain, and others ; but 
because of this continuity and overlapping it does 
not seem easy in some cases to define which first 
make growth and which are late in growing, 
unless 9 one were to lay down that the 'year' 

7 a-rrdirr) conj. W. ; oc^/nj Aid. cf. 7. 7. 1 n. 

8 oj/ox^Aes conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 100; Diosc. 4. 24 ; bvo- 
/a'xXrjs UMAld. 

9 i.e. unless one has a fixed starting-point, -nvo. &pas rtvos 
apx.? conj. W. ; rtva irpbs rr\ "va. ?}(?) U; text defective in 
MAld., but both give 'iva p ; W. conjectures also rpoiras ras 
Xfi/J-epivd'S. ? efvoi &pas TIVOS apx'i'li' or elvai &pav nvo. (omitting 
ci fj as a trace of a lost sentence). 


4 &>a? TWOS d'j. Kal avrwv 8e TOVTCDV 

KapTrwv rcaXiv aXXa? / 

oirep fiaKidra Bo/cet a~v /jipaiveiv 
fjLT07ra)pwr)V Tore 7/) ^S^; ra arirep- 
fiara TrXetcrra rereXetforat /cat TWI> SevSpi/cwv 
KapTTwv ol TroXXot, /cat ayita fjLera/3o\ij ns avrov 
TOVTOV TrpocT'yiveTai, teal T^? wpas* oora $e areX?} 
/cat aTreTrra TTepucardKafjiftdveTai, TOVTOIS KCLTO, 
\6yov e/c TrepioSov /cal T) fiXcta-r^o-is yiverat, Kal 
i] av6r)Gi<$ Kal r] TeXetaxrt?' Bi o (rv^aivei ra 
/jiev VTTO rpOTTcis avOelv ra 8' VTTO Kwa ra 8e Kal 
lj,6Ta 'ApKTOVpov Kal larjiJiepiav /uieroTrwpivijv. 
5 *AXXa ravra fj,ev eoiKe Koworepav e^eiv 
eh a^opi<jfjiov yo%^5. on & at 
97 OVK eXarrou? eV TOVTOIS <f>avepbv. eirel Kal 
aei<j)v\\a TWV TOIOVTWV ecrrlv evia, KaOdirep TO 

7TO\IOV Kal l^KiOTpOTTlOV Kttl TO Cl&iaVTOV. 

XI. 'A(f)a)pi(T/JL6va)v ovv TOVTWV Tcepl ra? Sia- 
(f>opa<s ev ot9 <ylvovTai Kal TTW? \eKTeov JjSij T? 
#a#' eKacrTOv icTTOplas . . . 6Va yu,^ /tara T^ 

1 i.e. to fix the date of the beginning and end of the cycle 
of the plant's life. 

2 aiiToD TUVTOV : ? the plant itself, avrov rov frouj conj. Sch. 

3 i.e. according as the seed ripened last year or this year. 
In this rather obscure section I follow W.'s explanations. 

4 Plin. 21. 100. 



begins when a certain season begins. Further in 
these plants it is not easy to define l in each case 
the time of first growth and the season when, the 
fruits being matured, it makes a fresh start in 
reproduction. This seems chiefly to occur after 
the autumnal equinox ; for by that time most of 
the seeds are matured, like most of the fruits of 
trees : moreover a change then takes place in the 
seed 2 itself as well as in the season. But in the 
case of any seeds which are still immature and 
unripe and so are overtaken by winter, the period 
of first growth, the flowering of the new plant, and 
the period of maturity are proportionally later. 
Wherefore it comes to pass that some bloom at 
the solstice, some at the rising of the dog-star, 
and some after the rising of Arcturus and the 
autumnal equinox. 3 

But these matters seem to require a wider in- 
vestigation in order to determine when the process 
begins. However it is clear from what has been 
said that these plants present at least as many 
differences as trees. 4 For some again of this class 
are evergreen, as hulwort heliotropion and maiden- 

Of the classes into which herbaceous plants may be divided, as 
those having a spike and chicory-like plants. 

XI. Having then made these explanations we must 
now give a separate account of each plant, dis- 
cussing the differences (in those plants in which 
they occur) and saying how they arise . . . . 5 
except those peculiarities which belong to the 

5 Lacuna in UMAld.Cam.Bas., leaving the connexion of 
the next clause obscure. 



ISiav e/cdcrrov fyvaiv. Xey&> Be olov TO, 
KOI TOL (7KavBi/ca)Br) /cal [jLovocfrvf), icav et TL eTepbv 
effTi TOLOVTOV Koivov 67rl TrdvTwv \afteiv, 6 
alcr0rj(Tei ryvdopifiov rj (f>v\\oi<} r) avOecw r) pi 
rj Kapirols' IK yap rwv fyavepwv 6 
KOI e/c TWV pi^wv. 

ev ovv ecrriv o re KVVW^T VTTO 
Ka\ov{ji6vo<; TrXetou? %ft)^ tSea? ev eavrw' KOI o 
dXwjTeKovpos teal 6 o-reKetyovpos VTT evlwv Be 
apvo<y\a>(To-ov TWV Be oprvg KaKovfjievos' Trapo- 
Be TOVTO) rpojTOV Tiva KCLI TI 0pvdX\i<>. 
a Be ical povoeiBrj Tpoirov nvd Tavra /cal 
OVK 6%vv ovB* dOepcoBr) e^ovra' o B 
d\a)7rfcovpo? juia\a/cbv Kal ^vow^earepov, on fcal 
rat? TWV aktoireicwv ovpals, o9ev real 
Xyfyev. oyLto^o? Be rovry KOI o 
aTe\e(j)OVpo$, 7r\r)v ov% oycnrep e/celvos avdel Kara 
/xe/)0? a\\d Bt 6\ov rov ard^vo^ wairep o Trvpos. 
j] Be avOrja-^ a^olv %voa)Brj<; } KaOdirep KOI rov 
TrapofAoiov Be rf) o\rj /AOptyfj r&> jrvpw 
7T\cnv(f)v\X6Tpov. Gocrai;TGt>9 Be TOVTOIS /cal 
rd d\\a rd crra^yct)Brj \Kreov. 

TA Be Ki^opLcoBrj Trdvra [lev 7rerei6(f)u\\a 
/cal pi^ofpvXX.a, [SXacn-dvet Be /Jierd TL\eid8a 
rot? Be KavKols Kal rat? 

1 i.e. spicate. 

2 a-KavSiicwSr) : i.e. umbellate. One would expect KI 

to correspond Avith 3 ; but the three classes mentioned seem 
to be merely 'samples' of classification: of the three only 
one (TO. ffTaxvwSr)) is described below, and other classes are 

3 /LLovoQvri I conj.: i.e. those which have a scape : c/. 2. 6. 9 ; 
C.P. 1. 1. 3. /.woQax U; pvoQua M Aid. ; om. G. 



character of individual kinds. I mean for instance 
the plants which have a spike, 1 those which may 
be classed with wild chervil, 2 and those which 
have a single stem, 3 .... or any other such class 
in which one can find some such general charac- 
teristics obvious to the senses either in leaves flowers 
roots or fruits ; (for the classification is to be made 
by the visible parts, as well as by the roots). 4 

5 An example of the plants which have a spike 
is the plant which some call ( dog's eye 6 ' (rib-grass), 
which comprises several forms ; we have also e fox- 
brush,' stelephuros (plantain)^ which some call ( lamb's 
tongue ' and some ' quail-plant ' ; and somewhat 
similar to this is thryallis. These are simple plants 
and uniform in character, having a spike which 
is not pointed nor bearded ; while in ' fox-brush ' 
it is soft and somewhat downy, in that it actually 
resembles the brush of a fox, whence also it has 
obtained its name. Similar to this is stelephuros 
(plantain), except that it does not, like that plant, 
flower here and there, but all up the spike like 
wheat. The bloom of both is downy like that of corn, 
and the plants in their general appearance resemble 
wheat, but have broader leaves. Of the other 
plants which have a spike a similar account may be 

7 The chicory-like plants all have annual leaves 
and have root-leaves, and they begin to grow after 
the Pleiad, except dandelion 8 ; but in their stems 

4 Roots being the basis of classification in xii. below. 

6 Plin. 21. 101. 

8 Kvvwfy conj. Sch. ; axvvwty CJAld. ; Plin. I.e. has cynops 
(cf. 7. 7. 3) ; oculus caninus G. 

7 i.e. composites. Plin. I.e. 

8 airdir-ns U; airdrTjs MAld. cf. 7. 7. 1 n. ; 7. 8. 3 n. 



e%ov(Ti Biacfropds' ol /nev yap TWV a\\wv 

dTC\OVO~TepOl Kal eKciTTOVS, O Be TOV Kl^OplOV 

/Jieyas Kal airofyvdet,? e%a>z> TroXXa?, ert Be 7X1- 
cr^/oo? Kal BvaBiaipeTos, Si o KOI &e<7yu&> xptovrai* 
7rapa/3\ao-TrjTiKbv Be teal rfj pity Kal aX-Xw? 
/Aa/cpoppi&v, Si o Kal 8vcra)\0pov orav yap 
K\axaviaci)VTai,, irakiv TO V7ro\oi,7rov ap^rjv 
\ajjij3dvei yeveaews. (Tv^/Salvei, Se Kal TrapavOelv 
avrov yt/.e/?o9 aXXo Kai aXXo, tcai TOVTO ctxpi TOV 


Be Kal \oj3bv ev (j> TO o~Tcep^a irepl TCL aKpa 

f H 8e VTroxoipIs \eiOTpa Kal 
Trpocro^ei Kal y\vKVTepa Kal ov% wo~7rep 
SpuXXa- TO yap o\ov OVK eBtoSifjios avTrj Ka 
aftpwTos Kal ev Ty pity SpifAvv OTTOV e^et Kal 

"AyS/3ft>ro9 Be Kal TTiKpa rj dTraTn]' 7rpa)'iav0r)S 
Be Kal ra^u yrjpda-Kei Kal aTroTraTTTrovTai,, elr' 
aXXo (frveTai Tfakw Kal aXXo Kal TOVTO Trap o\ov 
Troiel TOV "xziyutova Kal TO eap a.^pi TOV Oepovs" TO 
B* av0o<$ iirfkivoeiBes. 

'Ho-aurw9 Be Kal rj TriKpLv Kal yap avTfj TU> 
rjpi, dv6el, Kal irapairK^la Bi? 6\ov TOV %ej/xwi>o<? 
Kal TOV Oepovs irapavOel' TJJ yevaet, Be TciKpd, Bi 
o Kal Tovvo/jLa e^X^^e. TavTa jjiev ovv ev Tav- 

1 e \OLTTOVS conj. Seal. ; Qdrrovs UMAld. 

2 Plin. 21. 88. 3 rb conj. Sch.; rV Aid. 

4 Meaning not obvious ; or/fArjpoG is perhaps corrupt. 
6 viroxoipls conj. Seal. ; viroxupy(ris UMAld. cf. 7. 7. 1 n. 
6 oix wcrirep : an adjective has perhaps dropped out between 
these words ; ? iriKpa. (amara Plin. I.e.). 



and roots they exhibit great differences ; for in 
some these are simpler and fewer/ but the stem 
of chicory is large and has many side-shoots ; also 
it is tough and hard to break, wherefore it is used 
for withes 2 ; it makes side-growths from the root, 
and also has long roots, wherefore it is hard to 
kill ; for, when the top is taken off to use as a 
vegetable, what remains 3 starts growing again. 
Moreover different parts of it flower at different 
times, and the flowering goes on till autumn, since 
the stem appears to be hard. 4 Also it bears a pod, 
which contains the seed, at the top of the stem. 

Cat's ear 5 is smoother and has a more cultivated 
appearance, and is also sweeter and not like 6 
khondrylla 7 ; for the latter is altogether uneatable 
and 8 unfit for food, and its root contains a quantity of 
pungent juice. 

Dandelion 9 is also unfit for food and bitter : it 
flowers early and quickly waxes old and the flower 
turns to pappus ; but then another flower forms, and 
yet another, and this goes on right through the winter 
and spring up to the summer; and the flower is 

10 The like may be said of pikris : for this plant 
too blooms in spring, and like dandelion it flowers 
throughout the winter, and it flowers also to some 
extent in summer ; in taste it is bitter, whence its 
name. These are the special points of difference 

7 x v $P v ^ a conj. St.; x av $pv ^B U; xai>8pv a\\a M; 
XavSpas oAA.a Aid. H. ; cadryalia G (Tarv. ) ; candralia G (Bas. 

8 rb yap o\ov OVK eSuiSmos aurrj /cal conj. W. ; rb o\ov OVK eS. 
avTf) yap Aid. ; OI/'TTJ yap aPpuros conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 105. 

9 airdw-n conj. W.; ad>a/crj Aid. cf. 7. 7. 1 11. 
1 Plin. 22. 66. 



rats rat? Bia<f>opai$. rreipareov Be, a>9 
/cal rwv a\\a)v \a/JL/3dvew OJJLOLWS. 

XII. Tlo\v Be TI yevos ecrrl Aral rwv (rap/cop- 
pia)v YI /cetyaXoppi^cov, a KOI 777)09 ra a\\a teal 
KaO^ avrd ra<; &ia(f>opa<; e%et pi^ais re KOI 
Aot? teal /cav\ots KOL rat9 a\Xat9 fjiopfyals. 
jap piwv, wa-jrep eiprjrai Trporepov, al ^ev \TTV- 
picoSeis al Be (rapKwbeis, /cal al [lev 6%ovo-ai 
<f>\oibv al S' afy'Xoiot,, ert, Be al fjuev a-Tpoyyv\ai 
al B Trpo/AiJKeis teal al fj,ev eSw^/iot al 8* aftpwroi,. 
eStoSifJLOi fjiev yap ov povov fioXfiol /cal ra opoia 
TOuro/9, a\\a /cal j] rov acr^oBe\ov pi^a /cal 7} 
T^9 <T/c/XX779, 7r\r]V ov Trdcrrjs d\\a T?)9 'ETTiyLtev^- 
Beiov /ca\ov/j,evr]<;, rj CLTTO rrjs xptfa-ecos e; rrjv 
Trpo&ijyopLav' avr'rj Be (TT6VO<pv\\OTpa re /cal 
\eiorepa rwv \oirrwv ecmv. 

2 'fiSft)Siyu-o9 Be /cal TI rov apov /cal avrrj /cal ra 
</)vX\a rrpoaQety'rjOevra ev o^et /cat, earw rjBeid 
re /cal rrpbs ra prfy/jiara dyadt], rrpbs Be rr)V 
av%Y)(jiv avrrjs, orav drro$v~\\ia-a>(nv, e%ei Be 
fieya atyoBpa rb $v\\ov, dvopv%avre<$ arpefyovarLV, 
OTTft)9 av f&) Bia/SXacrrdvy d\\d rrdcrav eX/crj rrjv 
rpotyrjv et9 eavrrjv, o /cal errl rwv /9oX/3w^ rives 

1 cf. 7. 11. 2 ad fin. 2 Plin. 19. 93 and 94. 

3 nopQcus : cf. 8. 4. 2. 4 7. 9. 4. 

5 The legends about Epimenides suggest that the ' use ' 
was possibly in magic : cf. what is said of <r/a'AAa 7. 13. 4. 
cf. Plin. I.e. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, VII. xi. 4 -xii. 2 

about these plants ; now we must endeavour, as was 
said/ to set forth the special points of the other 
classes in like manner. 

Of herbs which have fleshy or bulbous roots. 

XII. z There is a large class of these which have 
fleshy or bulbous roots : these exhibit differences both 
as compared with other plants and with one another 
both in roots leaves stems and their other prominent 
features. 3 Of the roots, as has been said 4 already, 
some are in layers, some fleshy, some have a 'bark,' 
some not ; and again some are round, some oblong, 
some edible and some not fit for food. Among 
edible roots are not only purse-tassels and others 
which resemble them, but also the roots of asphodel 
and squill, though not of all kinds of the latter, but 
only of the kind called 'Epimenides' squill (French 
sparrow-grass) which gets its name from its use 5 ; 
this kind has narrower leaves and is smoother than 
the others. 

6 The root of cuckoo-pint is also edible, and so are 
the leaves, if they are first boiled down in vinegar ; 
they are sweet, and are good for fractures. To 
increase the root, having first stripped 7 off the leaves 
(and the leaf is very large), they dig 8 it up and 
invert 9 it in order that it may not shoot, 10 but may 
draw all the nourishment into itself. This some 

6 Plin. 19. 96 ; 24. 162. 

7 a.iTo<pv\\(<rwffiv conj. Sch.; avo^vXaa-ffoxriv U; airo<j)v\\dff- 
ffwfftv MAld. 

8 avopvavTfs conj. St.; & avopv^avres Aid. 

9 cf. 1. 6. 10; Plin. 19. 94 and 97, who seems to have read 
KaTopu|avTes : so also G. ? ' they plunge it in a pit.' 

10 Sia0\affrAvy : cf. G.P. 4. 8. 1. 



avvTiOevTes' rj Be TOV BpaKovTiov, Ka\ovai 
yap TI BpaKovTiov apov Bia TO TOV Kav\bv e^eiv 
Tiva TroiKiXlav, a{3pa)TO<> KOI ^ap/jiaK^Brj^. 

A\\a i] rov (f>a(T<yavov KaXov^evov y\vKeid re 
, Kal Tpify9elo~a /jiiyvv fjievi] T&) d\evpu> 
rov apTOV <y\v/cvv /cal daivr)' o-TpoyyvXtj oe 
Kal a<f)\oio<; Kal aTrofyvo-eis e^ovcra /M/cpds, 
TO yrjflvov TroXXa? oe evpiafcovcnv ev rat? 
<T/ca\07riaiS' %aipei, jap Kal (TvXXeyei TO %wov. 
*H 8e TOV Orjaeiov TTJ /j,ev yevcrei TriKpd, Tpi- 
Be tcot,\iav viroKaOaipei. tyapfjiaKwBeis Be 
elcri Kal erepai, TTO\\WV Be OVTC (f>ap/LiaK(*>- 
OVTC eBwBi/jLoi. Kal avrai pev ev rat? pifais 
at Siaffropai. 

XIII. Kara Be TCL <j>v\\a rot? re fjteyefteaiv 
Kal rot? cr^^acriv. 6 fjiev acr^oSeXo? jj,aKpbv Kal 
(TTevoTepov Kal vTfo f y\,i(T'%pov e%ei TO <f)vX\,ov, rj Be 
<TKi\\a Tr\aTV KOI evBtaipeTov, TO Be (frdcryavov 
VTTO Tiva)v Be Ka\ov^evov t<c>9 %i$oei$e$, odev 
0"%e Kal Tovvo/^a, i] Be Ipis KaXa/JiwBeaTepov TO 
Be TOV apov Trpos TTJ TrXarurT/rt Kal e<yKoi\ov Kal 
a iKvw^es ecTTiv 6 Be vapKia'ao^ aTevov Kal TTO\V 
Kal \iTrapov /3oX/3o? Be Kal Ta /3o\/3a)Bti iravTe- 

(TTeva Kal TOV KpoKov B' en aTevoTepov. 
KavXov Be Ta fiev OVK e^ei TO o\ov ovB* avOos, 
TO apov TO eBcoBi/jiov TO, Be TOV TOV 
/JLOVOV, wo-Trep 6 vdpKicro-os Kal o KpoKov 
evia Be e^ei, KaOdirep 77 aKiXKa Kal o {3o\/3bs Kal 
TO %i$iov jj,e<yi(TTOV Be irdvTwv do~(f)6- 

sense doubtful. Sch. andW. mark the word 
as corrupt. 
2 cf. 9. 20. 3 ; Plin. 24. 142 ; Diosc. 2. 166. 



do also with purse-tassels, when they lay them by. 1 
2 However the root of edder-wort (for a kind of 
cuckoo-pint is so called because of its variegated stem) 
is not good for food, but is used for drugs. 

But the root of the plant called corn-flag is sweet, 
and, if cooked and pounded up and mixed with the 
flour, makes the bread sweet and wholesome. It is 
round and without ' bark,' and has small offsets like 
the long onion. Many of them are found in moles' 
runs 3 ; for this animal likes them and collects them. 

4 The root of theseion is bitter to the taste, but 
when pounded purges the bowels. There are also 
certain others of these roots which have medicinal 
properties, but of many the roots are neither 
medicinal nor edible. Such are the differences in 
the roots. 

XIII. 5 In the leaves the differences are in size and 
shape. Asphodel has a long leaf, which is somewhat 
narrow and tough, while that of squill is broad and 
tears easily ; corn-flag, which is called by some 
xiphos (' sword '), has a sword-like leaf, whence its 
name, and iris one more like a reed. That of cuckoo- 
pint, in addition to being broad, is concave and like 
that of cucumber ; that of the narcissus is narrow 
substantial and glossy, those of purse-tassels and 
plants of that character are quite narrow, and that of 
crocus narrower still. 

6 Some have not a stem at all, nor a flower, as the 
edible cuckoo-pint ; some have only the flower-stem, 
as narcissus and crocus ; some however have a stem, 
as squill purse-tassels iris and corn-flag ; but asphodel 

3 irapa TCUS <TKa\oiria.'is conj. Sch. ; tv rais OK. conj.W.; rats 
* KO \olais UMAld. 4 Plin. 22. 06. 8 PJin. 21. 108. 
6 Plin. 21. 108 and 109. 



o yap dvOepiKO? /jLeyiGTOS' 6 Be rfjs ipi&os 
e\drTO)v fjLev GtcKr) poT epos Be TO Be o\ov dvdepi- 
K(0Bi]s. <TTL Be teal Trd\vKapTros 6 acr^>o8eXo?, fcal 
6 KapTTos avTov uXcoS^? Trj pev popfyfi Tpiywvos 
T&> Be Xpco/LiaTi, fjbe\as' yiveTai Be ev TW (TTpoy- 
yv\(p TW vTro/caTO) TOV av6ov<$, eKiriTTTei Be TOV 
3 Oepovs, OTav TOVTO Bia^dvrj. TTJV avOrjcnv 

Be TTpWTOV CLTTO T&v KCLTwOev. ev Be TO) a 
GVvio-TaTai (TK(t)\r)%, 09 et9 a\\o /j,Ta/3d\\ei 
dvQprjvoeiBes, el& orav 6 dvdepitcos avavOf) Biecr- 
diov efCTreTdTai. 8o/ceT Be iBiov e^eiv Trpos TCL 
a\\a TO, \eioKav\a, SIOTI crTevos cov 

^~o\\d Be et9 
/cal yap 6 av9epiKo<$ 
6ev6/jivos Kal TO crrrepfjia (ppvyo/^evov Kal 
Be [Jbd\io~Ta TI pi^a KOTTTOjJbewr) //-era CTVKOV Kal 
TrXeicrTrjv ovrjcriv %ei Ka@* f H<rtoSov. 
4 "ArravTa /AW ovv <J3i\6a)a ra K(f>a\6ppi^a 
/jidXiGTa B' r) cr/aAAa' Kal ydp Kpe/navvvjubevy %fj 
Kal rrXeiaTov ye ^povov Bia/j,evei' BvvaTai Be Kal 
Ta ffrjo-avpL^ofjieva a-oo^etv, warrep TTJV poav e/mTrrjy- 
vvjjbevov TOV /jLia^ov, Kal TWV (frvTevo/mevuv 8' evia 
ySXaerra^et OCLTTOV ev avTrj' \eyeTai Be Kal rrpb 
TWV Ovpwv r?^9 elo-oBov <$VTevOelo~av d\ej;rjTrjpiov 
elvai T7J9 eTrKfrepo/jLevrjS Br)\tf crews. rrdvTa Be 
TavTa dOpoa fyveTai, KaOdjrep Kal TO, KpbfJiva 
Kal TO, crKopoBa' Trapa[S\a<TTdvov<Ti, yap CLTTO Trjs 

1 e7ri7rTi conj. W.; fKir'urTwv Aid. 

2 &v6i)(nv conj. Seal.; tivavviv corr. to a&avffiv U; &va.vaiv M ; 
atiavaiv Aid. ; floret ver paries G. 



has the tallest of all for the antherikos (asphodel- 
stalk) is very tall : that of iris is smaller, but tougher, 
though in general it is like the asphodel-stalk. 
Asphodel also produces much fruit, and its fruit is 
woody : in shape it is triangular and in colour black ; 
it is found in the round vessel which is below the 
flower, and it falls out l in summer when this splits 
open. It does not produce all its flowers 2 at once ; 
in which respect it resembles squill, but the flowering 
begins at the bottom. In the stalk of asphodel forms 
a grub which changes into another creature like a 
hornet, and then, when the stem withers, eats its 
way out and flies away. A peculiarity of the plant 
as compared with others which have a smooth stem 
appears to be that, though it is slender, it has 
outgrowths at the top. It provides many things 
useful for food : the stalk is edible when fried, the 
seed when roasted, and above all the root 3 when 
cut up with figs ; in fact, as Hesiod says, 4 the plant is 
extremely profitable. 

Now all bulbous plants are tenacious of life, but 
especially squill ; for this even lives when hung up 
and continues to do so for a very long time ; it is even 
able to keep other things that are stored, for instance 
the pomegranate,' if the stalk of the fruit is set in it ; 
and some cuttings 5 strike more quickly if set in it ; 
and it is said that, if planted before the entrance 
door of a house, it wards off mischief which threatens 
it. All these bulbs grow in masses, as do onions and 
garlic ; for they make offsets from the root, and some 

3 cf. 7.9. 4; 9. 9. 6. 

4 Hes. Op. 41. 

5 cf 2. 5. 5; G. P. 5. 6. 10. 

b Sc. witchcraft, veneficiorum noxam Plin. 21. 108. 




evict, 8e /cal CLTTO TOV 

olov 6 re dvOepiKos ical TO \eipiov /cal TO cbdcrya- 

\ r /-) A f~\ f 

vov Kai o poXpo9. 

'AXX' ibiov TOVTO TOV {3o\/3ov \eyeTai, TO firj 
aTTo irdvTwv fSKacrTciveiv ci^a TWV cnrepfjbdTtov, 
d\\a TOV fjuev avToeTc? TOV & et9 vewTa, 
TOV alji\co7rd (fracri KM lov \WTOV. TOVTO 
ovv etTrep a\r]6es KOIVOV eTepwv. KOIVOV &e 
/cal TO /jue\\ov \eyecr0ai, ir\r]v ov 7ro\\cit)v, Oav- 
fj,a<TTOv Se 7rl TCCLVTWV, oirep ITCI re Trjs a/cLXXvjs 
/cal TOV vapKicrcrov (TVfjL/3aivei' TMV ftev *yap a\\a)v 
/cal TCOV e% dpxrfi ^VTevojuevcov /cal TO>V /3Aacr- 
TavovTwv KCL& wpav erou? TO (f>v\\ov dvaTeXXei 
irpwTOv, elO^ vdTepov o KavXov eirl 3e TOVTWV o 
/tafXo? nrpoTepov. 

ToO vapKitraov &e 6 TOU av6ov<s /JLOVOV evOv 
TrpowOwv TO av6o<$' T?}? ^e a/ciXXij? /cad 1 avTov, 
et? vcrTepov 7rl TOVTO) TO dv9o<} dvLa^ov Trpoa- 
Ka9ij/jLVov' TroieiTat, Be Ta9 dv6r)o-ei<s T/oet9, wv r) 
fjiev TrptoTT) Bo/cel crrjfjiaiveiv TOV TrpwTov apoTov, TJ 
$e SevTepa TOV jjieaov, rj Se TpiTT) TOV ea^aTOV to? 
yap av avTai yevcovTai fcal ol apoToi cr^eoov 
OVTWS eic(3aivovcn,v OTav oe OVTOS dTroyrjpda-rj, 
TOTC r) TCOV <j)v\\cov pXaaTrjcns TroXXat? rjfjLepais 
vaTepov ft)cravTO)9 oe teal eirl TOV vapKicrcrov, 
7r\r]v ovT6 Kav\ov eTepov e%et nrapa TOV TOV dv- 
, wcnrep eiiroj^ev, ovTe KapTrbv cfravepov, aXX' 

a conj. Sch. from Plin. 21. 103 ; 7Aa>7ra UMAld. 
2 ev6v irpowQuiv conj. W. ; evBvirpocapov Ald.H. C/. Plin. 21. 
66, where however the statement is transferred to the 



plainly are also increased by seed, as the asphodel 
polyanthus narcissus corn-flag and purse-tassels. 

However it is said to be a peculiarity of purse- 
tassels that all the seeds do not germinate at once, 
but some in the same year, some the next year ; a 
like account is given of aigilops 1 and trefoil. If then 
this is true, it is not peculiar to this plant. Nor 
perhaps is the following characteristic, which is not 
found in many -plants and is marvellous wherever it 
does occur and it is found in squill and narcissus : 
namely that, whereas in most plants, whether those 
originally planted or those which are produced from 
them in season, the leaf comes up first and then 
presently the stem, in these plants the stem comes 
up first. 

In the case of narcissus it is only the flower-stem 
which comes up, and it immediately pushes up 2 the 
flower. But in squill it is the stem 3 proper which 
thus appears, and presently the flower appears 
emerging 4 from and sitting on it. And it makes 
three flowerings, 5 of which the first appears to mark 
the first seed-time, the second the middle one, and 
the third the last one ; for, according as these 
flowerings have occurred, 6 so the crops usually turn 
out. But, when the flower-stem 7 has waxed old, 
then the growth of the leaves follows many days 
later. So also is it with narcissus, except that it 
has no second stem besides the flower-stem, as we 
said, nor any visible fruit ; but the flower itself 

3 i.e. the whole 'bud.' 

* avlffxov Aid. ; aviaxw conj. Sch. followed by W. 

5 Plin. I.e.-, cf. 18. 237. 

6 i.e. the flowering is the sign when to sow. The same is 
said of the fruiting of <rxVos de signis 55. 

7 ovros conj. Sch.; OVTUS Aid. 

K 2 


avro TO avQos apa rw /cav\q> icaratyOlvei teal 
orav avavQr) rare TO, <$>v\\a dvareXket,. 

n/>09 fjiev ovv ra d\\a ra avvd^co ravra iBia" 
7T/D09 Be ra rrpoavOovvra rwv <f)v\\a)v /cal rwv 
/cav\wv, orrep Bo/cei TTOielv TO rl<f>vov /cal erepa 
T>V avOiKWV, en re TWV SevBpcov rj afjLVjSa\rj 
/jud\L(7Ta r) fjibvov, OTI Tavra per a/za T& avdei, 
irpofyalvei TO <f>v\\ov rj evOvs KaTOTriv, ware /cal 
Bia^r)Ti(r0ai TrepL TIVCOV, 67rl Be TOVTWV olov dfi 
erepas dpxfjs fyalveTai teal Bid TO TrX^^o? TWV 
rjiJiep&v /cal Sid TO JJLTJ Trporepov /BXaardvetv Trplv 
TOV fj^ev TO avOos rov Be /cal 6 /cav\b<; 0X09 CLTTO- 
rj Be fiXdcmjcris TTporepa /j,ev T^9 (T/ci\- 
varepa Be rov vapKiG-crow TTO\V Be rrXeov TO 
<j)v\\,ov OUT09 dfarjo-i,, /cai ecrnv rj pi^a avrr) 
/cal ov /jLeydX-rj, Trpoaefjifyeprjs Be /card TO 
rw {3o\j3q>, 7r\r)V <ov> \7rvpict)Br)$. ravra 
ovv e%ei (TKZ'tyiv. 

T&v Be (3o\ftwv on rr\eia) yevr) fyavepov, /cal 
yap rw fjieyeQei /cal ry XP a fc&l TOt9 (j^rn^acfL 
Bia<f>epovcn /cal Tot9 YuXot9' evia'xpv yap ovrco 
<y\v/ce2$ wcrT6 /cal O)/JLOV<> eaOleaOai, rcaOdrrep ev 
Xeppovijcrq> rfj Tavpi/cfj. ^ey'iarr] Be /cal iBicordrrj 
Bia(f>opd rwv epiofyopayv ecrrt, yap TI yevos roiov- 
rov, o (j)verat fjuev ev aiyia\ols e%et Be TO epiov 
VTTO TOU9 7T/OWTOV9 %iTft)z/a9, wcrT6 dvd fjueaov elvai 

Aid., c/. C. P. 1. 10. 5; T' ttyvov conj. W.; iphyum 
GBas.Par. c/. 6. 6. 11. 2 ^ add. Sch. 

8 M conj. H.; -xepl UMAld. 4 W. adds &j/. 

5 avr)) : sc. apart from offsets. 

6 /j.iKpa conj. Sch. j ov P.IKOO, Aid. 

I 3 2 


perishes with the stem, and when it has withered, 
then the plant puts up its leaves. 

These two plants then, as compared with the 
other bulbous plants are peculiar ; and, as compared 
with those which bloom before the leaves and stems 
appear (as the autumn squill 1 seems to do, and other 
plants with conspicuous flowers, as well as, among 
trees, the almond especially, if not alone), there is 
the distinction that, while these two put forth their 
leaves along with the flowers or 2 immediately after- 
wards (so that about some the matter is uncertain) 
in 3 the case of these two the flower appears, as it 
were, from a different starting-point, there being a 
considerable number of days in between, and the 
growth of the leaves not beginning till, 4 in the case 
of one of them, the flower, and in the case of the 
other, the whole stem has withered. Squill produces 
its leaves before the flower, narcissus afterwards ; 
but the latter produces much more abundant foliage, 
and the individual 5 root is small 6 rather than large, 
resembling purse-tassels in shape, except that it is 
not formed of scales. 7 About these matters then 
there is doubt. 

Of purse-tassels it is plain that there are several 
kinds ; for they differ in size colour shape and 
taste. 8 In some places they are so sweet as to be 
eaten raw, as in the Tauric Chersonese. But the 
greatest and most distinct difference is shown by the 
' wool-bearing 9 ' purse-tassels ; for there is such a 
kind, and it grows on 10 the sea-shore, and has the 
wool beneath the outer tunic, so that it is between 

7 ou A.e7ripiw5rjs conj. Sell, from G, non squamata ; ov8* 
TrvpcaS-r] UMAld. ; ov AeTrupoiSrjs H. 

8 Plin. 19. 95 ; Athen. 2. 64. 

9 Plin. 19. 32. See Index. 10 lv after ^v add. W. 



rov re e&e*lfjLev TOV eWo9 teal TOV efor vtyaiverai 
8e ef avTOv teal rrooeta teal d\\a l/j,dria' Si o 

teal 6/UO>&6$ TOUTO tfOM Otn^ OHTTTep TO eV 

Se /eal ra /3o\j3(*)Sr) teal eXarra). raOra 
5e . . . tcaOdirep TO \evtc6iov /cal /3o\j3ivt] teal 
OTTITLWV teal tcv'it; teal rpoirov nvd TO criavpiy^iov. 
/3oX/3coS^ Se ravra OTL (TrpojyvXa ral^ pl^ais- 
eirel Tot? 76 %p(*)/Jiacri \evted teal ov \eirvp idoSrj. 
UBiov e TOV o-ia-vpiy^iov TO TT}? pLtylS av^dvecrOai 

TO aTO) TTpW'TOV, O Ka\OV(TL . . . ^LfJiWVa, TOV 8' 

77/309 vnro$aivovTO<$ TOVTO fj,ev raTreivovaOai TO 8' 
TO e$ti)8ifAOV av^dveffOai. teal rd p,ev 

XIV. "ISia Be /eal ravra ev Tot9 7roi(t)8e<riv, 
olov TO [Te] eVl ToO dBidvrov Gvybftalvov ovSe yap 
v<ypaiveTai TO <j>v\\ov /3p%6{Aevoi' ovft eTriBpoaov 

(TTL Bid TO /AT) T7JV VOTldV 7Tl/jiVeiV, O06V teal V) 

Trpoa^yopia. jVt] Se avrov Svo, TO pev \evicov 
TO Se /Jie\av, %pij(njjLa 8' d/jLcfrorepa vrpo? eicpvcrtv 
rpi^wv v eXatco T pi/36 [leva. <f>verai Se 

1 5t' & KOL ep. TOVTO : text probably defective. ? St' ft /coi 
<Xp-nffifj^v TO> e'piwSes TOVTO : ' wherefore this woolly kind is 
serviceable, which the Indian hairy kind is not.' 

2 Plin. 19. 95. 

3 Kal e'AaTTw Tavra Se : text corrupt and defective. 

4 oirirtuv H. ; o irm'cov Aid.; pithyon Plin. /.c. ; bitniuv and 
/ci'i'l were possibly earth-nuts. 

5 76 conj. Sch ; TC Aid. 



the edible inside and the outside : of it are woven 
felt shoes and other articles of apparel. Wherefore 1 
this kind is woolly and distinct from the Indian kind, 
which is hairy. 

2 There are also several kinds of plants of the same 
class as purse-tassels . . . . 3 such as snowdrop star- 
flower opition 4 kyix, and to a certain extent Barbary 
nut. These belong to this class only in having round 
roots ; for in colour 5 they are white, and the bulbs 
are not formed of scales. A peculiarity of Barbary 
nut is that the lower end of the root grows first, and 
this is called . . . . ; it grows 6 during winter, but, 
when spring appears, it decreases, while the upper 
part, which is edible, grows, Such are the differ- 
ences in these plants. 

Of certain properties and habits peculiar to certain herbaceous 

XIV. There are also the' following peculiarities in 
herbaceous plants, for instance that 7 which we find 
in ' wet-proof (maidenhair) ; 8 the leaf does not even 
get wet when it is watered, nor does it catch the 
dew, 9 because the dew does not 10 rest on it ; whence its 
name. n There are two kinds, the white ' wet-proof ' 
(English maidenhair), and the black (maidenhair) ; 
and both are useful to prevent the falling off of 
the hair of the head, for which purpose they are 
pounded up and mixed with olive-oil. They grow 

6 'Grows' supplied from G and Plin. I.e., who have no 
trace of ft KaXovai. 

7 I have bracketed re. 8 Plin. 22. 62-65. 

9 firitipoffov conj. W. ; firi8ri\ov UP 2 MAld.; nee quicquam 
adhaesisse humoris constat G. 

10 /^j before T V add. W. 

11 Piin. I.e.-, 27. 138; 25. 132 ? 



/J,a\lO'Ta 7Ty9O9 TCI vBprjXd. O>9 $6 OlOVTCLi TIV$, 

KCLI Trpos (JTpayyovpiav TO Tpi^o/JLave^ Troiei' e%ei 
Be TOV rcav\bv O/JLOLOV rco dBidvT<p T& fjue\avi, 
(f)v\\a Be fJiiKpa o-(f)6Bpa KOI Trv/cva KO! tr 

2 Twv Be KCLTCL jnepos dvOovvTwv iBiov TO nrepl TO 
dvOe/jiOV, OTI TCOV fiev dXXwv TrdvTwv TCL fcaTW 
TrpwTOV diravOel TOVTOV Be TCL dvco' Tvy^dvei ft 
avTOv TO fjiev KVK\W TO \evfcbv av6o<$ TO Be ev T& 
fjiecrw TO %\a)p6v' KOI Kapirbs 09 eKTriTTTei, KaOd- 
Trep ro?9 dicavO^eai, KaToXiTrcov Trjv Trpoa^vcnv 
/cevtfv eiBrj S' avTov TrXeiw. 

3 "IBtov Be Kal TO Trepl TTJV dTrapivrjv, r) /cat TWV 
IfiaTitov avrkyeiai Bid TTJV Tpa%VT7)Ta /cat ' 
Bvcra(f)aipTOV' ev TOVTM yap eyyLveTai T& ' 

TO avOos ov Trpoibv ovB$ eK<^alvov d\\ y ev 


eivai TO (rvjjiftaivov &(JTrep ejrl TWV ya\ewv /cal 
e/ceivd re yap ev eavTols 
I, /cal avTTj TO av0o<$ ev eavTy 
/cat TreTTOvcra /capTTOTO/cei. 

XV. f/ O<ra Be r9 dvO^aei^ \a/ji/3dvov<ri dtco- 

\OV0OVVTa, TOt9 d(TTpOi<;, olov TO r)\lOTp07TLOV 

Ka\ov[JLVov KOLI o cr/roXf/xo9, dpa yap rat9 Tpo- 
7ra?9 /cal OVTOS, TL Be TO %G\iB6i>iov, Kal yap 
TOVTO d/Aa T& %\i8ovia dvOel, TavTa Be B6et,ev 
dv TT) jjuev (fivo'iK'rjv e%iv TTJV aliiav Ty Be 

i.e. the white kind. Sch. followed by G adds rb 
Ka\ov/j.evov after rb fiev \evtcbv above. 


especially in damp places. Some think that 
irikhomanes l (English maidenhair) is also useful in 
cases of strangury. Its stem is like that of the black 
kind,, but it has small leaves, which are close set and 
grow in opposite pairs ; there is no root below, and 
the plant loves shady places. 

Of those plants which do not flower all at once 
anthemon has the peculiarity that, while in all others 2 
the lower part flowers first, in this plant it is the 
upper part which does so ; the outer circle of the 
flower is white, 3 and the centre green 4 ; and the 
fruit falls off, as in spinous plants, leaving the attach- 
ment bare. There are several forms of it. 

5 Bedstra\v has the peculiarity that it sticks to 
clothes owing to its roughness, and it is hard to pull 
away ; indeed it is in this rough part that the flower is 
contained : it does not project nor show, but matures 
within itself and produces seed ; so that its habit is 
like that of weasels and sharks ; for, as these animals c 
likewise produce eggs in themselves and then bear 
their young alive, so this plant keeps its flower 
within itself, matures it and produces fruit. 

XV. 7 As to these plants whose flowering time is 
dependent on the heavenly bodies, 8 as the plant 
called heliotropion, golden thistle (for this also blooms 
at the solstice), and also ' swallow-plant ' (greater 
celandine) for this blooms when the 9 Swallow-wind 
blows the reason in these cases would seem to be 
partly in their nature and partly accidental. 

2 fSiov after iravrcDv om. W. after Sch. 

3 Tb Xtvnbv : ? Aet'/c^ rb. 4 ? om. rJ> before x^ u P^ 
5 Plin. 21. 104. 6 cf. Arist. H.A. 6. 11. 

7 Athen. 15. 32. 8 &<rrpois conj. St. ; aypiois Aid. 

9 T conj. Sch.; TT) MAld. cf. Plin. 2. 122. 



2 IloXXa Be TOtavrd eaii Kal ev erepo^ iBia* 
olov Kal rj rov dei^wov (fivcris TO Bia/jLeveiv vypbv 
del Kal 'xXcopov, (f)v\\ov crapKtoBe? e%ov Kal \elov 
Kal TrpourjKes. (fiverai Be ev re rot? dXnreBois 
ro9 re eirl TWV Tei^MV dvbrjpois Kal ov% iJKicrra 
eirl TWV K6pd/J,a)v, orav eTuyevrjTai 77}? rt? 

8* av rt? tVo)? \d/3oi Kal erepa Treptrrd. 
p^/37) Be, wcrTrep TroXXa/ct? eipijrai, ra<; IBiorijTas 
Oewpelv Kal ra? Biacfropds TT/JO? ra aXXa. rd p,ev 
ev TrXeiocriv IBeats earl Kal o"%eBbv olov of 
waTrep o Xa)T09' TOVTOV ydp eiBij 7ro\\d 
povra Kal c^uXXot? Kal Kav\oi$ Kal av6ecn 
Kapirols, ev ol? Kal o yueXtXcoro? /caXouyu,ez>o<?' Kal 
Bvvdjj,ei, Be rfj Kara rrjv irpoafyopdv, en, re rw arj 
TOU? aurov? TOTroi'? fyrelv. 6jJLOia)$ Be Kal erepa 

Ta Be ev eXdrroaiv, wa-jrep 6 arpv^vo^ op,wvv- 
fiia rivl 7rai>TeXw9 el\r)fifjievo^' o /nev <ydp 6^608^09 
Kai wcnrep tfuepov, Kapjrbv e%a)v paycbBrj, erepoi 
Be Bvo elaiv, wv 6 jjiev VTTVOV 6 Be paviav 
Bvvarai, irKeiwv B 1 en BoOels Kal Kreivei. 
Be rovro Kal e'(/)' erepcov earl ~\,a{3eiv, a 
e\ei Bida-raatv. Trepl /jiev ovv rcov d\\a)v rwv 
TTOicoB&v iKavws elpriTai. Trepl Be rov CTITOV 

Kal TWV <riT,(oB(t)v fierd ravra \eKreov TOVTO ydp 
en Kard\oi7rov yv. 

1 oTovconj.W.; Sib Aid. 

2 aAtireSois conj. Sch. ; aArjTre'Sois U ; aATjTre'SoiS M ; aA.07reSots 
Aid. cf. Xen. Hell. 2. 4. 30. 

3 re after TO?S add. W. after Lobeck. 

4 e.g. \WTOS and /ue\l\(Tos. See Index, \wros, 

5 jueAiAwros conj. Bod.; /ieAms aTroj Aid. 



Such peculiarities are common in other plants also ; 
thus l it is the nature of the house-leek to remain 
always moist and green, its leaf being fleshy smooth 
and oblong. It grows on flat shores, 2 on the 3 earthy 
tops of walls, and especially on tiled roofs, when 
there is on them a sandy accumulation of earth. 

Possibly one might mention many other eccen- 
tricities. But, as has been repeatedly said, we must 
only observe the peculiarities and differences which 
one plant has as compared with others. Some plants 
are found in several forms which have almost 4 the 
same name, for instance the lotos ; for of this there 
are many forms differing in leaves stems flowers and 
fruit, including the plant called melilotos 5 ; there are 
also forms differing in the virtues for which 6 they 
are used as food, and again in their fondness for 
different localities. So too is it with many other 

Others are found in fewer forms, as strykhnos? 
which is a general name covering plants that are 
quite distinct ; one is edible and like a cultivated 
plant, having a berry-like fruit, and there are two 
others, 8 of which the one is said to induce sleep, 
the other to cause madness, or, if it is administered 
in a larger dose, death. The same thing may be 
observed in other plants which are widely dif- 
ferent. Now about the other herbaceous plants 
enough has been said ; but concerning corn and 
corn-like plants we must speak next ; for this 
subject still lies before us. 

6 8e TT? conj. Sch. ; Sirred UM ; Sirra?* Aid. 

7 cf. 7. 7. 2 ; Plin. 21. 177-179 ; Diosc. 4. 70-73 ; Index. 

8 In 9. 11. 5 these two plants are said to be ffuv<t>vvfj.oi, i.e. 
different forms of the same plant, whereas the 'edible' 
(TTpvxvos is the same only in name (dnuw^ta). cf. 9. 12. 5. 

? 39 


I. Tlepl fjiev ovv Twv a\\wv TToiwBwv 
elpij(T0a)' 7Tpl Be GITOV Kal TWV criTwS&v \ejco/ji6v 
6/zoto>9 rot9 Trporepov rovro jap /card\oi7rov r/v 


Auo B avrov yevrj ra fieyiara rv^^dvei' ra 
fjiev jap <riTO)$rj, olov trvpol KpiOal rltyai %ial ra 
a\\a ra ofjuoioTTvpa rj ofiotoKpida' TCL Se 
olov /cva/jios epeftwOos TT^CTO? KOI 0X0)9 ra 
TTpoa-ajopevo/jieva' rpurov Be Trap avra 
eXfyao? o-tjaa/jiov Kal a7rXw9 ra eV rot9 
dporois dvcovv/na tcoivfj TTpoo-rjjopia. 

Be r) fjiev jeveffis avrwv fjiia KOI 
jap airo o-Trepf^aro^, eav JJLIJ TL airaviov 
Kal 6\ljov ttTTO T7J9 pt&S' wpai Be rov cnropov 
rwv ir\eLaTwv Bvo' TT/OCOTT; /j,ev Kal fjid\i(7ra rj 
Trepl IIX6ta8o9 BVGIV, y Kal 'HaloBos r)Ko\ov0r)K. 

1 TUV before irotwSwv om. Sch. 

2 Plin. 18. 48-80. 

3 ^Aujuos : /j.f\ivr) appears to be the Attic name for this 
plant. Sch. would restore it for f\v/j.os here and 4. 4. 10 ; 
8. 11. 1. 




Of the three, classes and the times of sowiwj and of germination. 

I. Let the above suffice for an account of the other 
herbaceous 1 plants ; let us now discuss corn and 
corn-like plants in the same manner as those already 
treated ; for this class of herbaceous plants we 

2 'There are two principal classes ; there are the 
corn-like plants such as wheat barley one-seeded 
wheat rice-wheat and the others which resemble 
either of the first two ; and again there are the 
leguminous plants, as bean chick-pea pea, and in 
general those to which the name of pulses is 
given. Besides these there is a third class, which 
includes millet 3 Italian millet, sesame and in 
general the plants which belong to the summer 
seed-time/ which lack any common designation. 

There is only one single way of propagating these ; 
they grow from seed, except that some may grow 
rarely and scantily from a root. There are two 
seasons for sowing most of them ; the first and 
most important is about the setting of the Pleiad 5 ; 
this rule we find even Hesiod 6 following with 

4 cf. 8. 7. 3. 

5 n\eja8os conj. Sch.; ir\eic5as U ; ir\fid5wv Aid. 

6 Hes. Op. 383. 



/cal a^eBbv ol 7T\eio-roi, Si b /cat KO\OV<TI 
avrr)V dporov a\\rj B' dp%o/j,evov rov 77,009 fjuerd 
r9 rporrds rov %6*yu,o>z>o9. ov rcov avrcov Be 
e/carepa. rd /JLCV yap avrwv (f>i\ei rrpwlarro- 
peicrdai, ra Be o^jre Sia rb pr) SvvacrOai, fyepeiv 
TOU? ^etyu-co^a?, ra Be TT/QO? a^orepas ra? w/oa? 
ov ra/ca>9 ^ei, KCLI rrpos j^eifjioyva teal rrpos eap. 

TlpwicrTropa fj,ev ovv ecrri, TTU/OO? /cpiOij, /cal rov- 
rwv rj fcpiOr) TrpcolcrTropcorepov en Be eia ri(f)7j 
o\vpa /cal ei n erepov o^oiorrvpov aTrdvrwv jap 
a%eBbv 6 avros ^povos rrjs ffTropas' rwv Be ^eBpo- 
TTWV paKiara 009 eirrelv Kva^o^ Kal co^po?" ravra 
ryap Bia ri~)V daOeveiav r jrpo\a^elv rfj pi^ooo-ei 
rou? ^eifjiMva^' TrpwtcrTropov Be /cal 6 
CLTTO rrjs a\co <ydp $>ao~i Beiv 

4 'Q'^rio'Tropa Be rovrwv ye avrwv ocra Biacfrepei 
TOt9 yeveaiv, olov nvp&v re ri yevos Kal Kpidwv o 
ica\ovai rpLjJbiivov Bid rb ev roa-ovra) re\eiova9ai' 

\ c- \ /r- I \'>j/ / 

Kai ra>v %eopO7ra)V ra roiaoe, cpaKos a(paKrj mcros. 
ev d/jufyorepaw Be rals wpais rwv %eBpO7rwv, KaOd- 
rrep o/oo/5o9 epe/3iv6o<;' ol Be Kal rov Kva/jiov o-v/re 
arreipovcriv, edv vo-reptjo-coai ra>v rrpairwv dporcov. 
a7rXw9 Be rrpdoldrropovai rd /j,ev Bi* lo"^yv 0)9 
Bvvd/Lieva fyepeiv rov<$ 'xeifji&vas, rd Be Bi da9e- 
veiav, O7TO)9 7rpo\d/3(i)cri rais evBiais rrjv av^ijcriv. 
Bvo fjiev ovv avrai. rpirrj Be rwv Oepivcov r)v 

1 A cultural variety of eid. cf. 8. 9. 2. 

2 rwv 8e ye Aid. ; ye om. Sell. 

8 2>xp s conj.W.; Ktyxpos Aid.; om. G. cf. 8. 3. 1 and 2. 
4 cf. 8. 11. 8. 



most authorities ; wherefore some call it simply 
' the seed-time.' Another time is at the beginning 
of spring after the winter equinox. However 
different crops are sown at the two seasons. For 
some of them love to be sown early, some late 
because they cannot bear the winters, while some 
will do not amiss at either season, both towards 
winter and towards spring. 

Crops sown early are wheat and barley, and of 
these the latter is sown the earlier ; also rice-wheat 
one-seeded wheat olyra, 1 and others which resemble 
wheat. For all of these the time of sowing is about 
the same. Of leguminous plants 2 bean and okhros? 
it may be said, are specially sown at this time ; for 
these on account of their weakness like to be well 
rooted before the winter. Lupin is also sown early ; 
in fact they say it should be sown straight from the 
threshing-floor. 4 

Those which are sown late are certain special 
varieties 5 of these very kinds, as a certain kind of 
wheat, and of barley the kind which is called ' three 
months barley ' because it takes that time to mature ; 
and among leguminous plants lentil tare pea. 
However some of these plants are sown at both 
seasons, as vetch and chick-pea ; some also sow 
beans late, if they have missed the first seed-time. 
To speak generally, some crops are sown early 
because of their robustness, since they can stand 
the winters, some because of their weakness, so 
that their growth may be secured 6 in the fine 
weather. These then are the two seasons ; the 
third is that of the summer crops of which we 

8 rots ytvefftv : TTJ yevefffi W. i.e. 'certain kinds which 
differ as to their germination.' 6 cj. G. P. 4. 7. 2. 

I 45 



, ev rj Key^po^ aTreiperai, /cal /JieXivos Kal 
, en S' epvcrifiov /cal op/juivov. %p6voi /j,ev 

OVV tcd(7Ta)V OVTOi. 

JSXa&rdvei Be TO pev OCLTTOV TO Be fipaBvrepov 
Kal KpiOrj fjiev Kal 7ru/>09 /38o{jiaia jmd\i(Tra' Trpo- 
repet 8e 77 /cpiOrj jjLa\\ov ra S 1 ocnrpia rerapraia 
f) Tre/jLTrraia ir\r]V Kvdpwv /cva/ios Be /cal rwv 
(TiTwBwv evLa 7r\eLoaiv evia^ov >ydp /cal jrevre- 
/caiBe/caTaios, ore Be /cal el/coa-ralos' Bva^vecrra- 
TOV yap TOVTO Trdvrcov, eav Be Brj Kal cnrapivTOs 
ewl ifXiov vBcop eTTiyevrjTai, /cal TravreXw?. el Be 
TWV ev rot? ypivols dporois OOLTTOV 77 e/c<t>V(Ti<; Bia 

rrjv wpav 

Be ra? dva3\a(m(rei,$ /cal 

Tavra? &>? eVl TO irav Bia\a/3eiv eviore yap 
evia'xpv Kal ev eXdrrocnv ^yu-e/oai?, KaOdirep ev 
AlyvTTTO) </cpi0r)>' rpiraiav ydp <f)a<ri /cal rerap- 
raiav dvare\\ei,v' nrap 1 aXXot? Be ev irXeioai, rcov 
elpr)ju,evci)v, OTrep /cal ov/c a\o<yov, orav /cal 
Kal drjp Biaffrepr} /cal Trpcoiaurepov rj 
dpoarj /cal ra eirvyivo/Aeva dvouoia rvy^dvrj. rj 
IJ.ev yap fjiavrj Kal Kov^rj /cal evKpdra) dept, Ta%v 
Kal paBiax; dvaBiBwaiv, rj Be y\io"xpa /cal /Bapela 
/BpaBews, r) Be Tot? TOTTO*? av^jjitoBecrTepa jSpaBv- 

"ETt Be av xeifjbwves eTTiyevcovrai, /cal av%/j,ol 
Kal evBiai Kal ird\iv vBara' Kal yap ev TOVTOIS 
TrapaXhdrTovo-iv. axrauTft)? Be Kal eav r] 

.; iv Aid. 
2 The reason is given C. P. 4. 8. 2. 
8 cf. 7. 1. 4. 



spoke, m which are sown millet Italian millet 
sesame, and also erysimon and horminon. Such then 
are the times for each. 

Some are quicker in coming up, some slower. 
Barley and wheat generally come up on the seventh 
day, but barley is the earlier. Pulses take four 
or five days, except beans ; for they, like some 
kinds J of corn, require a longer time ; in some 
places they take as much as fifteen days, or even 
twenty. This crop indeed is the slowest to start 
of all, and if after the sowing there is a long spell of 
wet weather, it is extremely slow. 2 Whether the 
sprouting 3 of crops sown at the spring seed-time 
is quicker because of the season is matter for 

These times of sprouting or germination must be 
taken generally ; for at some times and places 
germination takes fewer days, as with barley 4 in 
Egypt, where it is said to come up on the third 
or fourth day ; while elsewhere it takes longer than 
the period mentioned, which is not surprising when 
both soil and climate are different, when one makes 
the sowing earlier or later, and when the crop is 
subjected to different influences afterwards. For 
open light soil with a favourable 5 climate produces 
quick and easy growth, while soil that is sticky and 
heavy tends to slow growth, and that of a specially 
dry district to slower growth still. 

Moreover the time of growth is affected, according 
as storms supervene, or droughts, or fine weather 
or again rain ; for these conditions make wide 
differences. So too it makes a difference if the 

4 K piM) add. W. 

6 fvKpdry conj. Seal, from G (benigno caelo) ; 

L 2 


<yr Trpoeipyao-fjievrj /ca Koirpov e%ovo~a 
/cal edv fjbrjBev TOVTCOV eirel /cal Trepl TO 
viropeiv efcaara /cal o^iairopelv al %w/o<zt Bia(j>e- 
povaiv. evioi Be /cal Trepl rrjv *Ei\\dBa TrdvTa 
Trpwio-Tropelv eiwOacri, Bid ^fV^poTrjra r?)? 
ol <&a)Kis, OTTO)? av ol 

II. T$\ao~Tdvei Be TO, fiev e/c TOV avTov Trjv 
pi^av d<f>ievTa /cal TO <f)v\\ov, TCL Be e/caTepov ef 
e/caTepov TOV d/cpov. Trvpos /jiev ovv /cal /cpiOrj 
/cal Ti<j)rj /cal oX&>9 ocra oriTcoBr) trdvTa e'f e/caTepov 
wcTTrep ev TO> aTa^vl 7re<f)V/cev, airo jjiev TOV KOLTW 
TOV 7ra%eo9 Trjv pL^av diro e TOV dvco TOV /5\acr- 
TOV ev Be Ti /cal o-vve^e^ yiveTai TO d^olv r^9 
re pi&$ /cal TOV /cav\ov. /cva/j,o<; Be /cal TCL d\\a 
%eBp07rd ov% ofJLoiws, aXX' e/c TOV avTov Trjv pi^av 
/cal TOV /cav\6v, /ca0' b /cal r) 7rpoo~<j)vo~i<i 
eo~Ti TTpbs TOV \oj36v, ev w /cal e^ovatv olov d t 
TLva <f>avepdv CTT' evicov Be /cal alBoiwBes (paiveTat, 
KaOdirep eVl TWV /cvd/Acov /cal T&V epeftivOwv KOI 
^oXicTd TWV Oep/jLCov e/c TOVTOV <ydp 77 fjiev pi^a 
/caTO) TO Be (f)v\\ov /cal 6 Kav\bs dvco ^copec. 
2 TavTrj fjiev ovv Trrj Biatyepei. rr} Be o/jiolcos 
e^et TCO TfdvTd KaTa TTJV TrpocrfyvGiv TOV Xo/3oO 
/cal TOV o~Ta%vo<; dfyikvai TTJV pi^av /cal fir] 

1 ws irpoetpy. Ald.H.; ws om. Sell, from G. 2 cf. 8. 8. 2. 
3 caffiTfp conj. Seal. ; irdvTa Aid. (? repeated by mistake), cf. 
C.P. 4. 7. 4. 



ground has been well tilled l and given dung, or if 
neither of these things has been done : for the soil 
makes a difference even as to the early or late 
germination of each crop. In Hellas some are used 
to sow everything earlier because of the coldness of 
the soil, for instance the Phocians ; 2 the object being 
that the winter may not overtake the crop while it is 
still tender. 

Of differences in the mode of germination and of subsequent 

II. In germinating some of these plants produce 
their root and their leaves from the same point, some 
separately, from either end of the seed. Wheat 
barley one-seeded wheat, and in general all the 
cereals produce them from either end, in a manner 
corresponding to 3 the position of the seed iri the ear, 
the root growing from the stout lower part, the shoot 
from the upper part ; but the part corresponding to 
the root and that corresponding to the stem form a 
single continuous whole. Beans and other leguminous 
plants do riot grow in the same manner, but they 
produce the root and the stem from the same point, 
namely the point at which the seed is attached to 
the pod, which, it is plain, is a sort of starting point 
of fresh growth. In some cases there is also a forma- 
tion resembling the penis, as in beans chick-peas 
and especially in lupins; from this 4 the root grows 
downwards, the leaf and the stem upwards. 

There are then these different ways of germinat- 
ing ; but a point 5 in which all these plants agree is 
that they all send out their roots at the place where 

4 TOVTOV conj. Sch.; TOVTCOV Aid. cf. C.P. 4. 7. 4. 

5 cf. C.P. 4. 7. 7. 

I 49 


/caOdirep ev rots BevBpi/cois TKTLV avarca\iv, olov 
dfj,v<yBa\f) /capvw J3a\dvw TO?? TOIOVTOIS. ev 
arracn Be 17 pi fa (M/cpa) rrporepov e/c<f>verai rov 
/cav\ov- (TVfjb^aivei, Be ev ye ncri rwv BevBpayv 
Mare rov /tei> (B\aaTov ev avrq> rq> o-irepfMari, 
PXaa-rdveiv Trpwrov, avgavo/mevov Be Biia-rao-Oai 
TOL (nrep/jLara Trdvra yap TTW? teal ravra Bipeprj, 
ra Be Brj ^eBpOTra fyavep&s Trdvra BiQvpa KOI 
avvOera rrjv Be pi^av evOvs e%w irpowOela-dai,' 
ev Be Tofc aiT'rjpOLS Bt,a TO Ka6* ev avra elvai 
TOVTO }iev ov av^aivei, irpOTepel Be rj pi^a 


3 ' Avatyverat, Be rj nev /cpidr) /cal 6 irvpos /JLOVO- 
<f>v\\a, o Be TTHTOS /cal 6 tcvajjios /cal 6 epe/BivQos 
. pl^av Be %i ra jjiev ^eBpoTra Trdvra 
/cal fiiav dirb Be ravrr]? /cal d7ro(f)V(Tei<; 
(3a6vppi%oTarov Be &>? elirelv TOVTWV 
o epeftivOos, evLoTe Be /cal Trapa/caOirja-iv aXX' 
o TTU^O? KOI rj /cpiQr) /cal ra a\\a ra (rirwBr) 
7ro\vppi%a /cal \e7rr6ppia, Bi o /cal rappcoBij. 
/cal 7ro\v/c\aBa /cal 7ro\v/cav\a Trdvra ra rotavra. 
(T^eBov Be ical evavriwa-ls Tt? e/carepwv ea-ri' ra 
fjiev yap ^eBpOTra fjiovoppi^a ovra TroXXa? avwOev 
OLTTO rwv /cav\a)V drrofyva-eis e^ei 7T\r)v /cvdfjiov 
ra Be (Tirrjpa rro\vppi%a vroXXoi;? /JLCV CLVVY]GI 

1 &a\dvcp : SioffpaXdvcp Sch. from niBod. 

2 riff i T>V SeVSpwv conj. W. ; ffiT&Staii' UMAld. ; 

conj. Sch. This and W.'s other conjectures in this section 
are rather desperate, but are accepted provisionally as at 
least restoring a satisfactory sense. The passage looks as if 
it had been deliberately tampered with by someone who 
misunderstood it. 



the seed is attached to the pod or ear, whereas the 
contrary is the case with the seeds of certain trees, 
as almond hazel acorn l and the like. And in all 
these plants the root begins to grow a little before 
the stem; whereas in certain trees 2 the bud first 
begins to grow within the seed itself, and, as it 
increases in size, the seeds split for all such seeds 
are in a manner in two halves, and those of 
leguminous plants again all plainly have two valves 
and are double and then the root is immediately 
thrust out; but in cereals, 3 since the seeds are in 
one piece, 4 this does not 5 occur, but the root grows a 
little before the bud. 

Barley and wheat come up with a single leaf, but 
peas beans and chick-peas with several. 6 A11 the 
leguminous plants have a single woody root, and 
also slender 7 side-roots springing from this. The 
chick-pea is about the deepest rooting of these, and 
sometimes it has side-roots ; but wheat barley 
and the other cereals have a number of fine roots, 
wherefore they are matted together. 8 Again all 
such plants have many branches and many stems. 
And there is a sort of contrast between these two 
classes ; the leguminous plants, which have a single 
root, have many side-growths above from the stem 
all except beans ; while the cereals, which have 
many roots, send up many shoots, 9 but these have 

3 ffntlpois conj. W. ; x e fyo7rois UMAlct. 

4 Katf *v avra conj.W.; Kara rb avrb UMAld. 
6 ou conj. Seal, from G ; ovv UMAld. 

6 Plin. 18. 51. 

7 AeTrras conj. St.; AeTrrai Aid. H. 
s rappdSr) : cf. 6. 7. 4. 

9 /j.fv conj. Sch.; yap Ald.H. 


u?, aTrapd{3\.ao-TOi Be OVTOI, nrKrjv el TI 
yevos Trvpwv TOIOVTOV, oft? Ka\ovcri airavias /cal 

4 Toy /jiev ovv xei/juwva ev rfj %Xo?7 uevei ra 
aiTtoBrj, BiayeXwa-ijs Be r?}? w/3a? KCLV\OV dtyirjaiv 
e/c rov /J,(TOV Kal yovarovTai. o-v/j,/3aivei 8' 
ev0v<$ ev Tft> rpiro) yovari, rot? Be ev ry rerdpra), 
Kal TOV aTa^vv e^av d\\ ov (pavepov ev TW 
oyfcy yiverai Se ev rq> o\w Ka\dfjiw ir\eiw 


o-vvicrracrOat, <rj> [UKpov vcrrepov aXX* ov TT/OO- 
repov (pavepos ^Lverai Trplv av irpoav^rjdel^ ev rjj 
Ka\VKi, ryevrjrcu, rare Be rj KVT](TIS (fravepa Sia TOV 

6 'A7roXu#el? S' evOvs dvOel fj,6& rj/jiepas rerra/oa? 
rj irevre KOI TTU/JO? Kal KpiOr) KOI dv9el cr^eBov 
. ra? icras, ol Be Ta? TrXetVra? \eyovres ev rat 9 
eirrd fyaaiv dir'avOelv. aXXa TCOV %eBp07T(t)v 
%povio<> i] av9i]ais' ^povicordrtj Be TOW fjiev d\\(ov 
opofiov Kal epeftivOov, TOVTCDV 5' dirdvTwv TOV 
Kvdjmov Kal ev /jLeyio-rrj Biafopa' rerrapaKOvra 
<ydp rjfjuepcov dvOelv Xeyovcri' 7r\rjv ol fj,ev del 
vTos erepov Kal erepov \ejovai,, Kara 
<ydp dvOelv, ol Be a?rXco9. r} yap avO^ais 
W ara^vtjpMV dOpows TWV Be e\\o/3o)B(ov 
Kal ^eBpOTrwv Trdvrcov Kara jjuepo^' jrpwra yap 
dvOel rd KaTco, Kal oTav ravra dTrav9r)o~r) rd 
, Kal OVTCOS alel {3aBiei TT/OO? ra dvco. 

1 Plin. 18. 52. 2 Plin. 18. 56. 

3 c f . 7. 7. 1 ; 8. 4. 3. 


no side-shoots except such sorts of wheat as are 
called sitanias and krithanias (' barley-wheat '). 

1 During winter cereals remain in the blade, but, 
as the season begins to smile, they send up a stem 
from the midst and it becomes jointed. 2 And it 
comes to pass that the ear also at once appears in the 
third, or in some cases in the fourth joint, though 
it is not distinctly seen in the mass of growth (the 
whole stem contains more joints than three or four), 
so that it must be formed at the same time that 
the straw grows or but a little later ; though it does 
not become conspicuous till it has first swollen and 
formed in the sheath, 3 and by that time its size 
makes its development visible. 

Four or five days after being set free 4 wheat and 
barley flower and remain in bloom for a like number 
of days ; those who put the period at the longest say 
that the bloom is shed in seven days. 5 On the 
other hand the flowering period of leguminous plants 
lasts a long time ; that of vetch and chick-pea is 
longer than that of most, but that of the bean is far 
longer than that of any of them ; they say that it is 
in bloom for forty days ; some however give this 
period absolutely, others say that at different times 
different parts are in flower, 6 since the whole plant 
does not flower at once. For plants with an ear 
bloom all at once, but plants with pods and all 
leguminous plants bloom part at a time ; the lower 
part blooms first, and, when this bloom has fallen, 
the part next above it, and so on up to the top. 

4 So. from the sheath. avoXvOels AW.H.; airox^Bels conj. 
Sch. followed by W. cf. airoxvffis 8. 3. 4. 

5 Plin. 18.59. 

6 xapavdovi'Tos conj. H. ; TrapavOovvrfs Aid. 



St o 7ro\\a rcov 6po{3a)v TiXkerai rd /j,ev /cdrco 
tcareppvij/coTa TO, ' dvco %\(t)pd 7rd/j,7rav. 

6 Mera Be rrjv aTrdvOqaiv dBpvvovrat. /cal re\- 
eiovvrai, Trvpb? fJLev /cal /cpidrj reTTapa/coo-rata 
fjbd\Lcna' TrapaTrXrjo-icos Be real Ti<f>r) KOI ra\\a 
ra roiavra. rerrapaKoo-raiov Be (paat teal TOV 
Kva/jLov, wcrTe ev tVat9 av9elv /cal reXeiovaOar 
ra 8' a\\a ev e\drTOcri,v e'Xa^tVrat? Be 6 epe- 
(3iv9os, elnrep CLTTO TT}? (rrropas ev rerrapd/copTa 
T6\tovrai, rat? avracrat? wcrTre/) r^e? fyaaw 
eirel TO 7* o\ov on rd^io-ra fyavepov. ol Be 
Ke<y%poi /cal TO, o-tfaa/jLa /cal ol fjie\ii>oi /cal oXw? 
ra depivd (T^eBbv 6fio\oyelTai rds rerrapd/covO 1 
r)/j,epa<; \a^dveiv ol Be (pao-i /cal eXarrou?. 

7 Aia(f)pei, Be real TT/JO? rrjv Te\eLwcrw X(*>pa re 
%co/)a? /cal dr)p depos' ev eXdrroat <ydp evtai 
So/covo-iv e/c<f)epeiv, axnrep a\\at, re real /j^dXiara 

? AIJVTTTOS' etcei yap KpiOal fjLev ev 
Trvpol Be ev TU> e{3B6/jLq) Oepi^ovrat' Trepl 
Be Trjv 'EXXa&a KpiOal pev ev ru> eftBo/jLW Trapd Be 
rot? 7r\,L(7TOL<; oyBoq), Trvpol Be en, TrpoaeTn- 
\a/jL/3dvov(Ti,v. ov fjirjv ovBe e/cel TO 76 TTCLV 7r\7)0os 
ouTft)?, aXX' o&ov et? d7rap%)jv Ko^i^erai yap 
7T/309 tepcov TIVWV %peiav d\<f)iTa vea TW e/crw 
^vl /cal ravra e/c rwv dvco TOTTWV vrrep Me/A^iv. 

8 Aeyerai Be /cal ev ^t,/ce\ia r^9 Mea-o-yvLas ev 

1 nc\woi Ald.H.; fAvyuoi Vo.Vin. cf. 8. 1. 1 n. 


Wherefore, at the time when some of the vetches 
are gathered, the lower seeds have already fallen, 
while the upper ones are still quite green. 

After the flowering is over wheat and barley 
develop and mature in about forty days ; one-seeded 
wheat and other such plants take about the same 
time. So too, they say, does the bean, which blooms 
and matures in a like number of days : but the 
others take fewer, and fewest of all the chick-pea, 
since, as some say, it takes only forty days from the 
time when it is sown to that when it is mature ; and 
in any case it is clear that the plant as a whole 
develops very rapidly. Millet sesame Italian millet l 
and the summer crops in general, it is fairly well 
agreed, take the same number of days, that is, forty ; 
though some say that they take less. 

Of differences in development due to soil or climate. 

2 Again as to the development of the plant there 
are differences according to soil and climate. Some 
soils seem to produce the crop in fewer days ; for 
instance, Egypt may be given as a specially con- 
spicuous example ; in that country barley is reaped 
in six months and wheat in seven : while in Hellas 
the barley 3 harvest is in the seventh month, or in 
most parts in the eighth, and wheat requires an 
even longer time. However even in Egypt the 
whole harvest is not gathered at such an early date, 
but only what is required for the first-fruits ; for they 
gather new grain for the meal required in certain 
sacrifices in the sixth month, and that too in the 
regions high up the Nile, above Memphis. 

It is said also that in the Messeniari district in 

2 Plin. 18. 49. 8 KptOal conj. Sch.; irvpol UMAld. 



Ka\ov/jLevai<; MuXeu? ra^etdv riva 


yap crTropTjTov If fj,r)vas, TOV Be TO) vo~TaT(t) 
o-jreipavTa 6epl^eiv afia rot? TTpwTOW dyaOrjv Se 
elvcu rrjv ^wpav, ware Tpt,a/covrd^oa 
Be /cal i/o/ia? Oav/jLaardf; KOI v\rjv. 
ev M^Xw Se TI 0avfj,a(7ict)repov \eyovaiv ev yap 
rpid/covra rj Terrapd/covra rjfjiepais cnrapevra 
Oepl^ovGi, Bi* o Kal \eyeiv avrov? on 
TOVTOV Sel o-ireipeiv ew? av i8rj 
ylveaOai 8e ovre ocnrpia roiavra ovre 7ro\\d 
Trap* aurot?. Seivrjv Be rtva SiaBovvai, rrjv %a)pav 
Tpo(j)rjv' /cal yap clvai aiTO(f)6pov fjiev Kal e\aio- 
(f)6pov dyadrjv a/jL7re\o<j)6pov Be aerpiav. 

"TTrepffdXXov S' eri TOVTOV Kal rrdvTCov Oavpa- 
o~ict)Tpov TO rrepl XaX/tta^ TTJV vf)o~ov TTJV 'PoBiunt 
ytvo/jievov eicel yap (fracriv elvai Tiva TOTTOV 
Trpwiov ovTco Kai eixfropov co? o~7rapet,(Twv 
rat? aXXai? OeplaavTes raura? 
Trd\iv, elra depl^ovonv a/Aa rot? 

jj,ev ovv, elirep d\r)dr)<;, avTij ^a(j)opd. TO 
yap els eTepav y&pav fJLTeve\9evTa oiacfrepeiv, 
&o~Trep K KiXt/cta? fyaalv els KairTraBoKLav Kal 
oX<w? TTJV eTcerceiva TOV Tavpov, TJTTOV CITOTTOV 
cfravepa yap TJ TWV TOTTCDV Bido~Tacrt$. 


conj. Sch. ; TpidxovTa x&s Aid. 
2 cf. C.P. 4. 11. 8. 


Sicily at the place called Mylae the late sown crops 
mature rapidly ; thus the sowing of pulses goes on 
for six months, but he that made the last sowing- 
gathers his crop at the same time as the first : also 
that the soil is exceedingly good, so that it yields 
thirty- fold l ; and there are also wonderful pastures 
and forest-land. They tell of an even more wonder- 
ful thing in Melos 2 ; there they reap thirty or forty 
days after sowing ; wherefore it is a saying of the 
islanders that " one should continue sowing till one 
sees a swathe." However it is said that pulses 3 in 
their country do not grow like this, nor are they 
abundant. Yet they say that the soil is wonderfully 
productive ; for it is good both for corn and olives, 
and fairly good for vines. 

However what occurs in Chalkia, 4 an island 
belonging to the Rhodians, goes even beyond this 
and is more extraordinary than all the instances 
given ; there they say that there is a, place which is 
so early and so fertile that, when the barley is sown 
after reaping the crop with the other crops, they 
then sow again, and then reap the crop thus sown at 
the same time as the remaining crops ; this then, if 
it be true, marks a difference greater than we find 
anywhere else. For it is less surprising that there 
should be a difference in crops transferred 5 to 
another region, as they say occurs when they are 
transferred from Cilicia to Cappadocia or in general 
beyond the Taurus ; for these regions are obviously 
very dissimilar. 

3 offirpia Toiavra I conj. ; oif /xa ravra UAld. ; etyiua ravra. 
M.G ; P omits ravra. 

4 cf. Thuc. 8. 41 foil. 

6 /j.erfvexGfvra SiaQfptiv conj. Sch. and W. from G ; pcrey- 
retpfiv Aid. 



10 To Be rrjv avrrjv Bicfrope'iy, ev wrrep ye arraj~ al 
a\\ai, ffvvopov ovaav /cal jjiiav OavfJiao-itorarov 
avrr) /j,ev ovv ev fjieylarrj Bia<f)opa. 

Ta Be Kara rds aXXa? %a>pas ov 7ro\\rjv 97 
ovBe/jiiav a>9 eljTetv TOV ye. %povov \afA/3dvi 
Sida-rao-iv TT pore pel yap rat? wpai? ra *K6r)- 
vrja't TWV irepl t Ei\\rf(T'7rovTOV rj/jiepais Tpid/covTa 
fjLa\i(7Ta TI ov TroXXw 7T\eio(nv el pev ovv real 
o (TTroprjTos Trporepov, ^eTaOea-^ av elr) rfjs wpas- 
el &' ayua, 8fj\ov on, 7r\ei(i)v av o %p6vo<;. 

11 Ov /jbifcpdv Be iToiovo'L Bia<f)opdv ovBe ol TOTTOL, 
KdiTrep evioi avveyyvs oWe?* rd yap ev SaXayiuw 
irpoTepel TTO\V TWV d\\a)V TMV ev Trj A.TTiKrj KOI 

ra e7ri0a\aTTia KOI et? ravra real et9 TOU9 
/capTTOvs, to? fa irepl Trjv 'A/crrjv Ka\ov- 
jj,evrjv 7^9 HeKoTTovvijaov teal ra ev <&a\vK(p 
T?)9 MeyapiBos' 7r\r}v evravOd ye (rv/j,{3d\\eTai 
KOL rb \7rr6yea)V elvai /cal tyafftapav Trjv 
Kal rd /j,ev jrepl rrjv yeveo~iv /cal rrjv 

III. kiafyepei Be Ka6' o\a ra 76^7; rd 
fjbeva Tcov yevwv, olov crtro9 %eBpO7rd rd Oepivd, 
/cal KaO^ e/caarov yevos rd opoyevr). rd fjiev ydp 
TO (f>v\\ov e%ei Ka\dfJLOV, rwv Be %eBpo- 

1 i.e. and so in part account for the difference. ef?j rf)s 
&pas conj. Sell.; fj TTJS xpos MP ; e^rj TTJS x^pas Ald.H. 

2 i.e. we cannot say how far the difference is due to climate 
without knowing whether the seed-time at either place is 
the same. 



But that one particular land should produce two 
crops in the time that other lands to which it is close 
take to produce one, is very remarkable ; wherefore 
Chalkia exhibits the greatest difference. 

The crops grown in other regions show not much, 
if any, dissimilarity as to time ; those grown at 
Athens are only about thirty days or not much 
more before those of the Hellespont region. Now, 
if the sowing should turn out to be also earlier, 
that would shift the season back l ; if it is at the 
same time, it is plain that the difference of time 
would be greater. 2 

Again the particular district makes a considerable 
difference, even as between places which are not far 
apart ; thus the crops of Salamis are far earlier than 
those of the rest of Attica, and so in general are those 
of places by the sea ; and this applies to other fruits 
as well as these : for instance, those of the place 
called Akte in the Peloponnese and of Phalykos 3 
in the Megarid are early ; but here something is 
contributed by the fact that the soil is light and 
crumbling. Such are the facts in regard to growth 
and development. 

Of differences between the parts of cereals, pulses, and summer 
crop* respectively. 

III. There are also differences between 4 the 
whole classes which we have mentioned, namely 
cereals leguminous plants 5 and summer crops, as 
well as between the several members 6 of the same 
class. Cereals have the leaf of a reed, while of 

3 tv *a\vK<? I conj. : cf. 2. 8. 1; eV 4>aA^/cy conj. W.; 
tya\vK(p U ; e/c (t>a\T)K(p M ; c/c (f>a\T]Kov Aid. 

4 Katf conj. Sch.; xal Ald.H. 6 cf. 8. 1. 1. 
6 6/j.oycvr} conj. Sch.; 6fj.oioyevrj Aid. 



TTWV rd jjuev rrepifyepes, olov b Kva/jios KOI <r%eBbv 
rd 7r\L(7Ta, rd Be Trpo/jbrjKe&repov, olov 6 TTJCTO? 
KOI b \d9vpo<$ Kal o o>%/90? Kal rd roiavra. Kal 
rd /Jiev lv(0Brj rd 8* d(j)\/3a /cdi diva. TO Be 
o-rfaa/jiov Kal rb epvcL^ov IBiwrepa rrapd ravra. 

Iid\iv 6 /cav\bs rwv fjiev yovarooSrjs Kal 
Bi o Kal Ka\6irai Kakajios' o Be rou 

e o epe/3iv0o$' rwv Be Oepivwv 
fjLV Kal f.<,e\ivov Ka\a/j,a)Sr)s, G-ijffdjjbov Be 
Kal epvcTifjiov vap@rjKo!)8r)<; /j,d\\ov. Kal rd /j,ev 
eanv op&oKav\a, KaQdrrep rrvpos Kal Kpi6r) Kal 
rd <7ira)fy Kal 6epivd, rd Be rika^ioKavKa 
olov epeftwOos opoySo? <^a/co?, rd B 1 em- 
yLOKav\a s KaOdrcep w%/oo? maos \d9vpos- o Be 
8oXi%09, edv rcapaKaramfi^r) n<$ %v\a paKpa, 
dvafBaivei Kal yiverat, KapirifMo^, el Be /xr;, <f)av\o$ 
Kal epvo-iffwBrjs' povos & r) fjidkiara ra>v 
TTWV bp6oKav\o<$ b Kvafio^. 

"E%et Be KOI rd dvOrf Biacfropdv Kal rf) 
Kal rrj Bevei, rrepl wv a^eSbv tV rot? Ka0' 6\ou 
Biefao/Jiev, on rd /j,ev %vocoBrj, KaOdrcep crirov Kal 
rravros rov ara^vcoBov^' rd Be (frvXXwBrj, KaOd- 
rrep r&v %eBp07rwv, Kal rcov rrkeicrrwv Ko\o/3d' 

1 Plin. 18. 58. 2 i.e. 'summer crops'; c/. 8. 1. 1. 

1 Sc. but not jointed. W. suggests that the original text 
may have been TWV Se Sio\ov /co?Aos olov 6 rov KVO./J.OV. 

4 fif\lvov Ald.H.; e\i>t*ov V; *AtJ/*oi; Vin. c/. 8. 1. 1 ; 8. 1. 6. 

6 ^ add. St.; om. Ald.H.G. 6 1. 13. 1 (?) 

7 x^o^Sr;. No rendering seems quite satisfactory : the 

1 60 


leguminous plants some have a round leaf, as beans 
and most others, some a more oblong leaf, as pea 
lathyros okhros and the like. x Some again have 
fibrous leaves, others leaves without veins and fibres. 
Again sesame 2 and erysimon 2 have leaves quite 
distinct from these. 

Again the stem of cereals is jointed and hollow ; 
wherefore it is called the ' reed,' while that of the 
bean is hollow, 3 and that of the other leguminous 
plants is more woody, that of chick-pea woodiest 
of all ; of the summer crops that of millet and 
Italian millet 4 is reed-like, that of sesame and 
erysimon is more like the stem of ferula. Some 
again have erect stems, as wheat barley and 
in general the cereals and summer crops ; some 
have rather a crooked stem, as chick-pea vetch 
lentil ; some a creeping stem as okhros pea lathyros ; 
while calavance, if long stakes are set by it, climbs 
them and becomes fruitful, whereas otherwise the 
plant is unhealthy and liable to rust ; the bean, 
most of all leguminous .plants, if not 5 alone among 
them, has an erect stem. 

The flowers also shew differences in character 
and in position (of which matters we have to some 
extent treated in our general account) 6 ; thus 
some are ' downy,' 7 as those of corn 8 and of any 
plant that has an ' ear ' ; others are ' leafy,' 9 as 
those of leguminous plants, and in most cases they 
are irregular 10 flowers ; for most of these have 

meaning is that such flowers may be classed with those 
distinguished by this term in 1. 13. 1, as not being petaloid. 
8 airov Kol Travrlts rov ffraxvwSovs conj. Sch. from dl, tit 
omnium fere gerenfium spicam ; irov Kal -navrbs rov x^w5ous 
UMAld. 9 Sc. petaloid. 

10 cf. 6. 5. 3. i.e. they depart from radial symmetry. 




ra yap TroXXa K0\o/3av0r)' ^i/ocoSe? Be ical TO 


TOV epvcrLfjLov (j)v\\(oBe<f. /ecu on Brj ra /JLCV 


Trepl TOV crra^w TO, Be ^eBporrd ef 
avTOV 7TO)9 TOV av6ov<$ rj arro ye TTJS avTrjs /O%T}? 
ryiveTai,. KOI TTJV avOrjcriv, OTL TCL p,ev aOpoav TO, Be 
KCLTO, yu.e/90? TTOieiTai' real raXXa ^e ra TrapctTrXtfo-ia 

r Oyuotft)5 Be Kal TO, /caTa rov9 tcapTrovs, OTI TO, 
e^ei aTa^vv, TO, Be %eBp07ra Xo/36v, TCL Be 
<t>6/3r)V f] Be KdXajLLGoBijs aTTO^va^ 
(f)6/3ij. TO B* o\ov evay<yi6<nrep/j,a, TCL Be evv- 
fjuevao-Trepfjia, TO, Be <yvpv6cr7rep/jLa' Kal ert ra p,ev 
d/cpo/cap7ra, TO, Be TrXayio/capTra, /ecu ocra Brj aXXa 

f/ OXa>9 Be Tro'KvKapTroTepa Kal 7ro\v%ov(TTepa 
TO, %eBpO7rd, TOVTCOV B* ?TI, yLtaXXoz/ TCL Oepiva 
/ceryXpos KOL crtfcrajAOV, MVTWV Be TWV %eBpo7rwv 
6 /jLaXuTTa ^>aA:o9. 7rXw9 Be TCL fJiLKpoa-Trep/JLOTepa 
fjid\\ov ft>9 elrrelv, cocrTrep Kal TCOV \a%avQ)Bct)v 
KV/JLIVOV drrdvTwv OVTCOV TcdKvcrTrep^wv. la^vpo- 
Tepa Be 737)09 fiev TOV %etyLtwra Kal 0X0)9 TCL 
TOV ae/oo9 TCL dTripd, 77009 Be Trjv 

* /j-fXlvov Ald.H.; *\v}*ov Vo.Vin. cf. 8. 3. 2 and reff. 
2 cf. 8. 3. 3 n. 3 Plin. 18. 53. 

4 aTroxvffis conj. Sch. from G ; airotyvais P 2 Ald. cf. 4. 4. 10, 
iiroxTo ; 8. 10. 4 ; G.P. 3. 21. 5. 

5 rb 5' '6\ov : ? TO 8' oiov. 



such flowers. Those of millet and Italian millet 1 
are also ' downy/ 2 those of sesame and erysimon 
' leafy.' Another difference is that in some cases 
the flowers are round the fruit ; thus those of corn 
and millet are round the ear ; while in leguminous 
plants the fruit comes as it were from the flower 
itself, or at least from the same starting-point. 
Another difference is that some produce all their 
flowers at once, others in succession. And there are 
other differences akin to these. 

In like manner there are differences in the fruits ; 
some have an 'ear/ leguminous plants a pod, and 
millet-like plants a ' plume ' 3 which is the name 
given to an inflorescence 4 such as reeds have. Again, 
generally speaking, 5 some have their seeds in a 
vessel, 6 some in pods, 7 some naked ; and further 
some bear their fruit at the top, some at the 
sides ; and there are other differences which bear on 
this enquiry. 

In general the leguminous plants produce more 
fruit and are more prolific, and the summer crops 
millet and sesame are even more so than these, while 
among the leguminous plants themselves lentil is 
the most prolific. 8 Generally speaking, those that 
have small seeds are more prolific, as cummin among 
pot-herbs, which are all prolific of seed. The seeds 
of cereals are more robust as to standing winter and 
conditions of climate generally, while those of 
leguminous plants are stronger as to providing 
food. 9 However it may be that in this respect 

6 /jLfV vayyft6<nrep/j.a conj. Sch. ; ( eyyL6ff-irep/ui.aP 2 A\d. cf. 
C.P. 4. 7. 5. 

7 cf. 1. 11. 2. 8 cf. C.P. 4. 15. 2. 

9 i.e. what has just been said perhaps applies only to human 
food. Sense fixed by 8. 9. 3 ad Jin.: cf. Plin. 18. 50. 

M 2 


rd^a Be TOVTO ye r^jCiv rot? aXX<H9 


IV. Ta [lev ovv o\a yevrj roiavras e%6i Bia- 
<f>opd$- ra Be o/jioyevr) Bij\ov on tcara rrjv TWV 
avwfJiaXiav, olov TWV o-LTwS&v Trvpos 
crT6vo(f)vXX,6Tpov teal \eioKav\oTepov teal 


Kal SvcrOXao-TOTepov djma Be teal 6 ^ev v 
TToXXot? r) 8e yv/jivov /JidkicrTa jap Srj 
r; tcpiOrj. TToKvkoTrov Be Kal rj 
ri(j)rj /cal f) 6\vpa Kal Travra ra rotavra Kal 
lici\HTTa TrdvTcov ew? elirelv o ftpo/jios. ecrri Be 
Kal v^jrr)\6repo<; 6 Kd\a/j,os TOV irvpov 77 TI)? 
KpiOfjS, Kal TOV <TTa"xyv aTc^pTri^kvov e%et, TOV 
<uXXof /uaXXov 6 Trvpos. 

"iBiov Be Kal TO ci'xypov TOV KpiOivov TO Trvpivov 
eyxyXoTepov yap Kal fJutkaKWTepov. Bta^epet, Be 

2 7) KplOr] Kal TOVTCp TWV TTVpWV r] /JLV yap (7TOI- 

%ei<*>Br)s, 6 Be Trvpbs aa-rot%09 Kal 

To) fjuev ovv oXft) yevei TT/QO? 76^09 

elo~i Bia<f)0pai. Katf eKaTepov Be TOVTWV 
7rd\iv, olov Trvpwv Kal KpiOwv, TroXXa yevrj Kal 
rot9 KapTTols avTois Bia^epovTa Kal roi9 
Kal rat9 aXXat9 J,o>als Kal ert 

1 c/.-7. 4. 9. 

2 After Sta^opas UM add TO 6^01076^, Aid. ra f 
om. Sch. and W. after G. 

3 6/j.oyev?i conj. Sch.; dpoioyevr) UMAld. cf. 8. 3. 1. 

4 SvffdXaffT^Tfpov conj. Seal, from G, ruptu dijficiliorem ; 
SvffaX&aTWTfpov UMAld. 

5 Plin. 18. 61. 7roAuAo7roj> conj. Salm. ; Tro\v\oftov Aid. 



the other animals are affected in the opposite l way 
to men. 

Of the differences between cereals. 

IV. There are then these differences 2 between the 
various classes ; and as between plants of the same 
class 3 there are plainly differences due to the unlike- 
ness in the various parts. Thus among cereals wheat 
as compared with barley has a narrower leaf, and 
a smoother stem of closer texture tougher and less 
brittle. 4 Again the seed of wheat has several 
coats/ that of barley is naked, that plant having 
its seeds specially naked. Also one-seeded wheat 
rice-wheat and all such plants have their seed in 
several coats, and above all, it may be said, is this 
true of oats. 6 Also the ' reed ' of wheat is taller than 7 
that of barley, and wheat has its ear less distant 
from the ' leaf.' 

Further the husk of wheat is distinct 8 from that of 
barley, being less dry and softer. Barley also differs 
from wheat in this respect ; it has grains in a regular 
row, 9 whereas those of wheat are not in a row, but 
the ear is as it were quite simple in form. 10 

Such then are the differences as between one 
whole kind and another. But in each of these 
kinds again, for instance in barley and wheat, 
there are many sub-divisions differing both in the 
actual fruits, in the ear, and in the other characteristic 

6 Ppdpos conj. Seal, from Plin, Lc. and G ; Kp6p.os PM ; 
Kpoicos Aid.; fip}/j.os Vin. 

7 t) conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. and G; ical Ald.H. 

8 rSioz/ Aid.; jj5ioi> Yin.H. from G: so Sch. and W. cf 
Col. 6. 3. 3. 

9 <TTotXi^8rjs. ? <rroix57}s : v. LS. 
10 6/j.a^s conj. Sch.; fyaA^ UMAM. 



/cal To?9 irdOeGi. TWV /mev icpiOwv al fiev elat, 
BifTTOi%Oi al Be rpia-roL^oL al Be rerpdaToi^oi 

KOI TTCVrdo-TOlX 01 ' trXiO"TW S' e%d(TTOi'%OV, KOI 

yap TOIOVTO TI yevo? eari. Trv/cvoTepai, Be del 
/card TTJV Oecnv 009 eVl TTCLV al 
Bia(f)opd Be fjiyd\rj /cal TO 
elvai, KaOdirep eiTTOfiev rrjv 'IvBitcrfv. teal ol 
Be TWV pev fJLeyd\oi /cal pavoTepoi ral<; 
TWV Be eA-arrof? KOL Trv/cvorepoi, /cal 
Be TOV (f)vX\ov TMV jJiev irdXv TWI> Be 
fjii/cpov, wa-irep rwv ' A%i\\eict)V /ca\ovfj,evcov. /cal 
avrwv Be TWV /cpiOwv al fjuev (7rpojju\6repai /cal 
eXarrof? al Be irpo/juj/cearepai, /cal /Wbi/9 /cal 
fjuavorepai, /card TOV dTd^yv. en Be al /JLCV \ev- 
Kdiy al Be fji6\aivai KOI e'jrnropfyvpi^ova'ai, a^irep 
fcal 7ro\vd\<f)LTOi, Bo/covaiv elvai /cal irpbs TOL? 
%6iyu.coi/a? Be /cal rd Trvev^ara /cal oXft>? TOV depa 
TWV \evfcwv la"%vpoTepai. 

IloXXa Be yevTj fcal TWV Trvpwv ecrriv evOvs 
dnro TMV %copwv e%ovTa ra? eTrwvv/jiias, olov 
Ai/Bv/col HovTitcol pa/ces 'Acrcrvpioi ALJUTTTIOI 
i. Bia<f)opd<$ Be /cal rat? ^poials /cal rofr 
n /cal rot? eiBeat /cal ra?9 IBiorrjo-iv 
/cal ev rat? Bvvd/j,ecri, ra?9 re aXXa9 /cal 
fjid\i<TTa rat9 Trpbs TYJV O-ITTJCTLV. Tives /cal CLTC 

1 Explained below, 8. 4. 4 ; cf. 8. 4. 3. 

2 7rc{06<n : cf. 1. 1. 1 n. 3 Plin. 18. 78. 

4 irXflarov 8' e^dffToixov, /col 70^ TOIOVTO conj. W.; irXflffTov 
f^da-Toixof TOLOVTOV UM ; irXfiffrai /col f^dffTixoi' /cat yap TOI- 



features ; and again in capacities 1 and properties. 2 
3 Of barley different sorts have respectively two, three, 
four, and five rows of seeds ; the largest number 4 
known is six, for there is a kind which bears that 
number. And those which have more rows have 
generally the grains set closer together. Another 
great difference is that of having side-shoots, as we 
said of the Indian kind. 5 Again in barley 6 the 
ears are in some kinds large and of looser make, 
in some smaller and set closer; in some kinds 
the ear is some way from the 'leaf,' in some it is 
nearer to it, as in the kind called ' Achillean.' 7 
Again of the grains themselves some are rounder 
and smaller, some more oblong and larger and set 
at wider intervals on the ear. Moreover some are 
white, some black or reddish, and the latter are 
thought to produce much meal and to be more 
robust than the white as to bearing winter wind or 
conditions of climate generally. 

There are 8 also many kinds of wheat which take 
their names simply from the places where they 
grow, 9 as Libyan Pontic 10 Thracian Assyrian 
Egyptian Sicilian. They show differences n in 
colour size form and individual character, and 
also 12 as regards their capacities 13 in general and 
especially their value as food. Some again get 

5 Referred to 4. 4. 9, but without mention of this feature. 
8 TOLS KpiOais conj. W. ; TTJS Kpi6rjs Aid. 

7 cf. C.P. 3. 21. 3; 3. 22. 2. 

8 effTiv evOvs conj. W.; fvQvs IffTiv Aid. 

9 cf. C.P. 3. 21. 2; Plin. 18. 2. 

10 TlovTiicol conj. Sch. ; -n 6vrtoi Aid. 

11 Siacpopas conj. W. ; Sia^fpovrcs Ald.H. 

12 Kal conj. W. ; 5 Aid. 

13 Explained below, 8. 4. 4 : pace of growth. 



, olov 

yvs 'A\e%dvBpeios' wv aTravrcov ev rofr el 
ra9 Bia(f)opds \7j7TTeov. ov% r)KLGTa B* ol/ceiai 
ei Tt9 \ajjL(3dvoi ra9 roiavras' olov elo~tv ol fjuev 
Trpwiot 01 Be otyioi, teal evav^el? real 7ro\,v%oi ol 
Be <fjiiKpol> Kal 6\tyo^oi, /cal fieyaXoa-rd^ve^ ol e 
fjLiKpoo-T dive's. Kal ol /jt,ev ev KaXvKi TTO\VV xpovov 
ol 8' 6\iyov evovres, axTTrep 6 Aiffvfcos. Kal K(i\a- 
ol fiev \eirTov ol Be Tra^vv Kal rovro 6 Ai- 
vv Be Kal 6 Kay%pvBia<;. eri B& 
ol fJiev 6\iyov$ ol Be TroXXou?, &<J7rep o 
Kal 6 /Jiev /jLovoKa\a/j,o<; 6 Be 7ro\v/cd- 
, Kal fjioXkov Be Kal TJTTOV. 

4 'OyU,Otft>9 Be Kttl L Tl 7rapa7T\^(Tl,OV TOVTOIS 

f) T0i9 Trporepov elprj/Aevois Kara ra9 Bwdpeis. 
al yap roiavrai (frvcriKdoTarai Bo^aiev av elvai 
TWV Biacf)opa)v. ev al<; Kal TO TWV Tpi^vwv Kal 

TO T&V OLfJil]V(DV Kttl L Tl 76^09 V eKaTTOCTlV 

r)/j,epais re\eiovrai, KaOdirep (^acrlv elvai Trepl 
rrjv Alvelav, 01 rerrapaKovra rj/jLepais avro r>}9 
(TTropas dBpvvovrai Kal reXo9 LCT^OVCTIV' elvai B* 
la^vpov TOVTOV Kal ftapvv ov% wanrep rov rpi- 
fj,r)vov Kovcfrov, St' o Kal roi9 otKerai^ Trap- 
exeiv, Kal yap ovBe irirvpov e^eiv TTO\V. o-rrra- 
fj,ev ovv Kal ra%OT09 ct? Te\LQ)o~iv 

1 tfr\eyyvs. Sir W. Thiselton-Dyer conjectures ffi\iyvis : 
cf. Plin. 18. 184, LS. aiXlyviov. 

2 cf. Geop. 3. 3. 11. 3 i.e. colour, size, etc. 

4 piKpol add.W. to correspond to evav^s (conj. Sch.; evafets 



their distinctive names for other reasons, as kankh- 
rydias stlengys 1 ' Alexandrian ' 2 ; all of which must be 
distinguished by the above-mentioned 3 characters. 
Again, if one takes such differences as the following, 
they are quite characteristic thus some are early, 
some late, some are vigorous and prolific, some 
are small 4 and produce little, some have a large, 
some a small ear. The ears of some remain 5 a 
long time in the sheath, 6 of some it remains but 
a short time, as that of the Libyan kind. 7 Again 
some have a slender, some a stout haulm ; the 
Libyan kind has this characteristic also, and that 
of kankhrydias is also stout. Again the grain of 
some has few coats, 8 of some many, for instance the 
Thracian. 9 Some kinds have a single f reed,' some 
more than one, and in the latter class the number 

10 So too must we distinguish any differences like 
these or those mentioned above which are found in 
the several capacities ; for these would seem to be 
the most essential differences. In this connexion 
we may distinguish kinds which mature in three or 
in two months, and those, if there be such, which 
take a less number of days ; for instance, they say 
that in the region of Aineia there is a kind which 
ripens and attains perfection within forty days from 
the time of sowing ; they say too that this grain is 
strong and heavy, not light like that which takes 
three months ; wherefore they give it even to the 
servants, for it also does not contain much bran. 
Now this kind is the rarest and the quickest to 

5 Hvovrfs conj. W. ; exovres Aid. 

6 c/. 8. 2. 4. 7 Plin. 18. 69. 8 i.e. glumes. 
fl c/. C.P. 4. 12. 5 j Plin. I.e. 10 Plin. 18. 70. 



ovros. elcrl Be /cal Bifjujvoi rives oiTrep KOI etc 
^i/ce\ias eKoulcrOrjcrav els 'A^aiav oKiyo^ooi Be 
/cal okiyoyovoi /cal Kovcpoi Kara rrjv rcpocrfyopav 
fcal rjBels. /cal a\\oi Be rives ol rrepl ^vftoiav 
elcrl /cal adXicrra ev rfj Kapvcrriq. rpi/jLrjvoi Be 
7ro\\ol /cal Travra^ov /covcfroi ovroi KOI o\iyo%6oi 
/cal fjLovo/cd\auoi, Kara rrjv eicfyvcriv Kal ro o\ov 

5 acrOevels. Kovfyoraros JJLGV ovv o>9 a?rXw9 eLTrelv 

o Tlovritcos' fiapvrepos Be rwv els rrjv 
Trapayivouevcov 6 2iK\6s' rovrov B* 
en ftapvrepos o Botwro?' o-rjuelov Be \eyovo-iv on 
ol fjiev a0\rjral ev ry Boj&ma rpi rj 
uo\is ava\ia-/cov(nv, 'AOtfva^e Be orav 
TrevP rjai^OiVL/ca paBiws* /cov(f)os Be /cal 6 ev 
rfi Aa/ccovi/cfj. rovrwv fj^ev ovv ev re rats %cw- 
pais Kal TO) aepL ro alnov ejrel /cal rrepl rrjv 
'Aviav ov TToppo) TSaKrpcov ev pev rivi TOTTW 
ovrcos aBpov elvai (f>ao-{, rbv alrov axrre Trvpfjvos 
e\aias aeyeOos \a/jL/3dveiv } ev Be rols Tlicro-drois 
/caXovaevois ovrcos lar%vpbv war el ris rr\elov 
irpoaeve^KOLro BiapprjyvvaQai, /cal rcov Ma/ee- 
Bovcov /cal TTO\\OVS rovro rraOelv. arorrov Be 
Kal dvojj,o\oyov/jLevov trpbs rrjv rcov rpi^vcov 
/cov(j)6rvjra rb rcepl rovs TLovri/covs crvp,f3alvov' 
elcrl yap ol aev cr/c\rjpol rjpivol ol Be ua\aKol 
%ei/jiepi,voi' TToXu yap Btatyepei, rfj /covcfrorijri 6 

6 /j,a\aKos. [oaoicos Be /cal Bvo dporovs cos eoi/ce 

1 rpi' -Yi/JLixoiftKa conj. Sch.; Tpir)/j.i(r^olviKa M ; 
P 2 Ald.H. 



mature. But there is also a kind which takes two 
months ; this was brought to Achaia from Sicily ; 
it is not however prolific nor fertile, though as 
food it is light and sweet. There is another such 
kind which grows in Euboea and especially in the 
region of Karystos. There are several kinds that 
take three months, and these, wherever they are 
found, are light and not prolific ; their growth 
consists of a single ' reed,' and in general they are 
not robust. Lightest of all we may say is the 
Politic wheat ; the Sicilian is heavier than most of 
those imported into Hellas, but heavier still than 
this is the Boeotian ; in proof of which it is said 
that the athletes in Boeotia consume scarcely three 
pints, 1 while, when they come to Athens, they easily 
manage five. 2 The Laconian kind is also light. 
The reason for these differences is to be found in 
the respective soils and in the climate ; 3 for in Asia 
not far from Bactra they say that in a certain place 
the corn is so vigorous that the grains grow as 
large as an olive-stone, while in the country called 
that of the Pissatoi it is so strong that, if a man 
eats too much of it, he bursts, which was actually the 
fate of many of the Macedonians. 4 There is one 
curious thing about the corn of Pontus, which is 
an exception 5 to the rule as to the lightness of 
crops raised in three months ; for there the hard 
crops are those of the spring, the soft ones those 
of the winter ; for soft kinds are exceedingly light. 
Two sowings, as it appears, are made of all corn 

2 Trtvtf y/jLixoiviKa conj. Sch. ; TrevdrifjUcrxoiviKa M ; ir 

XoiviKa P 2 Ald.H. 3 Plin. 18. 70. 

* i.e. in Alexander's army. 

6 b.vop.o\oyovi.evov : cf. G.P. 4. 8. 2 ; Plat. Oorg. 495 A. 




TOV Be rjpivov, ev w KOI TO, ocnrpia 

Rial Be Kal ol /Jiev KaOapol alp&v, wcnrep 6 
TiKos Kal 6 AlyvTTTW Ka6apo<$ Be 
/cal 6 ^U/ceXo9 /cal jjidXio-ra 6 
OVK alpot)Sr]<>. 

'D Be St/ceXo? UBiov e%et TO fji\dfATrvpov rca\ov- 
pevov, o e<TTLV a/9Xa^e? KOI ov% (bairep rj alpa 
j3api> Kal Ke^)a\aXye^. a\\a ra fiev roiavra, 
fcaOdirep e'A,e%#??, rat? %w^ai? avaOereov Kal oaov 
eVtySaXXet rot? yeveaiv. 

V. 'Ey Be roi? oairpiois ov% O/AOLCOS earl 
\aftelv r9 roiavras BtcKfropas, elr ovv Bia TO 
fj,r) e^eTa^ei,v ofjioiws eire teal Bia TO /jLovoeiBe- 
(TTepa Tvy%dveiv efa> yap epeftivOov KOI (pa/cov 
/cal eV 6\iyov Kvdj^ov Kal opoftov, Ka& OGOV 
fj TWV %pa) [Jbdrtov Kal rwv %v\wv Biafopd, rwv 

a\\a)V ov TTOIOIHJLV t'Sea?. ol Be 

Tot? /JieyeOeat Kal TOL$ ^uXot? Kal 
L? Bi 

Kal TCU9 /AOptyaL? Biacfrepovo-iv, olov 
Kptol bpoftialoi ol dvd ineaov. evrl Tracri Be rd 
\evKO, yXvKvrepa' Kal ydp 6 opofios Kal 0a/eo9 
Kal epe{3iv0o<; Kal Kva/Jios Kal cnjaa/Jiov' ecrri, ydp 
Kai cnjcrajjiov \evKov. 

2 'AXXa yu-aXXoz^ ev TOi9 TOioi&Be iroielv e&TL 
olov, ejrel Trdvra ravT* eXXo/Sa, Ta 

1 <5/.ua>s . . . Ko.TaftdxXovffu' bracketed by Sch. as a gloss. 

2 But c/. 8. 8. 3. 3 c/. Uiosc. 4. 116. 

4 i.e. when it gets into the bread. 

5 c/. Plin. 18. 156 ; Diosc. 2. 100. 

6 So-fly e7Tia'AA.ei : c/. Arist. PoL 1. 13. 8, 



alike, one in winter and one in spring, at which time 
they also plant the seed of the pulses. 1 

Some kinds are free from darnel, as the Pontic 
and the Egyptian ; the Sicilian is also fairly free from 
it, and that of Akragas is especially immune from 

2 Peculiar however to the Sicilian is the plant 
called mclampyron? which is harmless 4 and not, like 
the darnel, injurious and productive of headache. 5 
However such peculiarities, as was said, must be 
ascribed to the soil, and to a certain extent 6 to the 
different characters of different kinds. 

Of the differences between pulses. 

V. In pulses we cannot find such differences to 
the same extent, whether for the want of equally 
careful enquiry or because there is actually less 
diversity in these plants. 7 For, apart from chick- 
pea lentil and to a certain extent bean and vetch 
(in so far as in these we find differences of colour 
and taste), among the rest 8 no distinct forms are 
recognised. Chick-peas however differ in size colour 
taste and shape; thus there are the varieties called 
' rams,' ' vetch-like ' chick-peas and the intermediate 
forms. 9 In all pulses the white are the sweeter, 
and this applies to vetch lentil chick-pea bean and 
sesame, of which also there is a white form. 

10 However it is more possible to recognise the 
differences in such points as these : all these plants 
have pods, 11 but whereas the pods in some kinds have 

7 Plin. 18. 124. 8 7' conj. Sch.; T' Ald.H. 

9 ot after bpifiiaioi add. Dalec. For ava /j.e<rov cf. 3. 18. 2. 
10 Plin 18. 125. 

31 e \\o0a conj. Seal, from G ; e'AAe'/Sopa Ald.H.; ^AAjo/jaU; 
eTrel irdvra ravr' conj. W.; ^rl iravra TO, Ald.H. 



avrwv dBidtfrpa/cra /cal warcep (rvfjutyavovra rvy- 
%dvei,, KaOdirep opoftos Trieo? KOI a-^eBbv TO, 7rXe- 
o-ra, rd Be BiaTre^payfjieva, KaOdirep Oeppos, en Be 
/jia\\ov /cal lBia)s TO aijo-a/jiov. /cal TO, jj,ev 
paKpoKofta rd Be /cal <rrpoy<yv\6\o/3a, /caOdirep 6 
epefSivOos. dvd \6yov S* dico\ov6el /cal rd 
rwv crirepi^dTwv eXarrco yap ev rot? 

ev re TO> TWV epeftivutvv /cal ev TW 

Kal 7rapa7r\^criaL Se IVw? al roiavrai /cal 0,9 
eVl TWV ai.Trjpwv e\eyo/jL6V irepl rcov ara^vcov /cal 
avrcov TWV Kapirwv ejrel KOI ol Ka\ovjjievoi XoySot 
o-%eSbv d/c6\ov0oi rot? o-Trep^aaiv elaiv, ol fj,ev 
eVtTrXarefc, waTrep ol rov <pa/cov /cal rr}? d<pd/cr)<s, 
ol oe /cv\iv$p(*)86is fjba\\ov, &>9 ol rov opofSov /cal 
rov TTLO-QV' rd yap orTrep^ara e/carepfov rotavra 
TO?? <r%77/uiaT dXXa rd<; /JLV roiavras oia<popd<; 
7roXXa9 dv Ti9 evpoi /ca& e/cacrrov, wv al p,ev 
Koival irdcnv al oe tSiai /card 76^09. 
f/ Ori Be irdvra irpocnrefyvKe T049 \o/3ois /cal 

tcaddirep dp^rfv TIVCL, rd jjiev irpoe'xp 
wairep o Kvajjios /cal 6 epe(3iv6os, rd Be /cal 

eyrcoiXov, wcnrep Sepias /cal aXX* arra, rd Be 
ovrco fjiev ov fyavepdv eXdrrco Be /cal wcnrep diro- 
<rr)fjiaivov(Tav pbvov, BTJ\OV fjiev diro 7^9 otyews- ef 
^9 /cal orav o-Trapfj {3\aardvet, /cal pt&vrat,, 
KaOdirep eXe^Orj, /car 1 a/o%9 Be /cal avrd rpe- 
r$> Xo/9w, ^XP L v av 

conj. Seal, from G, non intersepta ; 
Ald.H. a cf. 1. 11. 5. 

3 Sia.TTfQpay/uifi'a conj. Sell.; Acta Tre^o-y^eVa Ald.H. 

4 cf. 3. 18. 13. 



no divisions, 1 but the seeds as it were touch one 
another, 2 as in vetch pea and most kinds, in some 
there are divisions, 3 as in lupin and still more in 
sesame, in which the divisions are of a peculiar 
kind. 4 Again some have long, some round pods, as 
chick-pea. And the number of seeds follows in 
proportion, since they are fewer in the small pods, 
as in those of chick-pea and lentil. 

Possibly these differences correspond to those 
which we mentioned in the case of cereals as to the 
ears and the actual fruits ; for what are called ' pods ' 
also 5 fairly correspond to the shape of the seeds, 
some being flat, as those of lentil and tare, some 
more or less cylindrical, as those of vetch and pea 6 : 
for in the case of either pair of plants the seeds 
correspond in shape. However one might discover 
and distinguish many such differences, of which 
some are common to a whole kind, 7 others special to 
particular varieties. 

In all cases the seeds are attached to the pods and 
have a sort of starting-point, which in some cases 
projects, as in bean and chick-pea, in some is 
hollow, as in lupin and some others, and in some 
is not thus conspicuous but smaller and, as it \vere, 
only indicated ; this is plain from observation ; it is 
from this point that the seeds germinate and take 
root when they are sown, as was said 8 : but to start 
with they are themselves nourished by being so 
attached to the pod until they are matured. This 

5 i.e. as does the form of the ear in cereals. 

6 Kal rov irtffov- TO. yap conj. Seal, from Plin. I.e. and G ; rov 
TTHTOV yhp ra UMAld. 

7 i.e. which either differentiate (e.g. ) pea from lentil, or one 
variety of pea from another, cf. 8. 4. 2 n. 

8 8. 2. 1. 



re\ei(jd0fr fyavepov Be ecrrt, real e/c r&v vvv KOI etc 
rwv Trpoeiprj/jLevcov. irepl pev ovv rwv Kara ra? 

VI. ^ireipeiv Be ^v/jityepej, irdvra 
ev rot? ft>pcu'09 aporow ov JJL^V d\\a KOI ev 
rtz/e? fcaTaftaXkovvi, KOI oi>% TJKiara Trvpovs /cal 
KpiOa? ft>9 fJiaXia-ra avTapicelv SvvdfAeva, OITOV fir} 
opvi&iv f) aXXot? Qrjpiois eirLfnvr)*; rj X(*>pa. Bo/cei 
yap eo9 7rl irav o TT/OWTO? a/?oro? a^eivwv eivai, 
%et/?t<7T09 Be o-Tropos ev rat? r)/M/3p6xoi$' 7roX- 
\vrai yap KCLI Kya\aKTOvTai Ta (jTreyOyLtara, real 
apa ^vfi^aivei nroav ava^veo-Oai 7ro\\rjv. pera 
Be Trjv (TTTOpav vBcop 7riyiV(T0ai iracri %v/ji<f)epei, 
TT\r)V ocra Bvcr/3\a(rrrj yiverat, jAa\\ov, wcnrep o re 
Bofcet /cal rwv Oepwwv (rrjaajuioi' /cal KV- 
fcal epvaijjiov. 

Tlv/cvocTTTopeiv Be Kal /jLavoffTropeiv real TT/QO? ra? 
\e7rovTa %pvj' TT\elov yap TJ metpa Kal 
aya6r) Bvvarai (frepeiv r% v^dfjb^ov re /cal XeTrr^?. 
/cairoi Xe'yerai T9 Xoyo9 0)9 ore /nev rrXeov ore Be 
eXarrov rj avrrj Be^erai %w^a* /cal olwvi^ovrai 
TO 7r\eov W9 OVK ayaOov, rreivrjv yap evOvs (fraai, 
rrjv yrjv ouro9 fJ<ev ovv icrax; evrjOecrrepos ^0709. 
el Be Tfc9 7T/909 Ta aTrep/Jiara Oecopoirj /cal fJbd\i(Trd 
ye 7T/309 aurou9 TOi/9 T07TOU9 a/j.a TW eBdffrei, 
/cal rr)v Oecnv avaOeoopwv ri^v ye rrpos ra rcvev- 

Aid. ; avrapxtlv U. 

2 firia-iv^s conj. Dalec. ; eiriv^s UM Aid. ; obnoxia G. 

3 i.e. after the rains. 

I 7 6 


is clear both from what is said now and from what 
was said before. Enough then about the points of 

Of sowing, manuring, and watering. 

VI. It is expedient to sow all these, if possible, at 
the early seed-time ; however some plant the seed 
even in dry ground, and especially wheat and barley, 
on the theory that they are most likely to hold 
their own 1 at a time when the ground is not in- 
fested 2 with birds or other creatures. For it 
appears that in general the first sowing is better, 
and worst that which is made in half- soaked 
ground ; 3 for then the seeds perish and become 
' milky ' ; 4 moreover many weeds come up at that 
time. After the sowing however it is beneficial 
for all that rain should fall on them, except in 
the case of some which appear to germinate then 
with more difficulty, as seems 5 to be the case with 
beans, and among summer crops with sesame cummin 
and crysimon. 

6 As to sowing thickly or scantily one should have 
regard to the soil as well as to other considerations ; 
for a fat good soil can bear more than one which is 
sandy and light. However there is a saying that the 
same soil can take at one time more, at another less 
seed ; and in general the former condition is taken 
as an unfavourable omen, for then they say at once 
that the soil is hungry ; however this is perhaps a 
rather foolish saying. If a man should have regard 
to the kind of the seed and especially to the actual 
situation, considering the aspect in respect of winds 

4 cf. yaXdKTwffis, C. P. 4. 4. 7 and 8. 

5 So/mconj.W.; ttcfaet Aid. Plin. 18. 190. 




aara teal rov ri\iov, olfceiorepov av 

\6yov Be e%e* teal 77 KQirpicris rot? cnropois 
Tr/309 ra9 %o)pas' veto? ' d/jieivcov TI xei/jiepios 7-779 
eapwris. evia%ov Be ov t;v[jufyepeLv ftaOelav apo- 
rpiav, wcTTrep Kal ev %vpia, Bi b fjii/cpois aporpois 

Trap* aXXot? Be TO \iav 
, KaOdirep ev %i/ce\ia, BS b Kal rwv 
a>9 eoi/C 7ro\\ol BiaaapTavovcri. iravra /Jbev ovv 
7T/309 ra9 %&)/3a9. 

Be Kal ra crTrepf^ara Troia irolov 
ev <yap rat9 ^ei/juepival^ irvpov 
TJ Kpi6r)V, Kal oX&)9 (Tirov 
ev rat9 %e/3croi9 Kal Bid %p6vov 
yap avrai irvpbv (frepovo-i, fjbd\\ov rj KpiOijv. Be- 
^erat Be Kal evOft/Sp&iv paXkov Trvpbs r?)9 Kpi0fj$, 
Kal ev rot9 aKOTrpois (frepei fjid\\ov. ODaavro)^ Be 
Kal avrwv TWV Trvpwv ?rot09 Ty Troia 7rp6a<popo<;, 
olov dyaOfj Kal nneipa Kal tyafyapa Kal \e7rrfj 
<Kal> rat9 a\Xa^9 o^oLw^. 

e "TB(t)p Be orav uev %\or}<f>oprj(rr] Kal 
TrXelov aTrao-i ^vfJifyepei' dvOovai Be irvpols 
Kal KpiQals Kal TOI<> crircoBecri (B\a(Bepov a?roX- 

1 &i/ Xapfiavoi conj. Sch.; avaXa^dvoi Ald.H. 

2 Koirptcris conj. Sell. ; K6-jrpr]aris Aid. 

3 cf. C. P. 3. 20. 7. 4 cf. C.P. 3. 20. 5. 

5 TCO.VTO. jj.fv ovv M; TOVTO Ald.H.; ravra / oi>v conj. 
Scb. followed by W. 

fl Kf\Gvov<nv conj. W. ; Kal '6\us Ald.H. 

7 conj. Sch. (cf. C.P. 3. 21. 4, f/ Sta XP OVOV 7wp- 
yrj) ; Kevovfifvais UAld. ; Kaivov/j.4vais Vin. 

I 7 8 


and sun, as well as the soil itself, he would more 
properly gauge 1 the differences. 

Similarly manuring 2 for the sown crops should be 
done with regard to the soil ; and it is better to turn 
up fallow 3 land in winter than in spring. And 
there are some 4 places in which deep ploughing 
is not expedient, as in Syria; wherefore they use 
small plough-shares. In other parts to work the 
ground too much is injurious, as in Sicily : wherefore 
many settlers in the country, it appears, make a 
mistake. From every point of view b therefore the 
soil must be considered. 

The seeds are also classified according as each 
suits a particular soil ; in wintry lands wheat is 
sown rather than barley, and in general they say 6 
that corn rather than leguminous plants should be 
sown in barren soils which are only disturbed 7 at 
long intervals ; and such soils bear wheat better 
than barley. 8 Moreover wheat welcomes abundant 
rain 9 more than barley, and bears better on land 
which is not manured. 10 In like manner they dis- 
tinguish among wheats themselves which suits 
which kind of soil, namely which grows best in 
good 11 fat soil and which in crumbling light soil, 
and 12 so on with other kinds of soil. 

13 More abundant rain is beneficial to all crops when 
they have come into leaf and formed the flower; 
however it is harmful to wheats and barleys and 
other cereals when they are actually in flower ; for 

8 rf)s xpiQris conj.W. ; /cat xpiGris UM: rj tcpiO^Ald.: ft KpiOk H. 
of. C.P. Lc. 

10 Explained C.P. I.e. 

11 oryaflf) conj. Casaub : so Vin. ; ayaOrj Aid. (and so with the 
other datives). lz Kal add. St. 

13 Plin. 18. 151 and 152. 


N 2 


\vo~i yap* 
OVTOL yap a 

atya/ceXi^ovTes KOI VTTO /ca/jLTTWv 
Ivxyporepos Be 6 yu-eXa? epeftwOos KOI o irvppos 
rov \evKOV' (TV/jL^epei, Be, ^aaiv, ev TO?? e<j)vBpoi,s 
re aiTeipeiv avrov. Kvapos Be avOwv 
<f)i\i ^pe^e^Oai, Bi? o /cal OVK e6e- 
\ovdiv otyicTTropelv, wcrTrep eiTrojjiev, brt TTO\VV 
yu-era Be TTJV aTravBrjaiv 6\iyov TrdfATrav 
Belrar Gvve<y<yvs yap rj reXeicoo-^. d\)C 
aBpvvQfj KOI fiXaTrreiv Bo/cel rd (TircoBrj KOI 
ijv Be Trvpov /jLa\\ov, 

6 'Ei/ AlyvTTTO) Be KOI T3aftv\a>V{, KOI Ba/cr/oot?, 
OTTOU fir] verat, rj X(*>pa <rj> o-Tram'ws, al Bpocroi TO 
o\ov e/crpe^ovaiv. en KOI ol 'jrepl Kvptfvrjv ical 

TOTTOI. KaipitoTara Be iracriv &>? 
eiTrelv rd rjpivd' Bi o /cal rj 
7ro\\d <ydp rov rjpos /cal 
yiverai, TOV Be %ei/Jiwvo<; b\iya. fyrel Be rj 
X67TT07ea)9 TroXXa /card fiiKpov rj Be jrieipa /cal 
7r\f)6o<; pev eveyxelv Bvvarai /cal dvBpiav TT^OO? 
Be rrjv %(t)pa$ avBpiav Trovna Trvev^ara /cal avpai 
Bo/covcfL v/ji(f)pei,v, aXXa ^e Trap 1 aXXot? roiavra, 
KaOdirep /cal Trporepov eiprjTai, co9 67rl TO irav 
Be yitaXXoz^ au^/xo? 77 eTrofjiffpia jfv/ji^epei, T<W airar 

7 ol jdp op/Spot, fcal aXXw9 evavrioi /cal 7roXXa/a9 
avrd rd (Tirep/jLara Bia(j)0ipovo~i,v, el Be /n,rj TT\IJ- 

1 ff<(>a.Ke\iovTes '. cf. 4. 14. 4. 

2 6 irvppbs TOV \evKov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. 18. 124 ; 
6 Aeu/cbs TOV irvpov UAld ; o \. T. irvppov H.J 6 \. r. vvpbs M. 

3 cf. C.P. 3. 22. 3. 

4 Setrot conj. Sch.; 8e?o-0at Akl.H. 

1 80 


it destroys the flower. But to pulses it is harmless, 
except to chick-peas ; for these, if the salt is washed 
off them, perish from rot x or from being eaten 
by caterpillars. However the black and the red 2 
chick-pea are stronger than the white, and it is 
beneficial, they say, to sow this crop late in moist 
soil. The bean 3 likes especially to receive rain 
when it is in flower; wherefore men are unwilling, 
as we said, to sow it late, because it flowers for a 
long time ; but after it has shed its flowers, it needs 4 
very little water, since its time of maturity is now 
near. But, when cereals have matured, it appears 
that water actually injures them, and barley more 
than wheat. 

In Egypt Babylon and Bactra, where the country 
receives no rain, or 5 but little, the dews are sufficient 
nourishment ; and so is it also 6 in the regions about 
Cyrerie and the Euesperides. However to all, 
generally speaking, it is the spring rains which are 
the most seasonable ; and that is why Sicily is 
rich in corn ; for there is abundance of soft rain 
in spring and little of it in winter. A light soil 
requires plenty of rain, but little at a time ; while 
that which is fat can indeed bear both an abundance 
of rain and a drought ; (for a droughty country sea- 
winds 7 and breezes seem to be helpful, and various 
breezes of this kind prevail in various countries, 
as has been said already). Yet in general drought 
suits corn better than excessive rain ; for heavy 
showers, apart from the harm which they do in 
other ways, often actually destroy the seed, or at 

5 % add. Seal, from G : so Vin. 

6 ert conj. St. from G (?) ; ^rel Aid. 

conj. Sch.; VO.VTO. Aid. cf. 8. 7. 6, 



ye TToiovcn, j3ordvr)s, ware /caraTrviyco'dat, /cal 

VII. Tow fjiev ovv a\\a)V aTrep^drdov ovBev et? 
aXXo 7T6(f)VK fJLTa^d\\Giv fyOeipbfJievov, irvpbv 
Se /cal tcpiOrjv et? alpdv <aav, Kal fiaXkov rbv 
TTvpov, 'yiveaOai Se rovr ev rat? biropftpiais /cal 
fjid\i(TTa ev rot? evv&pois /cal o^put^eai %a 
OTI 8' OVK eaTiv rjpivov rj alpa KaOdjrep rj 
Troa, Treipwvrai ydp Tives TOVTO \eyeiv, etceWev 
brfkov evOvs yap rov %etyLtco^09 (pavepa rylverat 
7T(j)V/cvia' /cal Sia^epei 7roXXot9' e%e^ yap TO 
<pv\\ov vrevov Kal Saa-v /cal \L7rapov, Kal TOVTCOV 
ISicJOTarov TO \nrapov f) yap SacrvTrjs /cal 
TOV alyi\G)7ros inrdp^ei, aXX' eK<^avi]^ yiveTai 
TO6? TOV alyi\wrro<i TOV ^yoo?. TOVTO fjuev ovv 
TOVTCOV, Kal GTL TOV \Lvov /cal yap CK TOVTOV 
(f>aal yiveadai, TTJV alpav. 

2 Tov 6e epe/3iv0ov Trpos TOL a\\a -^e^poira TO re 
irepl Trjv avOrfffiv \e%0v Kal TO Td%i(TTa reXeto- 
KapTrelv Icr^vpoTaTOv ov Kal v\a)Be(TTaTOV, Kal 

1 Plin 18. 149 and 150 ; c/. O.P. 4. 5. 2. 

2 Tr6a: ? grasses ; c/. 8. 6. 1. 

3 veipufTai yap rives H. ; airetpwvTai' alnwvTai yap rives U; 
& Treipwvrai- alriuvrai yaip rives PM : so also Aid. Bas. Cain, 
with mark of corruption. 

4 6M0us yap rov conj. Sch. ; ev9vs TO TOV Aid. 



least cause a luxuriant growth of leafage, so that the 
grain is choked and becomes abortive. 

Of the degeneration of cereals into darnel. 

VII. 1 Now, while it is not the nature of any 
other of these seeds to degenerate and change into 
something else, they say that wheat and barley 
change into darnel, and especially wheat ; and 
that this occurs with heavy rains and especially in 
well-watered and rainy districts. But that darnel 
is not a plant of the spring, like other weeds 2 (for 
some endeavour 3 to make this out) is clear from the 
following consideration : it springs up and becomes 
noticeable directly 4 winter comes ; and it is dis- 
tinguished in many ways ; the foliage 5 is narrow 
abundant and glossy, and this gloss is the most 
marked of these differences ; (the 6 leaves of aigi- 
lops 1 are indeed also abundant, 8 but this character 
does not shew itself in them till spring). This 
then is peculiar to the seeds of wheat and barley, 
and also to those of flax ; for that too, they say, turns 
into darnel. 

Of the peculiar character of chick-pea. 

A peculiarity of chick-pea as compared with other 
leguminous plants is that which has been mentioned 
as to its flowering ; and also the fact that it is 
the quickest to mature its fruit, being very strong 
and woody ; and again there is the fact that in 

5 cf. C.P. 4. 4. 11. 6 rots conj. Sch.; rrjs Aid. 

* Plin. 18. 155. 

8 aAX' . . . alyl\(i)iros : text a makeshift. Wanting in Aid. 
and all MSS. except U ; oA\' fKtyave'is yivovrai /col TO?S rov aly. 
U; fKfavys yiverai conj. Sch.; eirl for Kai conj. W. 



TO o\ov fjirj iroielv veiov <cw?> /capTri^o/jbevov rrjv 
Be TTOCIV e1~a'JTO\Xv(Tt, KOI fjbd\iaTa Be KOI rd^icrTa 
TOP Tpi/3o\ov. oX&>9 Be ovBe rj TV%ov<ra Bvvarat, 
cfrepeiv avTov, d\\a /AeXdyyeiov TLVCL Bel teal 
pav elvai. TWV Be a\\wv f) apitrn) veibs CLTTO 
KvdfAwv tcaiTrep Tcvicvocr'Tcopov^kvwv real TTO\VV 


Ta Be ev rot? Qepivols apbroLS oKbyov Bet irdvra, 
<f>aal Be teal ra va/jLariaia av^epeiv jj,a\\ov 
avrois TWV IK Bios, jj,e\ivoL Be /cal Key%poi 
vBarov eav yap fywtn 7r\elov (f>v\\o- 
la^vporepov Be 6 /ceyX/ 00 ?* ot ' ^ fjue\i,voi 
<y\vKVTpoi /cal aadevecrTepoi. a^aa^ov ^e oitBev 
<ft>oi>> ecr8ii xXcopbv ovBe Qkp^ov. el Be fjbrjB 1 
epvcri/jiov /jitjBe opfJUVOV (TKeTrreov teal ravra 
TTiKpd. earl Be rb /jLV epvai/jiov o/jLoiov arjadfjuco 
TO Be opfiwov KVIMV&?)S jjue\av 
Be apa /cal TO cnjcra/jLOV. Trepl /Aev ovv 
TOVTWV (T/ceirreov. 

'Ei^ Be rats d'yaOals %ci)pai<> rrpbs TO JJLT) cf)v\\o- 
/cal emKeipovai TOV O-LTOV, 

1 Lit. 'does not make fallow land.' c/. C. P. 4. 8. 3. 

2 is Kaptrt^o^vov I conj. after W. (KapTn^6/aevov T^V yri v) ; 
Kapnos U; Kaptrbs M ; Kapirbv Aid. c/. G. P. I.e. and 4. 8. 1 ; 
4. 8. 3 : /J.)) KapTrifcffGai r^]v yriv a\\a ve&v irate'iv (? <i>eois>) 
Kapiro'is, 'for fresh crops.' 

3 5^ conj.W.; ye Aid. 4 c/. C. P. 4. 8. 3. 

5 f} apiffrr) veils conj. W. (c/. 8. 9. 1 ; C P. 4. 8. 1); x^'P^-n 
nrjTrtos U; x ei P^ ffT 'n v v(]Tnos MP ; Ka\\ia~Tri vfibs Aid. c/. also 
C.P. 3. 20. 7. 



general it does not reinvigorate the ground, 1 since 
it exhausts 2 it ; but it destroys weeds, 3 and above all 
and soonest caltrop. And in general 4 it is not every 
kind of soil which suits it ; the soil should be black 
and fat. Of the other leguminous plants the bean 
best 5 reinvigorates the ground, even if it is sown 
thick and produces much fruit. 

Of special features of ( summer crops.' 

All those crops 6 sown at the summer seed-time 
need little water, 7 and they say also that spring water 
is better for them than rain water ; and Italian 
millet 8 and millet need less water, for, if they have 
too much, they shed their leaves. Millet is the 
robuster plant, Italian millet is sweeter and less 
robust. Sesame and lupin are not eaten green by 
any animal 9 ; whether the same is true of erysimon 
and horminon is matter for enquiry ; for these too 
are bitter. Erysimon is like sesame and is oily ; 
horminon is like cummin and black, and is sown 
at the same time as sesame. These matters then 
require investigation. 

Of treatment of cereals peculiar to special localities. 

10 In good soils to prevent the crop running wildly 
to leaf they graze and cut down the young corn, 

6 Plin. 18. 96 and 101. 

7 oAi'-you, sc. vSaros, but the omission is strange ; perhaps 
due to misunderstanding of b\iyov Set by a scribe. Sch. joins 
the words TO Se . . . iravra to the last sentence, and supplies 
Kapirifcrai TTJI/ yrjv (oXiyov Set = almost). 

8 f^f\ivoi Ald.H. ; eAu/iot Vin. cf. 8. 1. 1. n. 

9 C$ov add. Sch. from G and Plin. 18. 96. cf. C.P. 6. 12. 12. 
10 Plin. 18. 157-162. 



/cal ev erraXta. crvpfBaivei $ av 

oTrocraKicrovv jj,r)Bev d 
KapTTov, av Be 7riKipa)(Tiv aTra% JULOVOV 
rbv Trvpbv /cal yiveaQai /AaKpov teal ov% dBpov, ov 
/ca\ov(Ti /ca/Jia/ciav, KOI OVK 

cnreipofjievov rovro {j,ev ovv o>9 

SerraXol \e<yovcriv. ev >aftv\,wvi Be 
ael KOI waTrep rerayi^eva)^ eTri/ceipovai /J,ev 8t?, TO 
Be Tplrov ra TrpoffaTa eTra^iacriv oura) <yap (pvei 
TOV /cav\6v, el Be JJLI) (j>v\\ofj,ave2' yiveTai Be /JLTJ 
epyavajjievois TrevTrjKOVTa^oa, rot? Be eVt- 
e/caTOVTa-^oa. rj Be epyaaia TO &>? Tr\elaTov 
%povov efji/jieveiv TO vBcop, OTTCO? l\vv TroirjGy 
7ro\\rfv TTieipav yap oixrav teal Trv/cvrjv TTJV yfjv 
Bel Troir\crai fjbavrjv. v\r)v Be ov fyepeu /cal Tfoav 
wcrTrep ev A^yf TTTft). ra fjuev ovv TOiavTa 

Be /cal CLTTO pi^wv Trvpbs Kal 
TO) vaTepo) eTer avToeT^ Be real airo 
TWV els Kpda-TLV Ketpofievav eTepov /ca\d/j,ov Trapa- 
/3\ao-TavovTOs. KxravTws Be tcav VTTO 
eKirayr)' Trapa/BXacrTavei jap vBaTcov e 
vo)v' 6 Be GTa'xys areX^? fcal fiiKpos dirb 

j3\ao-Tavov(Ti Be TW vo-Tepy eret /cal 
TWV KaTaTTovov/jiei'WV /cal 
coo-re ur)Bev elvai Bij\ov co? el^relv, olov 

1 l\vv conj. Sch. from Plin. 18. 162 ; v\i)i> Ald.H. 

2 Text perhaps defective : c/. Plin. I.e. 



for instance in Thessaly. And the result is that, 
however often they graze it, the crop is not im- 
paired ; while if they cut it down not more than 
once, the wheat changes in character and becomes 
tall and weak what they call f long-shafted ' oorn, 
and, if seed of this is sown, it does not recover 
its character. This the Thessalians tell of as having 
occurred in a few cases. At Babylon however 
they cut it down twice always and as it were 
systematically, and after that they let the sheep 
on to it; for in that case it makes its straw, but 
otherwise it runs wildly to leaf ; and, if the ground 
is ill cultivated, it produces fifty fold, if it is care- 
fully cultivated, a hundred fold. And the c culti- 
vation' consists in letting the water lie on it as 
long as possible, so that it may make much silt l ; 
for the soil being fat and close must be made open. 
And at Babylon 2 the ground does not produce weeds 
and grasses, as it does in Egypt. Such are the 
things which depend on the quality of the soil. 

Of cereals which grow a second time from the same stock. 

3 Wheat and barley also in many places grow from 
the root in the next year, or in the same year from 
crops cut down for fodder, since a second haulm 
shoots up. The like happens also if the plant has 
been nipped by winter ; for it shoots again when rain 
comes ; but such plants produce an ear which is 
imperfect and under-sized. There is also new growth 
the next year from plants which are roughly treated 
or trodden down 4 so that hardly anything remains 
visible, as happens when an army has marched over 

3 c/. G.P. 4. 8. 5. 4 cj. C. P. I.e. 



arparoTreSov, KOI ol era^ves fjuicpol /cal 
TOVTCOV, 0^9 /ca\ov<riv apvav TWV e xeBpoir&v 
ovBev Svvarai, TOIOVTOV iroietv rj ov% oyu-otco?. /cal 
at fi\ao-Tr)(Ti,s Toa r ai/ra%co9. 

II/>09 avgrjaiv & /cal rpocfrrjv /neyiGra fjiev rj rov 
(TV{ji/3d\\eTai,, real 0X0)9 ^ TOV rov<t 
ev/caipayv yap vSdrcov /cal ev&i&v 
/cal xeL/jLobvtov ^LVOJJLGVWV airavra i><f>opa /cal 
iroX-VKapira, /cav ev a\fj,(*)Be(7i, /cal XCTTT oyetois fj- 
81 o /cal irapoi/jLia^o/jievoi, \e<yovaiv ov #a/c&>9 on, 

i apovpa." 

e /cal al ^wpai, $ia(j)povo'iv ov fjibvov rw 
irieipai /cal \7rral /cal eTro/juftpot, /cal av%fAO)&6is 
/cal T& aepi, T& irepie^ovri /cal rofc 
eviat, yap ovaai \7rral /cal <f)av\ai 
T\a(f)opovori, Sia TO 77^009 ra irvevfjiara ra irovna 
KelcrOau /^aXw9. aXXa 3e aXXa9 roiavra, KaOdirep 
7roXXa/a9 eiprjrai' rals fj>ev yap ra ^etyvpi/cd rat? 
B ra ffopeia ra?9 8e ra vbna. 

Sf/xySaXXerat Be /cal ov pi/cpd 77 epyaala /cal 
77 <7rpb> TOV aTTopov /carepyaaOeicra yap 
e/ctyepei. /cal f) /coTrpo? 8e /j,eyd\a /SorjOet 
r& SiaOep/jiaiveiv /cal av jjLirerreiv 7rpoTpe%ei, yap 
rd KoirpL^o/Jieva TMV aKoirpwv /cal GIKOGIV ^epai^' 

1 Tovrcav conj. Sch.; TOVTOVS Ald.H. 

2 cf. Lewis and Short s.v. agna. 

3 C. P. I. c. gives the reason. 

4 ToffavTax&s conj. Seal.; roffavrax^s Ald.H. 



the field ; the ears in such cases 1 too are under- 
sized and are called ' lambs.' 2 But no kind of 
leguminous plant 3 can do anything of the kind, or at 
least not to the same extent. In these various 
ways 4 may new growth occur. 

Of the effects of climate, soil, and manuring. 

For growth and nourishment the climate is the 
most important factor, and in general the character 
of the season as a whole ; for when rain, fair weather 
and storms occur opportunely, all crops bear well 
and are fruitful, even if they be in soil which is 
impregnated with salt or poor. Wherefore there is 
an apt proverbial saying 5 that " it is the year which 
bears and not the field." 

But the soil also makes much difference, according 
as it is 6 fat or light, well watered or parched, and it 
also makes quite as much difference what sort of air 
and of winds prevails in that region ; for some soils, 7 
though light and poor, produce a good crop because 
the land has a fair aspect in regard to sea breezes. 
But, as has been repeatedly said already, the same 
breeze has not this effect in all places ; some places 
are suited by a west, some by a north, some by a 
south wind. 

Again the working of the soil and above all that 
which is done before 8 the sowing has an important 
effect ; for when the soil is well worked it bears 
easily. Also dung is helpful by warming and 
ripening the soil, for manured land gets the start by 
as much as twenty days of that which has not been 

9 Quoted also G. P. 3. 23. 4. 
6 e?z/a add. Sch. ' cf. OP. 3. 23. 5. 

. cf.C.P. 3. 20.6. 



artaai Be ov ^vfifyeper Kal ^p'/jo-iaos ov uovov 

T0t9 Trepl rbv alrov fl\\a Kal T 

irrepiBos, ravrrjv Be ^Oeipeiv (fracrlv 

uevrjv. aTToXXurat Be rj Trrepk Kal 

TCOV Trpopdrwv, 009 Be rives \eyovcri, /cal rj MrjBi/crj 


VIII. Tw^ Be (TTrep/jLaTayv e/cacrra Kal 7T/909 rrjv 

T?}9 %COpaS <f)V(7lV apfJLOTTGL, Kal oXftJ9 ^kvY] 7T/309 

76^09 Kal ev auro49 rot9 o/jLoyeveo-iv, a Brj Trei- 
pwvrai, Btaipeiv. fJ,era[Bd\\i Be ra %eviKa rwv 
yu-ttXtcrra ^ev ev rpicrlv ereaiv 6t9 ra 
ia. (TVfjL^epei, Be CK TWV akeew&v et9 ra 
TITTOV aKeeiva Kal eK TWV tyv%eiv(ov ava 
\6yov TTOieiaOai rrjv yu-6ra/9oX?;V. ra B* eK rwv 
V ev rot9 rrpwtois oijre aTro^elrai, 
air av%aov fyOeiperai, eav urj otyiov vBwp 
Bia rovro Kal ev\a(Bv)reov (fracrl rb fjiicryeiv 
ra %evtKa rot9 erf^wpioi^ eav arj e% 6/j,olas, on 
rfj X(*>pa Kara rbv arropov Kal Kara 
yevecriv, were Kal epyacrias erepas Beirai' ra9 
re rfjs 7779 Bia(j)0pas Kal r9 rwv crTrepudrayv 
Bvvduei? Kal en, rds eKdarwv wpas. 

"Orav Be everrjpia yevrjrai, Kal rroXwoarorepa 
ra (nrepuara yiverai. ^KOrfvrjai <yovv al Kpidal 

1 c/. Col. 2. 2. 13. The reference is perhaps to fern 
grown for litter, or possibly for medicinal use. c/. 9. 20. 5. 

2 x^P as conj. Sch.; &pas Aid. 3 & conj. Dalec. ; &v Aid. 

4 4/u%6ij/wv conj. W. ; tyvxw&v UM ; fyvxp<*>v Aid. 

5 oTroxf'Tot conj. Sch., C/. a-jroxvffis 8. 3. 4 ; airoKf'iTai Aid. 
c/. 4. 4. 10. 



manured. However manure is not good for all crops ; 
and further it is beneficial not only to corn and the 
like but to most other things, except fern, 1 which 
they say it destroys if it is put on. (Fern is also 
destroyed if sheep lie on it, and, as some say, lucerne 
is destroyed by their dung and urine.) 

Of different qualities of seed. 

VIII. There is a particular kind of soil 2 which best 
suits each kind of seed, whether we compare one 
class with another or those of the same class ; and 
attempts are made to distinguish these. 3 Foreign 
seeds change into the native sorts in about three 
years. It is well that they should be imported from 
a warm climate to one that is rather less warm, or 
from a cold one 4 to one that is rather less cold. 
Those imported from a wintry climate, if they be 
those of early crops, are late in coming into ear, 5 so 
that they get destroyed by drought unless rain late 
in the season saves them. Wherefore they say that 
one should take good heed not to mix foreign with 
native seeds, unless they come from a similar place, 
since 6 they do not agree with the soil 7 as to the 
time of being sown and of germinating, and ac- 
cordingly need different cultivation ; and so that one 
should take good heed to the differences of soil, 
the properties of the seed, and further the seasons 
appropriate to each. 

When however there is a good season, the grain 
also is fuller. 8 For instance at Athens the barley pro- 

6 tri conj. Sch.; tn UMAld. 

7 x^P? conj. Sch.; 8>pq UMAld. 

8 iro\vvo<rr6Tpa : cf. v6<TTi/j.os, C.P. 4. 13. 2, Geop. 2. 16. 1, 
and other reff. in Sch. 'a exhaustive note. 



ra 7r\i(rra TTOiovffiv a\<f>iTa m KpiOofyopos yap 
apiary rovro B* ov% orav TrXeiarai yevcovrai 
aXX* orav \dj3p nvd Kpao~iv. ev $6 ry QcoKiBi 
rrepl 'Et\dreiav ol rcvpol TTOIOV&IV fjfjbiokia ra 
a\evpa, real ev SoXo9 T^? KtXj/aa? KOI ol Trvpol 
KOI at icpiOai' KOI rrap aXXot? a\\a trpbs arrep 
/cdo~rr). (3eKri< p,ev ovv KOL xeipa* ra 
KOI Sia rrjv epyaaiav /cal Sia rrjv yfjv 
yiverar teal yap arra^piovrai KOI rj/juepovrai, 
KaOdrcep ra SevBpa' KOI oi\ws fj,ra/3d\\i, </card> 
rrjv %(*)pav, wcrrrep nvd rcov Sevbpcov evOvs earijKe 

7T/30? TO ^eipOV. 

3 Yevos 8' o\ov ea\\drreiv 649 erepov ovftev 
a\\o 7re<f)VK 7r\r)V rif^y Kal eid, tcaOdrrep eirfo- 
/jiV ev T0t9 rrpwroLS \6yoi$, Kal r) alpa 8* e/c ra)V 
nvpwv Kal KpiOwv Sia<j)0eipOfjLeva)V -r) el pr) rovro 
d\\d (f>i\,el 76 iLoCkicrra ev rot9 rrvpols jiveaOat, 
KaOdrcep Kal 6 /-leXayu-Trf^o? o HovriKo? Kal TO 
ra)v /3o\{3a)V (TTrepfjia, Kal aXXa Se ev aA,Xot9 ro)v 
erre\ Kal 6 al^i\w^r SoKel fjia\\ov ev 
ev $e Tot9 <j>aKoi$ apaKos ro rpa%v 
Kal o-K\i]p6v, ev Be Tat9 d^dKat^ 6 7re\eKivos 
OJAOIOV rfj otyet, rw Tre'XeKer o-^e^ov Be KaO^ 
eKaarov ecrn TO o-vveKrpe^o/Jievov Kal crvvava- 

1 /cari add. W. c/. 2. 4. 1. 

2 TIVCI conj. W.; re P; r$ Aid.; rb H.Vin.Vo. c/. 2. 2. 6. 

3 Ceid conj. Seal.; foa Ald.H. 4 2. 4. 1. 



duces more meal than anywhere else, since it is an 
excellent land for that crop ; and this is so, not 
merely when a very large crop is sown, but when the 
weather has been favourable for it. And in Phocis 
about Elateia the wheats produce half as much meal 
again as elsewhere ; while at Soli in Cilicia this is true 
of both wheat and barley ; and in other parts there 
are other crops for which the soil is severally well 
adapted. Wherefore grain turns out better or worse 
because of the soil as well as because of cultivation ; 
for in some places it changes into the cultivated from 
the wild form, or the reverse, like trees ; and in 
general it changes according 1 to the soil in which it 
is grown, just as some 2 trees, when transplanted, 
forthwith deteriorate. 

Of degeneration of cereals, and of the weeds which infest 
particular crops. 

But no kind can change altogether into another, 
except one-seeded wheat and rice-wheat, 3 as we said 4 
in our previous discussions, and darnel which comes 
from degenerate wheat and barley : at least, if this 
is not the true account, darnel loves chiefly to 
appear among wheat, as does the Pontic 5 melampyros 
and the seed of purse-tassels, 6 even as other 
seeds appear in other crops ; thus aigihps seems to 
grow for choice among barley, and among lentils 
the rough hard kind of arakos, while among tares 
occurs the axe-weed, 7 which resembles an axe-head in 
appearance. Indeed in the case of nearly every 
crop there is a plant which grows up with it and 

6 cf. 8. 4. 6, where ^Xa^irvpov was said to be peculiar to 
Sicily. cf. C.P. 4. 6. 1. 

7 Plin. 18. 155 ; 27. 121 ; Diosc. 3. 130; Hesych. a. 



eire Bia r9 %ft>yoa9, oirep ov/c akoyov, 

4 eiT6 oY a\\r)v Tiva alriav. evict, Be real (fravepws 
eo~n Koiva 7r\ei6va)V, d\\a Bia TO /xaXtcrra ev 

evOevelv i$ia TOVTCOV (fraiverai, /cadaTrep ?; 
<Y)(r) TWV bpb/3<*>v /cal fj airaplvrj rwv (frctfcwv 
a\\a f) fj,ev /j,d\HTTa eTri/cparei rwv opoftcov Bta 
Trjv ao-Oevetav rj Be airapLvr] /jLakicrra ev rot9 
<f)a,Koi<$ evrpo(f)6L' rpoirov Se riva KOI 7rapa7r\r}- 
bv ecrri rfj opo/Say^r) <TW> 7Ti^d\\eiv fcal 
o\ov wcnTep 7r\eKrdvai<;' airoTrviyei yap 
, o6ev KOI Tovvofia eiXytye. 

5 To T V7TO<f)v6/jl,6VOV 6V0VS K T^9 p^&S Tft) 

Kv/jiivq) /cal T& /3ov/cepw TO aljAo&wpov Ka\ov/jLvov 
/jLaX\ov ISia. ea-Ti Se TO alpoSaypov fJLOvbicav\ov 
ov/c d7re/j,(j)epes \r& Kav\w\, 7r\rjv /3pa%vTpov re 
7ro\v, /cal avtoOev TI /ce<f)a\(*)$6<; e^ei pi^av Be 
v7roo~Tp6'y<yv\ov ovdev Be erepov d^avaiverai 
Trapa TO ftov/cepas. jiverai Be ravra ev Tat? 
Xe?rTat9 ov/c ev Tat9 ineipais, waTrep /cal T% 
Eu/5ota9 ev TO) A.rj\dvry /juev ov yiverai, Trepl Be 
TOV }Ldvr9ov /cal et T 

conj. Sch. ; &\\T)S riva U; &\\riv Aid. 

2 r$ add. Sch. 

3 irXfKTavais conj. W.; irXfKTavfS U; irXfKTavrjs M ; ir\KTdvr)i> 
Aid. ; veluti brachiis G. 

4 Plin. 19. 176, who however calls this ai/u.Jticapov. See 
Index App. (26). 



mingles with it, whether this is due to the soil, 
which is a reasonable explanation, or to some other l 
cause. Some plants of this character evidently attach 
themselves to more than one kind of crop, but, 
because they are specially vigorous in some one 
particular crop, they are thought to be peculiar to 
that one, as ' vetch-strangler ' (dodder) to vetches 
and bedstraw to lentils. But the former gains the 
mastery over the vetches especially because of the 
weakness of that plant ; and bedstraw is specially 
luxuriant among lentils ; to some extent it resembles 
dodder, in that 2 it overspreads the whole plant and 
holds it fast as it were in coils, 3 for it is thus that 
dodder strangles the plant, and this is the origin of 
its name (' vetch-strangler '). 

4 v The plant which springs up straight from the 
roots of cummin and the plant called broom-rape 
which .similarly attaches itself to e ox-horn ' 5 (fenu- 
greek) are somewhat more peculiar in their habits. 6 
Broom-rape has a single stem, 7 and is not unlike . . . , 8 
but is much shorter and has on the top a sort of head, 
while its root is more or less round ; and there is no 
other plant which it starves except fenugreek. 
These plants grow in light and not in fat soils ; thus 
in Euboea they do not occur at Lelanton, 9 but only 
about Kanethos 10 and in districts of like character. 

5 Plin. 24. 184. 

7 cf. G.P. 5. 15. 5, where the same is said of \ei/j.o8copov (c/. 
Plin. 19. 176). But Aid. Bas. Cam. give al/n.6Swpov here ; hemo- 
dorum G. 

8 r$ Kav\$ probably conceals the name of a plant. 

9 c/. Strabo, 10. 1, 9. L. is the name of a Euboean river in 
Plin. 4. 64. 

10 c/. Strabo, 10. 1. 8, Ap. Rhod. 1. 77. 

o 2 


ravra /j,ev ovv KOLVO, TrXeiovwv ovra 
fjba\\ov V TO 9 elpri/Aevots Sid rrjv dadeveiav. 
(.5 To Se repa/jiov real drepa/jiov Xeyerai /nev eVl 
rwv ocnrpiwv fjiovov, OVK a\oyov Be KOI eVt rwv 
(TiTay&wv r jrapa r Tr\rj(7iov rj teal ravro TL 
a\\a Sia TO fjbrj rrjv avrrjv elvai ^peiav 
e/jL<f>aves' eVel ovS* eVt TOVTWV a 

/cal fyctKwv, etV ovv /cal /jLaXicrra 
elre teal Sia rrjv %peiav (fraivo/uevcov. >yi,vTai 
yovv TrXeoz^a^w?* 7ro\\a%ov yap TOTTOI 
elffiv ol alel ^epovai Tepdfiova /cal a\\oi TTO 
drepd/jiova' rb Se &>9 eVt Trav ol \67rr6jea) /j,d\\ov 
7 repd/jiova' KOI depos /carda-rao-fa rt? Troiei Tr)v 
roiavTrjv 7rapa\\ayijv <rrj/jLiov Se ori ravrd 
Kal ofjLoiws epyaadevra fyepei, TTOTC JJLGV 
<7rore Se dr6pd/mova.> irepl <&i\'nnTovs 
8e o Kvafios \i/c/ji(t)/jLevos, edv VTTO Trvev/jLa'TOs ey- 
%copiov \r)(f)0f), repd/jLcov wv drepd/uLayv yiverai. 
ravra /JLCV ovv fjLTjvvei SIOTI vroXXa^w? ra>v avrwv 

1 c/. 2. 4. 2; C. P. 4. 12; Plin. 18. 155, who makes 
ateramum, teramum plants. 

2 TrAeovaxoJy TroAAax ^ I conj. ; W\4ov iro\\ax(f>s MSS. 
8 irore Se aTepd/jLova add. H. from G. 

4 c/. C.P. 4. 12. 8 ; Plut. Quaest. Conv. 7. 2. 3 ; Plin. I.e. 



The reason then why these plants, which attach 
themselves to more than one kind, grow stronger 
when attached to the plants specified, is that the 
latter are not robust. 

Of the conditions in the seeds of pulses known as ' cookable ' 
and 'uncookable,' and their causes. 

J The terms f cookable ' and ' uncookable ' are only 
applied to pulses, but it is not unreasonable to 
suppose that conditions like those indicated, if not 
identical with them, occur also in cereals, though 
they are not so obvious, since these plants are not 
put to the same use. Indeed it is said that these 
terms are not applied even to all pulses alike, but 
chiefly to beans and lentils, either because these 
are specially subject to these conditions, or because 
the use to which they are put makes them more 
conspicuous. At all events the conditions occur 
for a variety of reasons ; for in many parts 2 there 
are places which regularly produce seeds that are 
' cookable,' while others again produce seeds that 
are ' uncookable ' ; in general however it is light 
soils which tend to produce the former. Now it is 
a certain condition of the climate which causes this 
variation ; a proof of which is the fact that the same 
piece of land, tilled in the same manner, produces 
sometimes seeds that are ' cookable,' sometimes 
seeds that are ' uncookable.' 3 In the district of 
Philippi, if the beans, while being winnowed, 4 are 
caught by the prevailing wind of the country, they 
become ' uncookable,' having previously been ' cook- 
able.' These facts prove that for various reasons, 
of districts 5 which are close together, have the same 

6 O.VTWV conj. W.; Se TWV Aid. c/. a similar expression 8. 2. 10. 



evia o-vvopa ical 6/jioia)<; KaOrjaeva /ecu 
%oi>Ta Kara rrjv yrfv Biatftopav TO aev 
Tepduova TO B 1 aTepdjjuova <j>epei, /cal evloTe JJLOVOV 

IX. Kapiri&Tai TTJV yrjv /jid\i(TTa Trvpbs eZra 
r), L o teal 6 ^ev dya6r]V f^ret ^topav r) Be 
r) SvvaTai fcal ev rat9 tyafyaptoTepais e/c- 
<f>epeiv TWV Be %e$p07ra)V /j,d\io-Ta epeftuvOos 
e\d%i(TTOV ^povov ev Ty <yf) fievtov, 6 Be 
MGirep e\e^6rj, teal a\X&>? ov /3apv /cal 

TL KOTTpl^eiV BoKL TT)V ryf)V BlOL fiaVOTTjTa KCil V~ 

o-Tj-jriav Bt o real ol Trepl Ma/eeBovlav teal 0Tra- 
\iav OT av avQ&aiv dvaTpeTrovcri ra? dpovpa?. 
2 Twv Be opoioTcvpwv KOI ojJioioKpidtov, olov 
o\vpas Ppopov aiyiXwTTO 

Ta tapir i^opevov f] %eid' /cal yap 
Tro\vppiov Kal ftaOvppi^ov /cal 7ro\Vfed\a/jLOV 6 
Be fcapTTOf /covtyoTaTos /cal Trpoo-^^Xr)? Traai rot? 
fwot9. TWV Be a\\wv o /Spo/zo?* TroXvppi^os yap 
Kal ouro? /cal TroXu/caXayLto?. 17 Be 6\vpa /^aXa- 
/c(t)Tpov /cal aa9evecrTepov TOVTMV. rj Be Ti( 
TravTwv Kov<poTaTov Kai yap Kai 
<Kal \e7TTOKa\a fiov,> Bi o Kal 

1 cf. C.P. 4. 12. 1. 2 c/. C. P. 4. 8. 3. 

3 Plin. 18. 120; Varro 1. 23. 3 ; Col. 2. 10. 7. 

4 8. 7. 2. 

6 i.e. dig in the bean-plants if the soil is poor, before the 
pods are formed enough to make it worth while to gather 
the beans. So Varro I.e. 6 Cited by Galen, 



aspect and shew no difference of soil, some bear 
' cookable ' some ' uncookable ' seeds, and that some- 
times when there is only l the breadth of a furrow 
between them. 

Of the grains and pulses which most exhaust the soil, or which 
improve it. 

IX. Wheat exhausts the land more than any other 
crop, and next to it barley ; wherefore the former 
requires good soil, while barley will bear even on 
somewhat crumbling soils ; 2 and of leguminous plants 
chick-pea is the most exhausting, although this crop 
is in the ground only a very short time. 3 Beans, 
as was said, 4 are in other ways not a burdensome 
crop to the ground, they even seem to manure it, 
because the plant is of loose growth and rots 
easily ; wherefore the people of Macedonia and 
Thessaly turn over the ground when it is in 
flower. 5 

6 Of the plants which resemble wheat or barley 
such as zeia (rice-wheat) one-seeded wheat olyra 7 
(rice-wheat) oats aigilops zeia is the strongest 8 and 
most exhausts the ground ; for it has many roots 
which run deep and many stems ; but its fruit is the 
lightest and is welcome to all animals. Of the rest 
oats 9 is the most exhausting ; for this too has many 
roots and many stems. Olyra is a more delicate plant 
and not so robust as these. But one-seeded wheat 
is the crop which is of all the least burdensome to 
the soil ; for it has but a single slender stem 10 ; 
wherefore also it requires a light soil and not, like 

i See Index. 

8 lffx v ftoro.rov conj. W. from Galen ; lcrx v pdT*poi> Aid. 

9 Ppofj-os' iro\vpptos yap conj. Sch.; #. iroA.- nal yap Aid. 
10 Ko.1 \fTTTOKoi\afjLoi' add. Bod. from Galen. 



\errrrjv, oi>% wdTrep r) %ia rrleipav /cat dyaOijv. 
eari Be Bvo ravra /cal o^oLorara rot? rrvpols ij re 
<&id /cal 77 ri(f>rj,> 6 ' alyi\wfy KOI o /3/3o//,o? 
wcrjrep ay pi drra /cal dvijfj,epa. 

'l&Tri/capTri^erai, Be o~(f)6Spa /cal 6 alyiKw^r rrjv 
yfjv, /cat, IGTI 7ro\vppiov /cal iro\v/cd\afjLOv rj 8e 
alpa Tra^reXo)? dTnjyptw/jLevov. T&V Be ev rot? 
Oepivols a/ooroi? TO (nja-a/mov So/eel ^aXeTrwraToz' 
elvai Trj yfj /cal jjiaXiaTa /capTri^ecrOai" Kalroi 
/cal 7ra^v/ca\afjia)Tpov /cal 
&ia<f>epL Be rd re TT/OO? 

yrjv /covcfra /cai ra irpos rrjv rjfjierepav rpo<f)ijv. 
evia yap eVazma>9, Mairep rd ^eBpoTrd /cal ol 
/cal rd Trpos ^yita? Be, cb&Trep e\e^0rj y /cal 
fcoa. /cal irepl fJLev TOVTCOV d\i$. 
X. Noa-^yLtara Be TWV o-Trepfjidro)!' rd /JLCV KOLVCL 
rrdvrwv ecrriv, olov r] epvaift'T], rd B* iBid rLva>v, 
olov o (j^>aK\iafji,o^ rov epeftlvflov, /cal TO vjrti 
/cajjLTTWv Karea6Leo6ai /cal VTTO ^fXXwz/, nvd Be 
/cal vrf d\\a)v 07jptBia)v. evia Be /cal tycopia /cal 
, KaOdrcep /cal TO /cvfjavov. rd 
fcaa /j,r) e'f avrwv aXX' e/c r&v e%w6ev 
fiXdirrei. emyiverai ydp rj JAW icavOapls 

1 7} re (eia Kai r) ri(f>r) add. W. from Galen. 

2 6 8' conj. Seal.; '6 r' Ald.H.; ^ T' UMP. 

8 Kalrot conj. W.; al(Ald. c/. C.P. 4. 15. 1. 

4 ra add. St. 5 8. 3. 5 ad fin. 

/cal rci Aid.; /cai ot ra UMP; ? /cal a5 ra W. 



zeia, one that is fat and good. These last two, 1 
zeia and one-seeded wheat, are also those which are 
likest to wheat, while 2 aigilops and oats are as it 
were wild and uncultivated things. 

Aigilops also greatly exhausts the land, having 
many roots and many stems ; while darnel is a 
plant which has become altogether wild. Of the 
crops sown at the summer seed-time sesame seems 
to be most severe on the land and to exhaust it 
most ; yet 3 millet has more numerous and stouter 
stems and more roots. Moreover there is a difference 
between crops which 4 are called ' light ' in relation 
to the soil and those called ' light' in regard to 
human use. For some, such as leguminous plants 
and millet, are light in one sense but not in the 
other; and, as was said, 5 what 6 is light for men is 
not necessarily so for the other animals. Now 
enough of these matters. 

Of the diseases of cereals and pulses, and of hurtful winds. 

X. 7 As to diseases of seeds some are common to 
all, as rust, some are peculiar to certain kinds ; thus 
chick-pea is alone subject to rot 8 and to being 
eaten by caterpillars and by spiders 9 ; and some 
seeds are eaten 10 by other small creatures. Some 
again are liable to canker and mildew, 11 as cummin. 
But creatures which do not come from the plant 
itself but from without do not do so much harm ; 
thus the kantharis 1 ^ is a visitor among wheat, the 

7 Plin. 18. 152 and 154. 8 cf. 4. 14. 2. 

9 if/uAAwv: described by Arist. H.A. 9. 39. 1. 

10 Se add. Sch. ; ? KareffQieffBcu- /careo-fl/erai 8e nal virb vj/. W. 

11 \bcapia. teal aA/uS conj. W.; tiwpais Kal aAuais Aid. cf. 7.5.4 n. 

12 plm.' 18. 156.' 



ev rot? Trvpois, TO Be (frdXdyyiov ev o/oo/3o9, aXXa 
8' ev aXXo^9. 

'Epva-i/Sa 8' a>9 a7rXw9 elrrelv TO, o-iraiBr) fia\- 
\ov rwv oGrrpitoV avrwv Be rovrajv /cpidrj 
77 Try/oo?' KOI TWV Kpi0wv erepat, erepwv, 
S' &)9 elirelv rj 'A^iXX^i^. Sia<ppt Be /cal rj 

dec is KOI T) fyvcris ov fMi/cpov ra yap 
/cal fjiereaypa OVK epv(ri,(3a rj fjrrov, 
aXXa ra ej/coiXa /cal ajrvoa' yiverai Be rj Ipv&iftri 
TravaeXtTivois yaaXto-ra. avroXXurat Be /cal VTTO 
TCOV Trvev^drcov /cal irvpos /cal KpiOi], oTav rf 
avOovvra Xrj^Ofj f) apri aTT^vdrj/cora /cal aaQevr\' 
IJ,a\\ov Be KpiQr), 7ro\\d/ci<; B* 77877 ev ra> dBpv- 
ovcra, eav fjueyd\a /cal TrXetw ^pbvov eTTi- 
%r)paivei ydp /cal dfyavaivei, o Ka\ov(rl 
et;avefjiova-0ai. Bia7r6\\v(rt, Be /cal 77X^09 o 
e/cve<f)\o^ afj,(j)a) /cal ^a\\ov Trvpbv rj tcptOrjv, ware 
^178' e7riBrj\ov elvat TOV crrd^vp Trj en/ret ovra 


Tbv Be irvpbv a7roXXuofo"t /cal ol a/ca)\r]fC$ ol 
ev9v^ /career 6 tovres ^vo^evoi r9 pi^as, ol Be 
av%/JLWvre<i dTTO^vOrfvai /JLTJ Bvvwvrar Tore 
yap eyyi,vojji6vo<> 6 (T/ca)\r}^ ecrO'iei, TOV 
pevov /cdXa/jiov evQiei Be ci^pu TOV ard^vos, 

1 Plin. 18. 154. 

2 epmnySS conj. W. ; tpv<ri8ai Aid. ; els add. Sch. 
8 TCI add. Sch. 4 cf. O. P. 3. 22. 2. 


. . . . . . 

5 fpvcriPq. conj. Sch.; fpvffifiai Aid. 

6 cf. O.P. 4. 13. 4; Plin. 18. L51. 

7 ur : ya\a conj. Sch.; 1*6761X77 UMAld. 


pkalangion in vetches, and other pests in other 

1 Generally speaking, cereals are more liable to 
rust 2 than pulses, and among these barley is 
more liable to it than wheat ; while of barleys some 
kinds are more liable than others, and most of all, 
it may be said, the kind called ' Achillean.' More- 
over the position and character of the land make no 
small difference in this respect ; for lands which 3 
are exposed to the wind 4 and elevated are not 
liable to rust, 5 or less so, while those that lie low 
and are not exposed to wind are more so. And 
rust occurs chiefly at the full moon. 6 Again 
wheat and barley are destroyed by winds, if 
they are caught by them either when in flower, 
or when the flower has just fallen and they are 
weak ; and this applies specially to barley, indeed 
it occurs when the grain is already ripening, if 
the winds are violent 7 and last a long time ; for 
they dry up and parch the grain, which some call 
being ' wind-bitten.' Also a hot sun after cloudy 
weather destroys both, and wheat more than barley, 
so that the ear is not even conspicuous, since it is 

Wheat is also destroyed by grubs ; sometimes they 
eat the roots, as soon as they appear, 8 sometimes 
they do their work when by reason of drought the 
ear cannot be formed 9 ; for at such times the grub 
is engendered, and eats the haulm as it is becoming 
unrolled 10 ; it eats right up to the ear and then, 

8 Q'jonevot conj. Sch. ; Qvopevov Aid. cf. C.P. 3. 22. 4. 

9 O7roxf07jvai conj. Sch. after Vin.Vo.G; avoAvOyvai UM 
Aid. cf. C. P. 3. 22. 4; 4. 14. 1. 

10 aitoiryvi^oiJievov : lit. 'unwinding itself.' All edd. mark 
the word as corrupt. 



air 6\\vrat' /cal edv fjuev o\ov e/c(f)d<yr) 
auro9 o rrvpos, lav Be eVt Qdrepov TOV 
/cal eicftida-rjTai rrjv CLTTO^VO-IV, TOVTO 
fiev avov TOV ard^vo^ Odrepov Be vyies. yiverai 
Be ov rravTa^ov TO Trepl rov? rrvpovs, olov ev 
, d\\a /caTa ^aiyoa? Tivds, wcnrep ev Ty 
/cal T% EuySota? ev T<p Ar)\dvT(t). 

Be yivoVTai /cal ev rot? (h^pois /cal 
rot? \aOvpois /cal rot? Tnaols, oTav vypavQwo-t 
/cal 06pjjL7)fj,epiat ryevcovTai, KaOdirep /cal ev rot? 
epeftlvOois al /cdfjirrai. rrdvTa Be e%ava\<i)aravTa 
ra? T/oo<^a9 diroXkvTat, /cal ev rot9 ^Xeoyoot? /cal ev 
rot? f^/aot? /capTTois, olov o'i re ZTTC? /cal ol ev rot? 
KvdfjLOis e<yyLVO/j,voi, Kai ev rot9 aXXo^?, a>o~7rep ical 
ev rot? BevBpeo-i, /cal ev rot? fvXo^? e\%&r}, 7r\r)v 
/cepaaTwv /ca\ovfj,eva)v. TT/JO? airavTa BTJ 
/jLeyd\a Biatyepovaiv al %wpai ov/c d\6<ya)<;' 
6 yap drjp evOvs Bidfopos T& Oepfjios r) tyvxpos 
elvat, r) v<ypbs fj ^ijpos' OVTO$ 5' yv o ryovevcav Bt 
o /cal ev 049 el^Baai rylvevOai ov/c del <yivovTai. 
XI. Twv Be cTTrep/jidTcov ov% y avTr) 
6t9 T6 TTJV ft^do'Trja'iv /cal 6^9 

1 curbs : sc. the grain, avatverai conj. W.; ? avaiverai curbs. 

2 edrepov conj. Sch.; Oarepov Aid. 

3 c/.(7P. 3. 22. 3. ^xpots conj. St.; 6'xpois Ald.H. 

4 Kaddirep Kal conj. Sch. ; /col K0.9a.irtp Aid. 

5 TrdWa conj. W. ; TO Aid. 



having consumed it, perishes. And, if it has en- 
tirely eaten it, the wheat itself 1 perishes ; if 
however it has only eaten one 2 side of the haulm 
and the plant has succeeded in forming the ear, 
half the ear withers away, but the other half remains 
sound. However it is not everywhere that the 
wheat is so affected ; for instance this does not occur 
in Thessaly, but only in certain regions, as in Libya 
and at Lelanton in Euboea. 

Grubs occur also in okhros s lathyros and peas, 
whenever these crops get too much rain and then 
hot weather supervenes ; and caterpillars occur in 
chick-peas under the same conditions. 4 All 5 these 
pests perish, when they have exhausted their food, 
whether the fruit in which they occur be green or 
dry, just as wood-worms do and the grubs found in 
beans and other plants, as was said of the pests 
found in growing trees and in felled timber. But 
the creature called ' horned worm ' 6 is an exception. 
Now in regard to all these pests the position makes 
a great difference, as might be expected. For the 
climate, it need hardly be said, makes a difference 
according as it is hot or cold, moist or dry ; and it 
was the climate which gave rise to these pests 7 ; 
wherefore they are not always found even in places 
in which they ordinarily occur. 8 

Of seeds which keep or do not keep well. 
XI. The seeds have not all the same capacity for 
germination and for keeping well. Some germinate 

6 cf. 4. 14. 5; C.P. 5. 10. 5. 

7 8' fy 6 yovevuv I conj. ; 8' $v 6 j/eiW UAld. ; 8' yvo- 
vfi'itov M ; 8' zcrriv 6 yovevcov conj. Sch. ; 8' 6 yovtvcav conj. W. 

8 i.e. because the atmospheric conditions are not always 
favourable to the pest. 



evia fjiev yap /3\a<Trdvei /cal re\eiovrai rd^ 
/cal Orja-avpl^erai /cpdriara, KaOdjrep eXuyito? KOI 
evia Be /3\acrTcJnsi /JLCV ev Ta^eo)? 8e 
i, KaOaTrep 6 /cva/jios /cal /j,d\\ov 6 repd- 
ju 8' rj d(j)d/cr) /cal 6 80X^09* /cpiOrj Be 
Trvpov <0drrov'> OCLTTOV Be /cal 6 /coviopTwBiys 
o"tT09 /cal 6 ev ol/cijfAaa'i /coviarois rj d/covidrois. 
2 Yiverai Brj <p0eipo/jievois (TTrep/Aaai iBta wa, 
/caOaTrep eXe^Otj, irKyv epeftlvOow [JLOVOS yap OVTOS 
ov ^woyovei. /cal cn^TTOfjievoi^ fjtev Tracrt cr/ca)\r) 
Be fcaO' eicaaTOv iSiov. irdvrcov Be 

KOI yooo9, TOV- 

en, fjid\\ov o Qepjjbos" dXX* eoi/ce 7' ouro? 
wcrTre/3 dypiq). 

kiafyepei 8e &>9 0i/ce %&)/oa ^coyoa? KOI drjp 
ae/30? t? TO KOTTTeaOai KOI /JLTJ rd aTrepfjiaTa' ev 
'AvroXXco^a yovv rfj Trepl rbv 'loviov OVK eaOie- 
c 3aL (fracriv oXco? KvajAOV, $i o fcal el<> 07j(Tavpicr- 
IJLOV aTToriOecrOai' Sia/jievei Se /cal Trepl K^V^IKOV 
eTrl 7T\ei(D. /Jieya Be TT/)O? Sia/jLov^v /cal TO %r]pd 
Oepi^eiv eXdrrcov ydp rj vypor^' Oepi^ovdi 8' 
c /%fXoTe/9a TO. fjiev ^eBpOTrd TT/JO? TO /uaXXoz> /cal 
paov o-uXXe^a^, ra^v yap /carappel /cal avavOevra 

1 eS conj. W.; ob Aid. 2 vfatTai add. W. 

3 cf. 8. 8. 6 ; C. P. 5. 18. 2. 4 eaTToi/ add. W. 

6 wai 6 KOJ/. . . . aKovidrois conj. W. , cf. G.P. 4. 16. 1.; 6 KOVI- 
oprwSrjs /cal 6 Koviopros' Kal 6 ev rots Kovioprols ev oL-rrafftv, oiov 
KOVICLTOIS rj O.KOVIO.TOIS Aid. ; so also UM, but omitting TO?S ; U 
gives KOVIO.TOIS ; ^ 6 aicoviopdos for /cal 5 Koviopros mBas. cf. 
Plin. 18. 301, Varro 1. 57. 1, where the use of a cement of 
pounded marble is recommended, 

6 8)7 <pdeipofj.evois conj. Sell.; 8ia4>0eipOjueVois UMAld. 



and mature very quickly, and keep excellently, as 
Italian millet and millet. Some germinate well, 1 
but soon rot, 2 as beans, and especially those that are 
' cookable 3 ' ; so do tare and calavance ; also barley 
perishes sooner 4 than wheat ; and dusty 5 grain and 
that which is kept in plastered store-rooms perishes 
sooner than that which is kept in unplastered rooms. 

Again, as seeds decay, 6 they engender special 
creatures, except chick-pea, which alone engenders 
none. As they rot, 7 all produce a grub ; but, as 
they get worm-eaten, each produces a special 
creature. Chick-pea and vetch keep best of all, and 
better still than these lupin ; but this, as it were, is 
like a wild kind. 8 

9 It appears that soil and climate make a difference 
as to whether the seed gets worm-eaten or not ; 
at least they say that at Apollonia on the Ionian Sea 
beans do not get eaten in this way at all, and there- 
fore they are put away and stored ; and about 
Cyzicus they keep an even longer time. It also 
makes a great difference to keeping that the seed 
should be gathered dry, for then there is less 
moisture in it. 10 However the seeds of leguminous 
plants are gathered with a certain amount of 
moisture in them, 11 because then they can be collected 
in greater quantity and more easily ; for otherwise 
they are soon shed and get shrivelled up and split 12 ; 

7 i.e. rot is produced in all cases by the same creature 
(<rKc6\rj), but the condition called being 'worm-eaten' is due 
in each plant to a different pest. 

8 i.e. and so the seed is hard and not liable to these attacks, 
c/. 8. 11. 8; G.P. 4. 16. 2. 

9 cf. G.P. 4. 16. 2. 10 i.e. liability to rot. 

11 eyxv\6repa conj. Sch.; euxv^drepa Aid. H. Cam. ; euxr/A^Tcpa 
Bas. cf. C.P. 4. 13. 3. ia Plin. 18. 125. 



OpVTTTBTai, TOU9 Be TTVpOV? Kal 76^09 Tl 

Bid TO /3eXTtof9 et9 rd d\<tnTa yivecrOai un djre- 

At' o /cal e/9 6a)fjiov$ crvvTiOeafft Kal Trvpovs Kal 
al BOKOVCTIV dBpvveo~0ai, ev $&>/&> /jia\,\ov 
r) \i7roo-apKelv. OVK eeQierai Se crtro?, orav v 
OepLa-6f)' aOepiGTOs & /JLakiara Siapevei, 6 
GTI Be /jia\\ov 6 OepfJLO?' ovBe jap Oe 
TOVTOV irporepov rj v&wp yvecr0at,, BLO, TO 
Oepi^ofJLevov Kal a7r6\\vcr0ai TO cnrepfia. 

IT/oo? eK(j)V(Tiv Be Kal TTJV o\rjv GTTOpav 
BoKel Ta evdeva" TO, Be Bieva xeipco Kal Ta Tpieva, 
TCL 8' VTrepTeivovTa a"%eBbv ayova, irpos Be Trjv 
GiTri&iv apKovvTa. ySto? yap e&Tiv e^atrrot? (bpicr- 
fj,evos et? yovrfv. KaiTOi Kal Tavrais 7rapa\\aTTi 
Bvvd/jiea-t, Bia rot'9 TOTTOU? eV ot? av O^aavpi- 
TTfS yovv KaTTTraSo/aa? ev ^(wpiw Tivl 
TO) KaXovfjievw Ilerpa Kal TeTTapaKOVTa Trj Bia- 
/jueveiv (fraal yovifjia Kal xpij&i/jia TT/JO? o-jropov, et? 
Be T7)v (TiTrjaiv e^tJKovTa 77 e{3Bo/JiiJKOVTa- TO ydp 
o\ov ov KOTTTeadai' TO, Be l/jLaTia Kal Trjv a\\r)v 
KOTTTecrOai. TO jdp %cbpi,ov aXXw? re 
elvai, Kal CVTTVOVV Kal evavpov alel Kal 
anr avaTO\r\^ e%oucri Kal Bvaecos Kal 

1 ^ \iiroffapKe1v conj. H. ; ^Ataa crwpwv U ; ^At/ca vapKuv M. 
W. brackets as due to a gloss, cf. C P. 4. 13. 6. 

2 '6rav vo-Qels conj. Seal. : so Vo. ; o ravv<r6fts Bas.Cam. 
6epiff0fi conj. W.; irepKpvy MSS. 



and wheat and one kind of barley are gathered 
before they are dry, because then they are better for 

Wherefore the grain of wheat and barley is put 
into heaps, and it seems to ripen in a heap rather 
than to lose substance. 1 (However corn does not 
get worm-eaten when it is reaped after exposure to 
rain.) 2 Also corn lasts better than other things if it 
is left standing, and so does lupin to an even greater 
extent ; indeed this crop is not even gathered till 
rain has fallen, 3 because, if it is gathered, the seed 
springs out arid is lost. 

Of the age at which seeds should be sown. 

4 For propagation and sowing generally seeds one 
year old seem to be the best; 5 those two or three 
years old are inferior,, while those kept a still longer 
time are infertile, though they are still available as 
food. For each kind has a definite period of life in 
regard to reproduction. However these seeds too 
differ in their capacity according to the place in 
which they are stored. For instance, in Cap- 
padocia at a place called Petra they say that 
seed remains even for forty years fertile and fit 
for sowing, while as food it is available for sixty 
or seventy years ; for that it does not get worm- 
eaten at all like clothes and other stored-up articles . 
for that the region is, apart from this, elevated and 
always exposed to fair winds and breezes which 
prevail alike from 6 the east, the west, and the 

3 Trptrepov *} conj. W.; rbv rpoirov UAld. cf. C.P. 4. 13. 3; 
Plin. 18. 133. 4 Plin. 18. 195. 

6 cf. 7. 5. 5 ; Geop. 2. 1(3. 
6 air' conj. Sch. ; M P 2 Ald. 

VOL. ir. p 


Be Kal ev M.7jBeia /ecu rat? aXXat? rat? 
^wpai? Biaueveiv Orjcravpi^ofJLeva TTO\VV 
epeftivOov Be Brj KOI Oepfjiov Kal opo/3ov 
Kal Keyxpov /col TO, roiavra Brj\ov on 
7r\eia) TOVTWV, wcTTTe/o Kal v rot? 7T6pl Trjv ' 
T07TO9. aXXa ravra /mev, wcfTrep eiprjrai, 

7 Ao/eet Be KOI yrj rt? elvai irapd THTIV rj Sia- 
ffvvrrjpel rov Trvpov, wcrTrep ij re ev 
Kal ev Ktjpivdto rfjs Ety8ota9' Troiel Be 
fjuev et? rrjv (TLTTJO-LV dSporepov Be rfj 
ei' TrapaTrdrrovo-i Be ^oivi/ca et9 TO 
HvpcoQevra Trdvra rd aTrep/^ara 
ylverai' KaiToi irepi <ye 

Kal TOU9 irvpovs eTrl T7J9 d\a> 
'TnjBdv, wairep rd <f)pvyo/Jieva' aXXa 8rj\ov on, 
Biacpopd r/9 ecrn rrjs OepfiOTijTOS, fj a7rXw9 
Oep/jLaaia yiverai, [/cat] 77 TrrjBijo-L^. Kal rd 
roiavra (r%eBbv wairepel Koivd Bo^eiev dv elvai 

1 c/. C.P. 5. 18. 3; for millet-seed see J.H.S. vol. xxxv. 
part i. p. 22. 

2 SiaTTOTTOyueVTj conj. H. ; StaTrAaTTO^uefTj UMAld.; SiaKoirro- 
ivn P 2 . c/. Plin. 18. 305. 

3 TrapaTraTTOvo'i conj. Sell., C/, Geop. 2. 21. 3; (e/j.irdo'a'f iv) ; 

i UMAld. c/. Varro 1. 57. 1. 



south. They say that in Media l also and other 
elevated countries the seed when stored keeps for 
a long time. And it is plain that chick-pea lupin 
vetch millet and the like will keep a far longer time 
than these seeds, as they do even in districts of 
Hellas. However these peculiarities, as has been 
said, are due to the particular region. 

Of artificial means of preserving seed. 

There appears to be a kind of earth in some 
places, which when sprinkled 2 over the seed helps 
to make wheat keep, for instance, the earth found 
at Olynthos and at Kerinthos in Euboea ; this 
makes the grain inferior for food, but fuller in ap- 
pearance ; the earth is sprinkled 3 in the proportion 
of one pint to twenty-four of grain. 

Of the effect of heat on seeds. 

All seeds if exposed to fire perish and become 
infertile. Yet they say that at Babylon 4 the grains 
of barley and wheat jump on the threshing-floor 
like corn which is being parched. However it is 
plain that it is some particular kind of warmth 5 
which produces this effect : or else the jumping 
is simply another effect of heat. 6 Such behaviour 
would appear to be common to most, 7 if not to all 

4 i.e. the grain is there exposed to great s?m-heat. cf. 
de igne 44. 

5 i.e. the sun's heat is different in kind, and therefore in 
effect, to that of a fire. 

6 dep/j.affiq conj. Sell.; 6ep/j.a<ria Akl.H. 

7 oxTTrepel KOIVO. conj. Sell, from G ; #<T7rep et/cova UM ; #(T7rep 

flKOVfS Aid. II. 


p 2 


"EtVia Be e%et nvd IBiortjra /cal rwv BoKovvrayy 
dypiwv elvai /cal /card rrjv yeve&iv /cal rrjv 
', WGTrep 6 Oep/jios /cal 6 alyi\w^f o fiev 
ydp Oep/AOS Kairrep lv)(vpbraro<$ wv OJULO)?, edv /JLTJ 
evOvs aTrb TT)? a\w /cara/3\rjdf}, /ca/co^vrjs yii 
/caOaTrep e\e%0r), /cal TO o\ov Be OVK e 

t rfj yy, i o Kal ov% vnapovvres 
7roXXart9 Be tcdv et9 v\rjv TI /3ordvr)v 
nvd irecrrj, Biwa djievos ravrfjv crvvdrrreL rr/v pi^av 
rfj yfj Kal (3\acrrdvei,. %(*)pav Be v(f)afji/jio 
Kal <t>av\rjv fjid\\ov, TO Be o\ov OVK 
<f)vea-0ai ev Bietpyaa-fAevrj. 

9 r O Be alyL\(D^r dvdrra'Kiv ev ydp rfj yewpyov- 
f-ievrj fcd\\iov Kal evia%ov Be rrporepov d/3\aa-rrjs 
wv edv yewpyrjOfj (SKaardvet, Kal yiverai 7roXu9, 
Kal 0X0)9 ^e (f)i\el %(t)pav dyaOrjV. tBiov Be avrov 
\eyerai rrpos rd aXXa rd crirtoBrj (nrep^ara Kal 
rj Trap 1 eviavrov ^\d(7rrj(7^ eKarepov rwv arrep- 
Bi o /cal ol /3ov~\.6jiivoi, TeXect)9 (f)@eipai, 
ydp Brj (f)V(rei, rvy^dveL, T9 dpovpas 
darcopov^ errl Bvo erTj, Kal orav dva- 
(B\a<Trr}(Tr) rd rrpoftara Irrafyidai rroiXXaKis, 60)9 
av eKvefirjOwGi, Kal avrrj yiverai $6opd rravre- 
Be rovro fjiaprvpel Kal rrjv rrapd 

1 /col conj. Sch.; *) Ald.H. 

2 cf. 8. 1. 3. 3 cf.C.P. 4. 7.3. 

4 inrapovvres conj. H. ; v-rrairopovi'Tes UMAld. cf. C.P. 3. 20. 8. 



Of certain peculiarities of the seed of lupin and aigilops. 

Some even 1 of those kinds which seem to be 
more or less wild have peculiarities as to their 
germination and growth, for instance, lupin and 
aigilops. For lupin, although it is very robust, 
unless it is planted immediately after leaving the 
threshing-floor, 2 turns out of poor growth, as was 
said, and refuses altogether to be buried in the 
ground ; 3 wherefore they sow it without first 
ploughing 4 the land. And often if the seed has 
fallen amid thick undergrowth or herbage, 5 it 
thrusts this aside, fastens on to the earth with its 
root and grows vigorously. It seeks sandy and 
poor soil for choice, and will not grow at all in 6 
cultivated 7 soil. 

Aigilops has the opposite character ; it grows 
better in tilled soil ; and in some places where at 
first it would not grow, if the ground is tilled, it 
grows and yields a large crop, and in general it 
likes good soil. A peculiarity 8 mentioned in regard 
to it as compared with other cereal seeds is that one 
seed in two does not germinate for a year. Where- 
fore those who wish to destroy it entirely, (since 
it is naturally hard to destroy), leave the fields 
unsown for two years, and, when it springs up, 
send in 9 the sheep several times till they have 
grazed it down, and this is a way of completely 
destroying it. At the same time this testifies to the 
fact that the seed does not all germinate at once. 

5 cf. 1. 7. 3 ; Plin. 18. 134. 6 eV conj. W.; TTJ Ald.H. 

7 cf. 8. 11. 2. 8 cf. C. P. 4. 6. 1. 

i conj. Sch., cf. 8. 7. 4; a<t>ir)fft M ; d</>trj(rt P; 



I. f H vypoTfjs ol/ceia Twixpvrwv, TJV Brj 
TW69 birov ovoubaTi KOLvS) Trpocrayopevovres' Bvva- 
JMV Be e%ej 8rj\ov on rrjv /cap avrrjv e/cdcrrrj. 
Be rat? pev fia\\ov rat? 8' rJTrov cucoKovOel, 
S' oXco? OVK av 86eiv, ourco? acdevrj^ /cal 
rt9 crri. ir\i(rrti fjLev ovv V7rdp^i Trdai Kara 
TTJV /3\d(TT'r]<nv ) Icr^vpordrr) Be /cal /j.d\i(rTa 
e/ctyaivovaa ryv eavTrjs (frvcriv OTCLV ijBr] Travar^rai, 
/cal ^acTTavovra /cal /capTroyovovvra. avjjipaivei 
Be TLGI TCOV (f)vrwv /cal %po<Z9 IBia? e^eiv rot? 
pels \ev/cd<? olov rot9 OTrcoBeo-t, ro?9 8? aljAarcoBeis 
olov TO* /cevravpiw /cal rfj drpaKTV\i,8i, Ka\ovjjbevr] 
dtcdvOr), ro?9 Be x\c0p6v, rot9 S* eV dX\.rj XP a ' 
ev8r]\a Be /jid\\ov ravra ev rot9 lirereioi? /cal 

f H B 1 vypoTTjs TWV iJLev Trd-^o^ e%et povov, MO-IT ep 
oTTwBcov T&V Be /cal Ba/cpvcoBvjs yiverat,, Ka6d- 
e\drr)s TrevK^ repe(3iv6ov TTITVOS d/jLvy8a\fjs 
tcepdaov TT pov yu-^^9 dp/cevdov /ceBpov T?}9 d/cdvOrjs 
, /cal <ydp avrtj <pepei, 

1 cf. C.P. 6. 11. 16. 

2 1 have omitted 71 and restored Se before %x fl ( om - Seal. ; 
found in UMAld.). 

3 r$ Kevravpiif conj. Seal. cf. Plin. 25. 32; KevravpiSt conj. 
St.; KevT-npla. PgAld.G, cf. 9. 8. 7. 



Of the various kinds of plant-juices and the methods of collecting 

I. * Moisture belongs to plants as such and some 
call it the ' sap/ to give it a general name ; and 
it plainly has 2 special qualities in each plant. 
This moisture is attended by a taste, in some cases 
more, in some less, while in some it would seem to 
have none, so weak and watery is it. Now all plants 
have most moisture at the time of making growth, 
but it is strongest and most shows its character when 
the plant has ceased to grow and to bear fruit. 
Again in some plants the juice has a special colour ; 
in some it is white, as in those which have a milky 
juice ; in some blood-red, as in centaury 3 and the 
spinous plant which is called distaff-thistle ; in some 
green : and in some of other colours. And these 
qualities are more obvious in annual 4 plants and 
those with annual stems than in trees. 

Again in some plants the juice is merely thick, as 
in those in which it is of milky character ; but in some 
it is of gummy character, as in silver-fir fir terebinth 
Aleppo pine almond kerasos (bird-cherry) bullace 
Phoenician cedar prickly cedar acacia elm. 5 For 

4 fv inserted here by W. instead of before Tols firerdois. 

5 irrcAe'as after /ce'Spou P 2 Ald.; transposed by Sch. after 
Tobias Aldinus. c/. Plin. 13. 67. 



7T\7)V OVK e/C TOV $\OiOV aXX* 6V T& KCOpVKO), Tl 

Be d<fi wv 6 \ij3avos /cal rj o-fj,vpva, Bd/cpva yap 
/cal Tavra, teal rb /3d\(rafJLOv /cal <r}> 

Kal 1 Tl TOLOVTOV T6pOV, ol6v (j)ao~i T7JV 

TTJV 'IvSucijv, d<f>' ^5 yiverai TI opoiov rfj 

Be /cal eirl rrj^ cr^ivov /cal eVl 

Be ravra evoo-fjua /cal <j%e$ov ocra 
riva e%6t Kal \i7ros' ocra 8' d\i7rrj ravra 
8* docr/aa, tcaOdirep TO Ko/jufja /cal TO T^? 
Ba\r)s. e%6t Be Bd/cpvov /cal r] l%ia r] ev 
/cal 77 Tpa<yd/cav6a /ca\ov i^evrf ravTrjv Be Trpo- 
repov WOVTO JJLOVOV ev K^O^T^ tpveaOai, vvv Be 
(f>avepd Kal ev ^A^a'lBi T^9 TIe\o7rovvijorov /cal 
d\\o9i /cal T^? 'Atrta? irepl rrjv MtfBeiav. /cal 
TOVTWV fjiev Trdvrwv ev re Tot? /cav\ofc /cal rot? 
aTeKe^ecn /cal T0t9 d/cpe/uoori rb Ba/cpvov evicov B* 
ev Tat? pt^ais, wairep TOV l7nrocre\ivov Kal T}? 

rwv Be Kal ev TW Kav\u> Kal ev rf) pity' /cal yap 
TOV KavKov OTTi^ovcnv eviwv Kal Ta? pi^as, war-jrep 
Kal TOV criXtyiov. 

To fj,ev ovv TOV l7T7roo-e\ivov Trapo/jioi.ov TTJ 
Kai Tiz/69 d/covaavTes tw? evTevOev TJ 
rjyovvTat, /3\ao-Taveiv ef 

1 KupvKy conj. Sch. ; ayyeiy H. ; 076^ P. 2 Ald. probably a 
gloss on KcapvKcp, for which cf. 2. 8. 3 and reff. in note. Plin. 
I.e. has preserved the right word through an absurd blunder 
in Coryco montejOiliciae. 



this last also produces a gum, though it does not 
exude from the bark, but is found in the ' bag ' l 
of the leaves ; there are also the juices from which 
come frankincense and myrrh ; for these too are 
gums ; so too are balsam of Mecca khalbane 2 and any 
others of the kind that there may be, such as, they 
say, the Indian akantha, from which comes some- 
thing 8 resembling myrrh ; and a similar substance 
forms on mastich and the spinous plant called urine 
(pine-thistle), whence mastic-gum is made. 

All these have a fragrant odour, as in general have 
those which contain a viscous substance and are 
fatty ; while those that are not fatty have no scent, 
as gum and the juice which exudes from the almond. 
The pine-thistle 4 of Crete has also a gum, and so 
has the plant called tragacanth ; 5 this was formerly 
supposed to grow only in Crete, but now it is well 
known to grow also in Achaia in the Peloponnese 
and elsewhere in Hellas and in Asia in the Median 
country. In all these plants the gum occurs in 
the stems the trunks and the branches, but in 
some plants it is found in the roots, as in alexanders 
scammony and many other medicinal plants. In 
some it is found in the stem and also in the root ; 6 
for of some 7 plants they tap the stem and the roots 
as well, as is done with silphium. 

Now the juice of alexanders is like myrrh, and 
some, having heard that myrrh comes from it, have 
supposed that, if myrrh is sown, alexanders comes up 

2 (jalbanum. cf. Plin. 12. 121; 24. 21. Verg. G. 3. 415 ; 
4. 264. See 9. 7. 2 ; 9. 9. 2 n. 

3 Til con j. ; rb MSS. * itfo = ttfvij. See Index. 
5 Plin. 13. 115. 6 cf. C.P. 6. 11. 15. 

7 fvlwv KOI conj. Sch. ; xal Iviwv Aid. 



\LVOV <f)VTveTat yap, wo-jrep e\6%0ij, teal CLTTO 
Ba/cpvov TO iTTTroGeXivov, KaOdirep rj Kpivwvla /cal 
aXXa. TO Be TOV cri\<$)iov Bpi/u,v, /caBdirep avTO TO 
ffi\<f)iov 6 yap OTTO? /caXou/<tej>09 TOV o~i\(f)iov 
Sd/cpvov IVTLV. TI Be a-fcaiJLiiwvia KOI e'l TI aXXo 
TOIOVTOV, axnrep e\6%0rj, (papfAa/cwSeis e^ovai ra? 

TidvTWv Be TWV elprj/jLevtov TCL 
avvio-TaTai, TO. S' air* evTOjuvjs, TO, & dfJL(f>OTepwdev 
Tejmvovai, oe Sf)\ov OTI Ta ^ptjcn/na KOI Ta fjia\\ov 
7ri%r)TOi>jUL6va. TOV & ttTTO TT}? d/*vySa\f)s ov- 
Be/jiia XP e ^ a &0>Kpvov, Si b KOV/C d<f)6\Kov(Ti. Tc\r]v 
6Klv6 ye (pavepbv OTI wv auroyu-aro? 7; TTT)^? 

6 TOVTWV TT\ei(DV T) tTTlppOT) TT)S VypOTrjTO^. OV Tr)V 

avTrjv $ wpav aTrdvTwv al evTo/Jial /cal 77 
aXXa TO fjiev TT}? d/jL7re\ov /j,d\i(TTa 
<f>aaiv eav fjiiicpov rrpo TTJS (SXaGTrjcred 
TOV Be {iT07T(t)pov teal dp%o/JLevov TOV 
rJTTov KaiTOi Trpo? 76 KapTTOTo/ciav al ^ 
rat? 76 TrXetcrrat? avTai. r?}? oe TepfjuLvOov /cal 
T7^5 7reu^9 fcal el e/c Tivwv ak\wv prjTivr) yivcTat, 
yLtera rrjv PXda-Trja-w TO 8* o\ov ov/c eVerao? r) 
TOVTWV, aXX' et? TrXeta) %povov 77 eVro/^r;. TOV e 
\ij3avwTov /cal TIJV afivpvav VTTO K.vva (fracrl /cal 
rat? OepiAOTdTctis i)juiepai<; evTepveiv coo-aura)? 
oe /cal TO ev %vpia /3d\a-ajuov. 

7 'A/cpi/3ecrTepa Be /cal eXaTTcov r) /cal TOVTWV 

1 e| aurrjs conj. Seal.: cf. Plin. 19. 162, where smyrnium 'u 
given as a synonym ; e/ avro'is Aid. 

2 cf. 2. 2 1 ;6. 6. 8; C.P. 1. 4. 6. 

3 9. 1. 3. 4 cf. C.P. 6. 11. 15. 



from it ; 1 for, as was said, 2 this plant can be grown 
from an exudation, like the krinonia (lily) and other 
plants. The juice of silphium is pungent like the 
plant itself; for what is called the ' juice ' of silphium 
is a gum. Scammony and similar plants, as was 
said, 3 have medicinal properties. 

In all the plants mentioned the juice either forms 
naturally, or when incisions are made, or in both 
ways, 4 but it is obvious that men only make incisions 
in plants whose juice is of use and is specially sought 
after. 5 Now there is no use in the gum which 
exudes from the almond, wherefore men do not tap 
it. 6 However it is plain that in plants whose gum 
forms naturally the flow of juice is greater. The 
incisions and the clotting of the juice do not take 
place at the same season in all cases ; 7 but the juice 
of the vine clots best they say if the incision is made 
a little before budding begins, less well in the 
autumn or at the beginning of w r inter ; (although in 
regard to production of fruit these 8 seasons are the 
best in the case of most 9 vines). However with 
terebinth fir or any other tree which produces resin 
the best time is after the period of budding ; yet 
in general these trees are not cut every year, but 
at longer intervals. The frankincense and myrrh 
trees they say should be cut at the rising of the 
Dogstar and on the hottest days, and so also the 
e Syrian balsam ' (balsam of Mecca). 

The cutting of these is also a more delicate matter 

5 fj.a\\oi> fTTL^Tov/^fva- rov S' airb TTJS a. conj. W. supported 
by G ; /ULO.\\OV enl yovf rb air)) TTJS a. UMAld. 

6 KOVK a(f>G\Kovcriv conj. Seal., c/. 9. 2. 1 ; KOLV a^eA/coi/cnv U; 
K av &<t>f\Kuffi MAld. c/. Plin. 24. 105. 

7 Plin. 24. 106. 8 a /conj.W.; ical UPAld. 
9 7 e conj. Sch.; 8e Aid. cf. O.P. 3. 13. 2. 



fcal yap f) avppor) rr)? vyporrjTO? 
wv Be Kal 6 /cav\bs evTejjLverai /col rj 
TOVTCOV 6 Kav\bs nrpoTepov, wairep KOI TOV 


Kav\iav TOV 8e pi^iav /cat ecm {3e\TiQ)v 6 
Kadapos <yap Kal Sia^avrjs /cal grjporepos. 6 
/cav\ia<; vyporepo?' /cal Sia rovro akevpov 
TrepiirdTTOvai TT^O? rr)V wijPw. rrjv &pav rijs 
evrofii^ laaaiv ol Ai/Bve<$' ovroi jap ol aiX^iov 
\6<yovTS. oxravro)? Be /cal ol pt^oro/jioi /cal ol 
TOU? (frapfia/cwBeLS OTTOU? cruXXe^o^Te?' /cal yap 
OVTOL Tou? icavkovs OTri^ovai Trporepov. aTrXco? 
Be Trdvre? /cal ol ra? pifas Kal ol TOU? OTTOVS av\- 
Xe^o^re? rrjv ol/ceiav wpav e/cdcrTCtfv rr)pov(7i. /cal 


II. C H ^e prjrivrj yiverai, rovBe rbv rpOTrov ev 
uev rf) TrevKrj orav a^eX/ea^etV??? rj Ba<$ e^aipeOfj, 
crvppel yap eh TO eX/cco/ma TOVTO irXeicov rj vyporrjs, 
ev Be rfj e\drrj /cal rfj rriTvl oTav yeuad^evoi TMV 
d<f>e\K(*)o-(i)<Ti,v ov yap ira^ a^opfo-yu-o? 
a<j>e\Kovo-i yap Kal ra? repuivOovs ev 
d/jbtyolv /cal ev TW o-TeXe%et /cal ev rot? 
alel Be Tfkeiwv /cal fteXritov f) et9 TO 
crvppeovcra TT)<S et? TOU? aKpeuovas. 

Aia(f>epovo-i Be Kal Kara ra BevBpa. 
aev yap 77 TepfUvOivi}' Kal yap a-vvearTjKvla /cal 
evcoBeo'TaT'T} Kal KOV^oTarrj TTJ ocT/jifj aXX' 6\iyrj. 
Bevrepa Be 77 e\arivr) Kal TTiTvtvr), Kov<poTepai 
yap rrjs TrevKivr)?. TrXetcrrT; Be rj TrevKivr) Kal 

1 c/. 6. 3. 2; O.P. 6. 11. 16. 

2 <ri\<f)iov conj. St.; <ri\<f>iov UM ; <ri\(j>io\4yovTGs PAld. 



and is done on a smaller scale ; for the flow of juice 
is less. In those plants whose stem and root are 
both cut the stem is cut first, as also with silphium ; 
and the juices so obtained are called respectively 
stalk-juice and root-juice, of which the latter is the 
better, for it is clear transparent and less liquid. 
The stalk-juice is more liquid, and for this reason 
they sprinkle meal l over it to make it clot. The 
Libyans know the season for cutting, for it is they 
that gather the silphium. 2 So also do the root- 
diggers and those that collect medicinal juices, for 
these too tap the stems earlier. And in general 
all those who collect whether roots or juices observe 
the season which is appropriate in each case. And 
this remark applies generally. 

Of resinous trees and the methods of collecting resin and pitch. 

II. 3 Resin is made in the following manner : in 
fir it is done by removing the resinous wood after the 
tree has been tapped ; for then the juice flows into 
the hole so made in greater abundance ; in silver-fir 
and Aleppo pine it is done by tapping the wood, after 
tasting it. For there is no fixed rule for all alike ; 
thus with terebinth they tap both the stem and the 
branches ; but the juice which runs into the stem is 
always more abundant and better than that which 
flows into the branches. 

There are also differences in 4 the resin obtained 
from different trees. The best is that of terebinth ; 
for it sets firm, is the most fragrant, arid has the most 
delicate smell ; but the yield is not abundant. Next 
comes that of silver-fir and Aleppo pine, for these are 
more delicate than that of the fir. But that of the fir 
8 PliD. 16. 57. 4 Kara conj. W.; ravra Ald.H. 



KOI TriTTCoBecrTdTr) Bta TO 
evBaBov elvat rrjv TTGVK^V. ayerai, 8e ev 
vypd, KatreiTa ovra) avvio-rarai. KaiTOi $>a<rl Kal 

T7JV TepfJLLvOoV 7TlTTOKaVTlCr0ai TTepl ^VplCLV (TTL 

yap 0/009, KaOaTrep ev rot? epTrpocrOev eiTro^ev, fteya 
v pea-Toy aTrav /jbyd\a>v. 
Be $>a(Ji /cat Tr]v TTLTVV Kal TTJV /ceSpov Be 
d\\a ravra fiev 0)9 ev^e^ofjieva 
\r)7TTeov $ia TO cnrdviov ejrel 01 ye Trepl Ma/ce- 
Soviav ov$e Trjv Trevfcrjv 7riTTO/cavTov(7iv aXX' TJ 
Trjv appeva" tca\ov(Ti yap appeva Trjv //.?) xap- 
7ro(j)6pov. T?}9 Be 6ri\eias edv iiva TWV pi^wv 
\djBwcriv aTracra jap evSaoos Trev/cr) rafc pi^ais. 
Ka\\i(TTrj 8e iriTTa yiveTai Kal KaOapwTaTij j] e/c 
(TcfroBpa TrpoaeiXcov /cal irpoaffoppcov, etc 8e 
7ra\i(TKLCi)v jB\o<TVpu>Tepa Kal /SopfiopcoSrjs' ev 
yap ro?9 crtyoSpa Tra\i(TKioi<; ov$e (frvcTai, Trev/cr) 
TO Trapdirav. 

"Eo-rt Be Kal dtyopia Ti9 teal evfopia Kal 7r\rj- 
6ov<$ Kal KaXkovfjS" OTav /lev yap ^etfMCDv /j,eTpios 
yivrjTai, 7ro\\rj yiveTai Kal Ka\r) Kai r 
\,evKOTepa, OTav Be loyypfa, 6\iyrj Kal 
Tepa. Kal raOra ye eaTi TO, opi^ovTa 7T\r)0os Kal 

Ka\\OV7)V 7T/TT7y9, OV% V] TTO^VKapTTia TWV 

conj. 8ch., cf. 9. 3. 4 ; TurTOKavOiffai U; 
TriTT(a0etffai Aid. * 3. 2. 6. 

3 Sc conj. W.; /col Ald.H. cf. 3. 12. 3. 

4 IJL^ conj. W.; ye Ald.H.; ye ^ Cod.Casaub.Vin.j ye ^v 
Vo. (r}]v &Kapirov mBas.). cf. 3. 9. 2. 

5 Plin. 16. 59. 



is the most abundant, the grossest and the most pitch- 
like, because this tree has the greatest amount of 
resinous wood. It is carried about in baskets in a 
liquid state, and so acquires the more solid form which 
we know. However they say that in Syria pitch is 
extracted even from the terebinth by burning 1 ; for 
there is in that land a mountain which, as we said 
before, 2 is all covered with great terebinths. 

Some 3 say the same of Aleppo pine and also of 
Phoenician cedar ; but this must be taken as only 
indicating what can be done, the practice not 
being common ; for the people of Macedonia do not 
extract pitch by burning even from fir, except from 
the e male ' kind (they call the kind which bears no 
fruit 4 the ' male ') ; the ' female ' kind they only 
treat in this way when they have found roots con- 
taining pitch ; for all firs have resinous wood ex- 
tending to the roots. 5 The finest and purest pitch 
is that obtained from trees growing in a sunny 
position and facing north 6 ; that obtained from trees 
growing in shade is coarser 7 and muddy ; (in ex- 
ceedingly shady places the fir does not even grow 
at all). 

Again the yield may be either good or bad as to 
amount and as to quality ; thus, when there is a 
moderate winter, it is abundant and good and whiter 
in colour, but, when there is a severe winter, it is 
scanty and of inferior quality. And it is these 
conditions, and not the tree's capacity for bearing 
fruit, which determine the amount and quality of 

6 Apparently because this is the dry quarter in the Balkan 

7 &\o(T(apcaTfpa conj. Sch.; fipoffripoTcpa M ; ft\oo"r)poTfpa Aid. 
of C. p. 6. 12. 5. 

22 5 



5 Ol Be irepl TTJV "iBrjv $aai, BiaipovvTes ra? 
TrevKas /cal Tr)V fj,ev KCL\OVVT<> 'IBaiav T?]V Be 
7rapa\iav, TTJV K rrfi 'IoW9 7r\eio) /cal (jieKav- 
Tepav tyiveaOai teal ^\VKvrepav real TO o\ov 
evwSe&repav WJJLI^V, e-^rr)6ei<rav Be eXttrrw IK- 
ftaiveiv 7r\eta> yap e%eiv TOV oppov, 81 o /cal 
\?7TTOTepav elvai. TTJV Se 7779 Tra/oaXta? %av0o- 
Tepav Kal Tra^urepav w/Atjv, cbcrre teal rrjv a<f>\lnv 
e'XaTTft) ylveaOai, SaScoSearepav 3e Tr]v 'ISaiav. 
to? &e a7rXa>9 elTrelv e/c 7^9 6(7779 8a8o9 TrXetft) /cal 
vSapearepav ev rat9 &Tropftpiai$ ytveaQai YI eV 
Tot9 av%/jioi<;, /cal e/c rcov xei/jiepivwv Kal TTO\I- 

GKIWV TOTTWV 7} e/C TWV eVl\WV Kttl vBl6lV(t)V. 

ravra /juev ovv o#ra>9 e/cdrepoi Xeyovaiv. 

6 'Ava7r\r)pov(70ai Be avuftaivzi ra 
?r/)09 TO 7rd\iv e^aipelv T&V jjiev dyaOwv 
eviavrw, TCOV Be fjierpicorepcov ev Bvcrlv ereai, 

Be fJLO'xpripMV ev -rpiaiv. r) Be avaTrkrjpwGis ov 
TOV gv\ov /cal r^9 o-vjj,<f)V(Tea)S d\\a TT)S TTLTT^ 
eariv eVel TO v\ov dBvvaTOV av^vvai /cal ev 
<yevecr0ai 7rd\t,v } aXV TJ epjaaia Bia TOO-OVTOV 
Xpbvov jiveTai T?}9 TTITT^' dvay/calov Be Bfj\ov 
OTI Kal TO) v\<p yiveo-Qai Tiva Trpoo-^vaiv, elirep 

1 Plin. 16. 60. 

2 evocfifffTepav H. ; evKpiVduSeffTepav UMAld. ; ? 
Kal euwSeo-Tepoj/ W. C/ 3. 9. 2. 

3 Plin. I.e. 



The people of Mount Ida distinguish different 
kinds of fir, calling one ( that of Mount Ida ' (Corsican 
pine), another the ' fir of the seashore/ (Aleppo pine); 
1 and they say that the pitch obtained from the former 
is more abundant blacker sweeter and generally 
more fragrant 2 in the raw state, but that boiling 
down reduces the amount ; for that it contains a 
larger proportion of watery matter, wherefore it 
is less substantial ; but that derived from the ' fir 
of the seashore ' is browner and thicker in the 
raw state, so that the amount is less reduced by 
boiling down ; that the ' fir of Mount Ida ' how- 
ever contains more resinous wood. And, speaking 
generally, they say that from an equal amount of 
resinous wood more pitch is obtained and in a more 
liquid state in wet weather than during a drought, 
and from a wintry and shady position than from one 
that is sunny and enjoys fair weather. Such is 
the account given by the peoples of Mount Ida and 
of Macedonia respectively. 

3 The holes for the pitch fill up, so that the pitch 
can be again removed/ in good firs in a year, in those 
of more moderate quality in two years, in poor trees 
in three. The filling-up is composed of the pitch ; 
it is not caused by closing up of the wood ; for the 
wood cannot close up and become one again, but the 
effect which takes the time mentioned is due to the 
formation of the pitch. 5 However it is clearly in- 
evitable that there should be some new growth of 
the wood too, seeing that the resinous wood is 

4 fl-aipe'iv conj. Sch. ; tl-aipfiv Ald.H. 

5 So W. explains aAAa . . . TTITTTJS. Or perhaps (as Sch.), 
' however this is the interval which must elapse before the 
pitch can be worked again.' 

Q 2 


e^aipov fjLe.wr)s Trjs BqBbs KOI /caio/mev^s TT)? 
TI eKporj. TOVTO juev ovv OVTCD \rfjTreov. 

Ol Be Trepl rrjv "IBrjv fyaoriv, OTCLV \e7rio-a) on 
rb o*TeA,e%09, XeTri^ovai, Be TO 717)09 ij\iov fiepos 
7rl Bvo TI r/?et9 TT^ei? a?ro TT)? 77)9 evravOa 
T?}? eTTipporis yivo/jievrjs evSaSovaQcu eviavrw fjid- 
\t,ara, TOVTO S' orav eKirekeKrjacoGLV ev ere/Oft) 
TTakiv ev&qbovo-Oai /cal TO TpiTOV axravTcos, /JLCTO, 
& TavTa Sia TTJV {jTroTo^v e/cTTiTTTeiv TO SevSpov 
VTTO TWV TrvevfjiaTCdv oraTTev TOT6 8' 
avTov TJ]V /capSlav, TOVTO jap [JiakiaTa 
egaipeiv Se e/c TWV pit.wv KOI <yap TavTas, wo~7Tp 
6iTro/jiV, evSaSovs TTCLO-WV. 

TOVTO opav 

Tr\elovo<$ xpovov Kal Tajuevofjievcov fjie 
vTe^ew, eav oe Traaav e^atpwviv 
S* co9 eotAre Tpels p,a\,LQ-Ta 

vTropeveiv. ov% d/jia Se Kapirofyo poverty 
al Trevfcai Kal SaSotyopovcrr fcapTrofyopovcn 
ryap evOvs vkai> SqSotyopovcri Be vaTepov 

III. Trjv Be TTLTTCIV Kaiovcri TovBe TOP TpoTrov 
OTav KaTacTKevdvwonv o/^aX?} TOTTOV wcrTrep d\a) 

1 i.e. and so this kind of wood at least is replaced by fresh 
growth. 2 Plin. 16. 57. 

3 TTJS tTTipporis yit>ofj.fvrjs ev$a5ovff6ai conj. W.; 
ytvo/j.fvr)v ^SaSoi/ Aid. ; rrjs eiripporjs yit>o/j.*Vf)s 
conj. Sch. 



removed 1 and burnt when the discharge of pitch takes 
place. So much for this account. 

2 The people of Mount Ida however say that, when 
they bark the stem, and they bark the side towards 
the sun to a height of two or three cubits from the 
ground, the flow of pitch takes place in that part, 3 
and in about a year the wood becomes full of pitch ; 
and that, when they have hewn this part out, pitch 
forms again in the next year, and in the third year 
in like manner ; after which 4 that the tree, because 
it has been cut away underneath, is rotted by the 
winds and falls ; and that then 5 they take out its 
heart, for that is especially full of pitch, and that 
they also extract pitch from ti the roots ; for that these 
too, as we said, 7 are full of pitch in all firs. 

Now it is plainly to be expected that they should, 
as was said, repeatedly thus treat a good tree, but an 
inferior one at longer intervals, and that, if the tree 
is husbanded, the supply should hold out longer, 
while, if they remove all the pitch, it will not hold 
out so long ; it appears as a matter of fact that the 
tree will stand about three such removals of its 
substance. 8 However firs do not produce both fruit 
and pitch at once ; they begin to bear fruit when 
they are quite young, but they only produce pitch 
much later, when they are older. 

Of the making of pitch in Macedonia and in Syria. 

III. This is the manner in which they make pitch 
by fire : having prepared a level piece of ground, 

4 fj.era Se TOVTO conj. Sch.; TO. Se ravra UM ; TO. 5e rotavra 

6 T<*T6 conj. Sch. from G; rovs Aid. 

6 eV Aid.; K al conj.W. 

7 9. 2. 3. 8 cf. O.P. 5. 16. 2. 



e^ovcrav ei? TO fieo-ov avpporfv /cal 
ravrrjv eBa(f>i<Tcoo-i,, KaTao"%ivavT<t TOVS /cop/uovs 
<jvvTi0ea(Ti 7rapa7T\r]cri,av avvOecnv r^9 TWV dv- 
0pa/cev6vTa)v, Tr\r)V ov/c /A/3o0pov aXXa ra? 
cr^ta9 opOas TT/OO? d\\rj\a<>, ware \afA/3dv6iv v\jro^ 
alel tcara 7r\fj@o<i' rylvecrOai Be (fracriv, orav rj 
crvvOecris rj KVK\W fjiev oySoiJKOvra /cal e/carov 

KOVTCL TJ CKOLTOV a[jL<)OTepoi<$, evirep TI 

crvvQevres ovv avryv OUTO>? teal /cara- 

TO Trvp, cnroXkvTat, 

TTiTTa TOVTOV (TV/ji/3dvTOS. V(j)d7TTOV(Tl, Be 

Kara TTJV V7ro\6i7rofj,ei>7)v SioBov elra Be /cal 
ravra TTi<ppdj;avT6$ rfj ii\y KOI eTTL^wcravTe^ 
TTjpovcriv avaftaivovres Kara K\i/uLa/co$, rj av opwcn 
rov KCLTTVOV a)0ov/jivov, /cal eTnj3d\\ova-i,v alel 
OTTO)? jirjB' dva\dj,r). /careo-Kevacrrai, 

Be O%TO? rf} Trirrrj Bia TT}? (rvv0eorea>$ 

dTTOppofjS 66? (BodvVOV OGOV IfJT k^OVT d 

/caiBe/ca Trfyew rj B* cnroppeovora TTJS 
"^rv^pa ryiverai, Kara Tr)v d(j)ijv. fcaierai, Be /Jtd- 
\t(7ra Bvo rjjjiepas KOI vvfcras' ry yap vcrrepaia 
irpo r)\iov Bvvavro? e/c/ce/cav/jievr) ryLverai /cal 
evBeBa)Kv TI Trvpd" rovro yap av jubftaivei /ay/ceri 
peovar) 1 ?. TOVTOV Be TOV ^pbvov aTcavra TTjpovaiv 

1 f$a<t>lff<afft : cf. 9. 4. 4. 

2 cf. 5. 9, where however the 'pit' is not described. 

3 yivffdai Se. Something seems to have dropped out at the 
beginning of this clause. ? "and they say that the pile at 
largest is 180 " . . .: so Sch. supplying pey'tcrri] after $. The 
omitted words might also throw light on the preceding 



which they make like a threshing-floor with a slope 
for the pitch to run towards the middle, and having 
made it smooth, 1 they cleave the logs and place them 
in an arrangement like that used by charcoal-burners, 2 
except that there is no pit ; but the billets are set 
upright against one another, so that the pile goes on 
growing in height according to the number used. 
And they say that the erection is complete, 3 when the 
pile is 180 cubits in circumference, and fifty, or at 
most- sixty, in height ; or again when it is a hundred 
cubits in circumference and a hundred in height, 4 if 
the wood happens to be rich in pitch. Having then 
thus arranged the pile and having covered it in with 
timber they throw on earth and completely cover it, 
so that the fire may not by any means show through ; 
for, if this happens, the pitch is ruined. Then they 
kindle the pile where the passage is left, and then, 
having 5 filled that part 6 up too with the timber and 
piled on earth, they mount a ladder and watch 
wherever they see the smoke pushing its way out, 
and keep on piling on the earth, so that the fire may 
not even shew itself. And a conduit is prepared for 
the pitch right though the pile, so that it may flow 
into a hole about fifteen cubits off, and the pitch as 
it flows out is now cold to the touch. The pile burns 
for nearly two days and nights ; for on the second 
day before sunset it has burnt itself out and the pile 
has fallen in ; for this occurs if the pitch is no longer 
flowing. All this time 7 they keep watch and do not 

4 a/j.(f>OTfpois : a.^.(por4pu>ffe conj. Sell. 

5 eTri(bpdavTes conj. Seal, from G, stipant ; eird^avrfs UM 
Aid. ; firiffd^avres H. 

6 ravra Aid.; Ta.vTt]v W. after Sch.'s conj. 

7 TOVTOV 8e rbv xpovov conj. Sch. from G, totum tempus ; T<$v8e 


2 3 l 


dypvTrvovvTes, 07ro)9 p^ ^iakdjjiTrr), KOI OVOVVL 
Be KOI eoprd^ovcnv ev^ofjievoi, TroXKriv re /cal 
Ka\r)i> ytveaOat, TTJV TTirrav ol fiev Brj Trepl 
MaKeBoviav /caiovcri TOV TpoTcov TOVTOV. 

'Ez^ Be rfj 'Aaia (ftaal Trepl ^vplav OVK eic- 
TreXeK&VTas rrjv BaBa d\\ J eV avrw TW BevBpw 
irpoGKaieiv (pepovras opyavov n TrepiTreTroitj/jievov 
Koi TOVTW TrepidTTTOvras, eW orav KTija)<Ti 
ravrrjv ira\iv eV a\\o Kal a\\o peTafyepeiv 
opos Be eo-riv avrois rt9 /cal aTj^eta TOV iravevdai 
ical /jidXiara Bf)\ov ori TO fj,r)fceTi pelv. TTITTO- 
KavTovcri Be, wajrep Kal rrpbrepov e^e^Or), 
T<X? TepfJilvOovs' irev/crjv yap ov (frepovaw ol 
TOTTOI. TCL /jiev ovv Trepl TTJV prjTivrjv /cal Trjv 

TTiTTaV OUTft)? %l. 

IV. Hepl Be \i/3ava)TOv /cal a-/jLvpvr)s /cal /3a\- 
crdfiov Kai ei TL TOIOVTOV eTepov OTL /JLCV /cal CLTC 
yiveTai /cal avTO/jidTO)? eiprjTai. iroLa Be 
r] T&V BevBpwv fyvcns Kal el TI Trepl TTJV yeve- 
T) TTJV (TvXXoyrjv r) TWV a\\a>v iBiov avTol? 
xet, 'ireipaTeov eLTreiv, ooaavTO)^ Be /cal Trepl 
\onrwv evoa/jLcov (T%eBbv yap TCL ye Tr\el(7Ta 
o TWV Toirayv ecrrl TCOV re 7T/J09 ju,eo-r}jj,/3ptav /cal 

fjiev ovv o \i(Bavo<$ Kal f) GfjLvpva Kal rj 
Kal eTi TO Kivd^w/jiov ev TTJ TWV 'Apd/3cov 
Trepi re ^aftd Kal 'ABpajAVTa /cal 

1 eKirf\K(avras conj. W.; ^irAe/coVT6S U; titirXeovTes M ; e/c 


2 The sense given to Trepureiroi'rj/'oi' is unexampled, and the 
word may be corrupt. 



go to rest, in case the fire should come through ; and 
they offer sacrifice and keep holiday, praying that 
the pitch may be abundant and good. Such is the 
manner in which the people of Macedonia make 
pitch by fire. 

They say that in Asia in the Syrian region they 
do not extract the pitch by cutting l out of the tree 
the wood containing it, but use fire to the tree itself, 
applying an instrument fashioned on purpose, 2 
with which they set fire to it. 3 And then, when 
they have melted out the pitch at once place, they 
shift the instrument to another. But they have a 
limit and indications when to stop, chiefly of course 
the fact that the pitch ceases to flow. They also, as 
was said before, 4 use fire to get pitch out of the 
terebinth ; for the places where this tree grows do 
not produce the fir. Such are the facts about 
resin and pitch. 

Of frankincense and myrrh : various accounts. 

IV. As to frankincense myrrh balsam of Mecca 
and similar plants it has been said that the gum is 
produced both by incision and naturally. Now we 
must endeavour to say what 5 is the natural character 
of these trees and to mention any peculiarities as to 
the origin of the gum or its collection or anything 6 
else. So too concerning the other fragrant plants ; 
most of these come from places in the south and east. 

Now frankincense myrrh cassia and also cin- 
namon are found in the Arabian peninsula 7 about 

3 Tovrcf irfpiairrovras seems to have been G's reading (Seal.) ; 
TOVTO irepia\fi<povTas MSS. * 9. 2. 2. 

6 irola conj. W.; TTOAATJ Aid. 6 TI before r>v add. Sch. 
conj. Salm.j X'fy? vi\ff(f Aid. cf. Plin. 6. 28. 


KOI Ma/taXt. (frverai, Be rd rov Xt- 

/3aVC0rOV Kal T?;? (TfJLVpVT)^ BevBpa TO, /UV V Tft> 

opei ra B J ev rals IBiai? yecopyiat^ vrrb rrjv VTTO)- 

> > l\ \ \ \ /J / \ >/ . \ M 

peiav, oi o KCLI TO, fjuev ueparreverai ra o ov TO o 
opo? eivai a<Jiv v"^rri\ov /cal Saav tcai 
pelv 8' e^' avrov teal 7rora/mov<> 6/9 TO 
elvai Be TO jj^ev rov \i(Bavu>rov BevBpov ov 

Be n KOI 7ro\VK\aBov, (f>v\\ov B* 
e/ji(f)6pes rf) air La, 7r\rjv e\arrov TTO\V fcal 
ra) %pu>jjiari TrowSe? o-(f)6Bpa, /caOdrrep TO rc^avov 
\ei6<f)\oiov Be rrav, loarrep rrjv Bdfpv^v. 

Trjv Be cr/jivpvav e\arrov en r& jjieyeOei /cal 
Oa/jLVCoBearepov Be, TO Be are\exos e%eiv orK\ijpov 
/cal o-vve'jrpafjbfjievov errl T% 7%, rra-^vrepov Be rj 
/cvrj/jLOTra^e^- <J>\oiov Be eyeiv \elov OIJLOIOV rfj 
dvBpd'X\r]. erepoi Be oi fyda'tcovres reOewpiiicevai 
irepl /Jiev rov fjieyeOovs o"%eBbv (jv^^ddvoixjiv ov- 
Berepov <yap elvai /j,eya rwv BevBpwv, eXarrov Be TO 
TT}? (T/jLvpwrjs /cal rarreivoTepov <fyv\\ov Be 
TO ToO \i(3avwrov BafaoeiBes /cal \eio$\oiov 
elvar TO Be rrjs <r/jivpvr)<; d/cavOwBes /cal ov \elov, 
(jji>X\ov Be 7rpo(refA<j)6pe<? e^eiv rfj TrreXea, rr\r]v 
ov\ov et; a/cpov Be eira/cavOi^ov, wcrrrep TO T?}? 


Be ovroi Kara rbv rrapdrrXovv ov e 
erroiovvro KQ\TCOV ^rjrelv eKftdvres vBwp 
ev rw opei /cal ovro) dewprjaai rd BevBpa /cal rrjv 
(rv\\oyr)v. elvai, S' dfi^orepwv evrer/ju^fjieva /cal 

1 Plin. 12. 55 and 56. 2 Pliri. 12. 67. 

3 rxeiv conj. Sch. ; *x" P 2 Ald. 

4 Ai/3afo>ToG Sa^roeiSes Kal \ei6(f)\oioi> S' elvai conj. Sch.; At^Sa- 
vov rov Sa^yoeiSes Kal \i j^vAAov 8' elvai UM j \tfidvov 



Saba Hadramyta Kitibaina and Mamali. The trees of 
frankincense and myrrh grow partly in the mountains, 
partly on private estates at the foot of the mountains ; 
wherefore some are under cultivation, others not ; 
the mountains, they say, are lofty, forest-covered 
and subject to snow, and rivers from them flow down 
to the plain. The frankincense-tree, 1 it is said, is not 
tall, about five cubits high, and it is much branched ; 
it has a leaf like that of the pear, but much smaller 
and very grassy in colour, like rue ; the bark is 
altogether smooth like that of bay. 

The myrrh-tree 2 is said to be still smaller in 
stature and more bushy ; it is said to have 3 a tough 
stem, which is contorted near the ground, and is 
stouter than a man's leg ; and to have a smooth 
bark like that of andrachne. Others who say that 
they have seen it agree pretty closely about the 
size ; neither of these trees, they say, is large, but 
that which bears myrrh is the smaller and of lower 
growth ; however they say that, while the frankin- 
cense-tree 4 has a leaf like that of bay and smooth 
bark, that which bears myrrh is spinous and not 
smooth, and has a leaf like that of the elm, except 
that it is tiurly and spinous 5 at the tip like that of 

6 These said that on the coasting voyage which 
they made from the bay of the Heroes they landed 
to look for water on the mountains and so saw these 
trees and the manner of collecting their gums. 
7 They reported that with both trees incisions had 

Kal Ae/J^Aoiov 5' elvat P 2 ; Xiftavov a\\a rov juev Sa<f>voi$es Kal 
At6<pv\\ov e'lvat Ald.H. c/. Plin. 12. 57. 

5 c/. 3. 10. 1; 3. 11.3. 

6 c/. Arr. Anal). 3. 5. 4 ; 7. 20. 1 and 2, 
' Pliii. 12. 58-62, 



ra aT\6%r) KOI TOU? tc\dBov<>, a\\a TCL 
d^ivrj Boteeiv T6TjJLrj(r0ai, TOU9 Be \e7TTOTepas 
T9 evTOfJtds' TO Be Bdtepvov TO ftev 
TO Be KOI 7T/009 TW BevBpti) TTpoae^edOai. 
fj,ev v7ro/3/3\f)cr0cu tyidOovs etc (poiviKcov 
fji&vas, Ivid'Xpv Be TO e8a^>o? JJLOVOV ^a^iaOai KOI 
KaOapov elvar real rbv ^ev eVt TWV ^riaQwv 
\i/3ava)TOV etvcii teal KaOapov /col Sta(f)avrj, rov 8' 
eVt TT)? 77)9 rjTTOV TOV S' eVl TOt9 Sev&pois irpoor- 
e^ofJievov cnro^veiv cn&rfpoiSy Si b teal (f)\oibv eviois 

5 Trpoo-elvai. rb Be 0/009 airav jA6/j,epicr(}ai Tot9 
'Zaffaiois, TOVTOV? yap eivai tcvpiovs, SiKalow; Be 
TO, 7T/309 aXX77\of9, Bi b KOI ovSeva Trjpelv oOev 
/cal avTol Batyi\co<; 6t*9 Ta irXoia Xa/9oz/Te9 evOi- 
aQai TOV \ij3ava)TOv ical T>}9 vfJivpvris epr^^ia^ 
ovo-ris teal aTro7r\elv. e\eyov 8' OVTOI teal ToBe 
teal efyaaav dtcoveiv, OTI (rvvdyeTai TcavTa^odev f) 
(T/jivpva teal 6 \i(3ava)Tos els TO lepbv TO TOU fj\iov 
TOVTO B* elvai JAW TWV ^aftaiwv dyiwTaTov Be 
7ro\v TWV Tcepl TOV TOTCOV, TTjpeiv Be Tivas "Apa- 

6 /3a9 eVo7rXou9* OTav Be KOHIGWCTLV, etcaaTov crwpev- 
oravTa TOV avTOv teal Trjv cr/jivpvav ofAoio 
\nrelv TOL$ ejrl T% (t>v\a/eij$, TiQevai Be eVl 
a-wpov Trivd/eiov ypacfrrjv e%ov TOV Te 7r\r)0ov^ 
/jieTpwv teal T^9 Ttyu^9 ^9 Bel TrpaOrjvai TO 
eteao-TOV OTav Be ol e^Tropoi TrapayevcovTai, arteo- 
Trelv T9 7/?a</>a9, ocrT^9 B 9 av 

1 irpaOrjvai conj. Sch. from G; vpaaOrlvai U; 


been made both in the stems and in the branches, 
but that, while the stems looked as if they had 
been cut with an axe, in the branches the incisions 
were slighter ; also that in some cases the gum 
was dropping, but that in others it remained sticking 
to the tree ; and that in some places mats woven of 
palm-leaves were put underneath, while in some the 
ground underneath was merely made level and 
clean; and that the frankincense on the mats was 
clear and transparent, that collected on the ground 
less so ; and that that which remained sticking to 
the trees they scraped off with iron tools, wherefore 
sometimes pieces of bark remained in it. The 
whole range, they said, belongs to the portion of 
the Sabaeans ; for it is under their sway, and they 
are honest in their dealings with one another. 
Wherefore no one keeps watch ; so that these sailors 
greedily took, they said, and put on board their 
ships some of the frankincense and myrrh, since 
there was no one about, and sailed away. They also 
reported another thing which they said they had 
been told, that the myrrh and frankincense are 
collected from all parts into the temple of the 
sun ; and that this temple is the most sacred thing 
which the Sabaeans of that region possess, and it is 
guarded by certain Arabians in arms. Arid that 
when they have brought it, each man piles up his 
own contribution of frankincense and the myrrh 
in like manner, and leaves it with those on guard ; 
and 011 the pile he puts a tablet on which is stated 
the number of measures which it contains, and the 
price for which each measure should be sold l ; and 
that, when the merchants come, they look at the 
tablets, and whichsoever pile pleases them, they 



TiOevai Trjv TifJLTjv 6t? TOVTO TO 
%a)pi,ov evdev av eXayvrai, teal TOV lepea Trapayevo- 
fjievov TO TpiTOV fiepos \afBovTa T>}? TL/JL^ TW 6ea> 


rot? KvpLots, eft)? av e\wvTai Trapayevo/jievoi. 

7 "AXXoi 8e Tives TO fiev TOV \i(3avwTov Sevbpov 

elvai (fracri, o~%ivq) icai TOV Kapirov rat? 
<pv\\ov Be vTrepvOpov elvai Be TOV /JLEV etc 
veo)v \(,/3avcoTov \VKoTpov /cal aoSf^oTepov, 
TOV & IK TWV TraprjfCfjba/coTWV ^avOoTepov fcal 
evocr/jiOTepov TO Be rr;? o-/j,vpvr)<t O/JLOIOV Ty Tep- 
fjiivOw, Tpa^vTepov 6 /cal dtcavQatBeo-Tepov, (f)v\- 
\ov Be fjLi/cpw o-Tpo<y<yv\oTepov, TTJ Be yevcrei Bia- 
/zacrft)//,ei>o? o/jLoiov rw r^? TepfjiivOov elvai Be /cal 
TOVTCOV Ta TraptjKfjia/coTa evoG fjuoTepa. 

8 YlveaOai Be a^oTepa ev T& avTw TOTT^T T^V Be 
jrji' V7rdpji\ov teal 7r\a/c(oBr], teal vBaTa jrrjyala 
aTcdvia. TavTa /j,ev ovv virevavTia TW vi<f)ea~0ai 
teal veaOai teal TTOTa/JLOVs e^ievar TO Be Trapo/noiov 
elvai TO BevBpov Ty TepfJiivdw /cal a\\oi 
Xeyovo-iv, ol Be teal oXco? TpfJ4V0ov elvar 
o-0r)vai yap ^v\a 77/009 'AvTijovov VTTO TWV *A.pd- 
/3wv TWV TOV \t,(3avu>Tov tcaTajovTcov, a ovBev 
Bie^epe TWV TT}? Tepfjiivdov ir'krjv OVTOI ye 

1 Plin. 12. 66 and 67. 2 Plin. 12. 53. 

3 TrAojcwSr/ : lit. 'with a crust'; so W., but the word does 
not seem to occur elsewhere in this sense. 

4 cf. 9. 4. 2. 


MQUIRY INTO PLANTS, ix. iv. 6-8 

measure, and put down the price on the spot whence 
they have taken the wares, and then the priest 
comes and, having taken the third part of the price 
for the god, leaves the rest of it where it was, and 
this remains safe for the owners until they come and 
claim it. 

Others report that the tree which produces the 
frankincense is like mastich, and its fruit is like 
the fruit of that tree, but the leaf is reddish : also 
that the frankincense derived from young trees is 
whiter and less fragrant, while that derived from 
those which have passed their prime is yellower and 
more fragrant ; also that the tree which produces 
myrrh is like the terebinth, but rougher and more 
thorny ; that the leaf is somewhat rounder, and 
that, if one chews it, it resembles that of the 
terebinth in taste ; also that of myrrh-trees too 
those that are past their prime give more fragrant 

1 Both trees, it is said, grow in the same region ; 
the soil is clayey 2 and caked, 3 and spring waters 
are scarce. Now these reports are contradictory to 
4 that which says that the country is subject to snow 
and rain and sends forth rivers. However others 
make the statement 5 that the tree is like the tere- 
binth ; in fact some say that it is the same tree ; for 
that logs of it were brought to Antigonus by the 
Arabs who brought the frankincense down to the 
sea, and that these did not differ at all from logs of 
terebinth. 6 However these informants were guilty 

5 i.e. the statement quoted of the myrrh-tree, 7. The 
' tree ' is here the Xi&avwros, but these authorities did not 
distinguish it from the myrrh -tree. See below. 

6 ruv conj. Sch.; T< UAld. 



eTepov dyvorj/jia Trpoa-rjyvoovv WOVTO yap e/c TOV 
avTOV BevBpov TOV re Xiffavwrbv yivecrOat, KOI TT)V 

9 o~fjLvpvav BioTrep ercelvos o \6yos TriOavwrepos 6 
Trapd TWV dvaTr\evo"dvTU)V e% 'Upaxav TroXews' 
eTrel KOL TO virep ^dpBecov TrecfrvKos TOV \t,/3ava)- 
TOV SevBpov ev iepa> TIVL ScKfrvoeio'es e%et TO <f>v\- 
\ov, el TL Set GTadnaadai TOVTO" 6 \i(BavwTo<$ & 
eyei, KOI o etc TOV o-reXe^ou? Kal o eic TWV aicpe- 
fjbovtov, o/Jioiws /cal Trj offset Kal TTJ oo-fjif} Ov/jiia)- 
lievos TO) d\\w \i/3ava)TO). 7re(f)VK Be TOVTO povov 
TO BevSpov ovoejjuas Tvy%dveiv <6epaireia^>. 

10 "Etvioi Be \eyovo-iv 009 7r\eio)v jjiev o Xt/8az/&)To? 
eV Ty *A/3a/3m yiveTai, Ka\\Lwv Be ev rat? eTTiKei- 
/Jievais vijcrois &v eirdp^ovaLv evTavda yap Kal 
o-%r)fjLaT07roielv eVt TWV BevBpwv olov av tfeXewar 
KOI Ta%a TOVTO ye OVK aTrlOavov evBe^eTai, <yap> 
OTTOiav av fSov\wvTai, Troielv Trjv emo/jujv. elcrl 
Be Tives Kal jj,eyd\oi o~(f)6Bpa TWV %6vBp(ov, W<TT' 
elvai TO) fjiev oyKy i ^eipOTc\r]diaiov^ o~Tadfjiw Be 
Tc\eov rj TpiTov yite/oo? fjbvas. dpybs Be KO^i^eTai 
Tra? o Xt/9a^a)T09, O/MLOS Be Ty tTpoao^rei (frXoiy. 

Be rj fjuev (TTaKTr) 7} Be 7r~\,ao~Tij. 
S' 97 fjiev d/Aeivoov Trj yevcrei,, Kal 
TIJV 6fj,6%pQ)v \a^dvovai. . Trepl 
ovv ~\,i/3ava)TOv Kal o-fj,vpvr)$ <r%eBbv 
d%pi ye TOV vvv. 

1 Plin. 15. 57 ; c/. 16. 135. 

3 5' e^et conj. W. ; Stferot P 2 Ald.; om. H. 

3 depairdas add. Sch. from G ; oirSe^ums rvyxdveiv UMAld. ; 
ov fj.ias Tvyx& vetv ^*2- But there is no sign of a lacuna in the 
MSS., and ovSeplas is probably corrupt, as W. suggests. oi5e 
Qep. is inconsistent with 9. 4. 2. 

4 TrAeiW conj.W.; yttwv P 2 Ald. 



of a further more important piece of ignorance ; for 
they believed that the frankincense and the myrrh 
were produced by the same tree. Wherefore the 
account derived from those who sailed from the city 
of Heroes is more to be believed ; 1 in fact the 
frankincense-tree which grows above Sardes in a 
certain sacred precinct has 2 a leaf like that of bay, if 
we may judge at all by this ; and the frankincense 
derived both from its stem and its branches is like 
in appearance and in smell, when it is burnt as 
incense, to other frankincense. This is the only 
tree which can never be cultivated. 3 

Some say that the frankincense-tree is more 
abundant 4 in Arabia, but finer in the adjacent islands 5 
over which the Arabians bear rule ; 6 for there it is 
said that they mould the gum on the trees to any 
shape that they please. And perhaps this is not 
incredible, since it is possible to make any kind of 
incision that they like. Some of the lumps 7 of gum 
are very large, so that one is large enough in bulk to 
fill the hand and in weight is more than a third of a 
pound. All frankincense is gathered in the rough 
and is like bark in appearance. Myrrh s is either 
' fluid ' 9 (myrrh-oil) or ' solid ' (agglutinated). That 
of better quality is tested by its taste, and of this 
they select that which is of uniform colour. 10 Now 
of frankincense and myrrh these are about all the 
facts that have come to our notice at present. 

5 Plin. 12. 60. 

6 fTrdpxova-LV conj. Coraes ; tvuirdpxovo-i P 2 Ald. 

7 r<av x^^pco^ conj. Sch.: T<$ x^vSp^ P 2 Ald. 

8 i.e. here the commodity so called. 

9 c/. Odor. 29. 

10 &/j.6xpo>v conj. Sch. ; &/j.6xpw UM ; o^xpovv Aid. ; r^v erepav 



Y. Tlepl Be Ktva/jLco^ov Kal Kao-'ias TaBe \e- 
ddfjivovs IJLCV d/jicfioTepa TavT elvai ov 
fJL6<yd\ov<i aXV rjXiKov? ayvov, 7ro\vK\dBov$ Be 
real ^v'XtoBei.s. orav Be eKKotywaiv, o\ov TO Kiva- 
fj,co/j,ov Biaipelv els Trevre fjieprj' TOVTWV Be TO irpG)- 

TOV 7T/009 T0t9 /SXaCTTOfc? j3e\Tt(TTOl> elvdl, O TfJL- 

veTdi (TTTida/jiiaiov rj /MKpw pel^ov erro/Jievov Be 
TO SevTepov, o /ecu T{J TO/A?} eKaTTOv elra TO TpiTov 
KOI TtTapTov ecrxaTOv Be TO ^eipucTov TO TT/JO? 
Ty pi^rj' tykoiov yap e\d^L(7Tov e^eiv %prfo~i,[jiO<; 
Be euro?, ov TO %v\ov Bi o Kal TO dxpoipves Kpd- 
TIGTOV, Tr\el(TTov jap e^eiv Kal TOV (f>\oiov. ol 
OVTW \eyovo-iv. 

AX\oi Be 6afjLv&$es jjiev Kal CTI /jia\\ov <f)pv- 
s elvai fyaori" Bvo S* avTOv yevr), TO /mew 
fj,e\av TO Be \evKov. Xeyerat Be Ti9 Kal /jivOos 
vrrep avTov' fyveoOai fJ,ev <ydp fyaviv ev <f)dpay%iv, 
ev TavTais S* o(^e^9 elvai TTO\\OVS BijyfjLa Oavdat- 
IJLOV e%oz/ra9, 737)09 0^9 typa^djji 
TOU9 7roSa9 KaTa(3aivov(Ti Kal 
OTav egeveyKwai 5teXo^T69 Tpa 
povvTai 7rpb<5 TOV r)\iov, Kal TJV av ^d%r) o 
KaTa\i7rovcnv CLTCIOVT^ B* evOvs opav $a<Ji KCLLO- 
fievrjv TavTrjv OVTO? fiev ovv TO* ovii fj,v0o<;. 

Trjv Be Kaaiav (ftaal r9 fJ,ev pd/SBovs rra^v- 
Tepa<; e^eiv, IvcoBeis Be o~(f)6Bpa Kal OVK elvai 
TTpi<t)\ev<raL' ^p^aifjiov Be Kal TavTT)<s TOV <f)\oiov. 

1 Plin. 12. 85-94. 

2 A similar tale is told of frankincense by Herodotus (3. 
107), who has an equally surprising tale about cinnamon 
(3. 111). 



Of cinnamon and cassia : various accounts. 

V. l Of cinnamon and cassia the following account 
is given : both are shrubs, it is said, and not of large 
size, but of the same size as bushes of chaste-tree, 
with many branches and woody. When they cut 
down the whole cinnamon-tree, they divide it into 
five parts ; of these the first is that which grows 
next the branches and this is the best : this is cut in 
lengths a span long or a little longer ; next comes 
the second kind, which is cut in shorter lengths ; 
then come the third and the fourth, and last the 
least valuable wood, which grows next the root ; for 
this has least bark, and it is the bark and not the 
wood which is serviceable ; wherefore the part which 
grows high up the tree is the best, since it has the 
most bark. Such is the account given by some. 

Others say that cinnamon is shrubby or rather like 
an under-shrub ; and that there are two kinds, one 
black, the other white. 2 And there is also a tale told 
about it ; they say that it grows in deep glens, and 
that in these there are numerous snakes which have 
a deadly bite ; against these they protect their 
hands and feet before they go down into the glens, 
and then, when they have brought up the cinnamon, 
they divide it in three parts and draw lots for it with 
the sun ; and whatever portion falls to the lot of the 
sun they leave behind ; and they say that, as soon as 
they leave the spot, they see this take fire. Now 
this is sheer fable. 

3 Cassia, they say, has stouter branches, which are 
very fibrous and difficult to strip of the bark 4 ; and 
it is the bark of this tree also which is serviceable. 

3 Plin. 12. 95-97. 

4 irept^AoTcrai H. ; TrepHptevffai UMP 2 Ald. cf. de ignt 72. 


R 2 


ra? pdft&ovs, KaraKOTrreiv o>9 
B(,BdKTV\aTo /j,7JKO$ rj fju/cpw fjiei^w, ravra B* 6/9 
veoBopov fivptrav KarappaTrreiv elr etc 
KOI TG>V v\c0v crrjTro fjievwv dKO)\r)Ki 
a TO IJLCV %v\ov tear eaOiei, TOV (f>\oiov 
aTrrerat $ia rr)V TTi/cpor^ra /cal Spi/jLVTrjTa TT}? 

0(7^9. Kal TTCpl /JL6V /CaCTld? KOI KLVajJb(t)jJiOV 

roa-avra Xeyercu. 

VI. To Be paXaa/jiov yiveTai pev ev T& av\a)vi 
TW irepl ^vpiav. TrapaSeiaovs 8' elval fyacri &vo 


eKaTTOva. TO Be BevBpov /jueyeOo? /JLCV 
poa ijiyd\rj 7ro\VK\a&ov Be a(f)6Bpa' 
Be e^eiv O/JLOIOV TT^CLVW, 7r\r)v e/c\evKov, 
dei<f>v\\ov Be elval' /capjrbv Be Trapojmoiov TTJ 
Tp/j,iv0w fcal jjueyedei /cal d^^aii Kal xptoaaTf 
ev&Bes o-(j)6Bpa /cal TOVTO /cal aa\\ov TOV Ba/cpvov. 
To Be Bd/cpvov aTro evTo/j,?)? <rv\\e<yeiv, evTe/ju- 
veiv Be ovv^i criBiypOLS VTTO TO acrTpov, oTav fjLa\icr- 
TO TTvL^rj axri,, /cal Ta o-reXe^ /cal Ta dvco. Trjv 
Be o-v\\o r yr)v o\ov TO 9epo<; TroielcrOai' OVK elvai 
Be TTO\V TO peov, a\V ev rjf^epa TOV dvBpa av\\e- 
<yetv ocrov /coy)(r)v' TTJV 3' oa/jLrjv Bia^epovaav /cal 
7ro\\r)V, a>(TT aTTO fjU/cpov 7TO\vv efyitcvelaOai, TO- 
TTOV. d\\* ov (f)oiTav evTavOa d/cpaTOV d\\d TO 
o-vvr)yibLei>ov /ce/cpafievov iro\\r}v yap 

j. Sch. ; vctfcpov P 2 Ald. 2 Plin. 12 111-123. 
3 euwSes . . . TOVTO P 2 Ald. ; evwS-rj . . . TOVTOV W. after Sch.'s 
conj. But the clause begins without a conjunction, and some 



When then they cut off the branches, they chop 
them up into lengths of about two fingers' breadth 
or rather more, and these they sew up in raw l 
hide ; and then from the leather and the decaying 
wood little worms are engendered, which devour the 
wood but do not touch the bark, because it is bitter 
and has a pungent odour. This is all .the in- 
formation forthcoming about cinnamon and cassia. 

Of balsam of Mecca. 

VI. 2 Balsam of Mecca grows in the valley of 
Syria. They say that there are only two parks in 
which it grows, one of about four acres, the other 
much smaller. The tree is as tall as a good-sized 
pomegranate and is much branched ; it has a leaf 
like that of rue, but it is pale ; and it is evergreen ; 
the fruit is like that of the terebinth, in size shape 
and colour, and this too is very fragrant, 3 indeed 
more so than the gum. 

4 The gum, they say, is collected by making 
incisions, which is done with bent pieces of iron at 
the time of the Dog-star, when there is scorching 
heat ; and the incisions are made both in the trunks 
and in the upper parts of the tree. The collecting 
goes on throughout the summer; but the quantity 
which flows is not large ; in a day a single man can 
collect a shell-full 5 ; the fragrance is exceeding 
great and rich, so that that which comes from a small 
amount is perceived for a wide distance. However 
it does not reach us in a pure state ; what is collected 
is mixed with other things ; for it mixes freely with 

words about the flower may have dropped out, to which this 
clause refers ; cf. however Odor. 32. 
4 Diosc. 1. 19. B Plin. 12. 117. 



Kpacnv KOI TO ev rf) *Q\\dBi TroXXa/a? elvai 
KKpa/jLvov evoa/jia Be o~<j)6Bpa Kal ra paffBia' 
Kadaipeiv yap Kal T&vBe eve/ca KCLL TOV Bia<j)6pov 
Tcco\elo-dai <yap> rifua. KOI TTJV epyaaiav Trjv 
irepl TO, SevSpa o-^eBov ev ravrrj alria elvai /cal 
rrjv ftpo^riv ^pe^ea^ai yap crvve^S)^. avvairiav 
Se Sofceiv elvai TOV fir) fieyd\a yivecrOai TO, SevBpa 
Kal T?)V T&V pa/3oio)v TOfirjv. Bia yap TO vroXXa- 
KIS eiriKeipeaOai pdft&ovs d<j)ievai Kal OVK et? ev 
e/CTeiveiv Trjv opfjirjv. 

"A.ypwv Be ovBev elvai /3d\<ra/iiov ovBa/jiov' yi- 
veaOai, Be etc /*ev TOV /Ltetfoi/o? TrapaBei&ov dyyeu- 
Bia BaBe/ca oo~ov rjfjbixoaia, eic Be TOV eTepov Bvo 
IJLOVOV Tra)\eladai, Be TO /j,ev atcpaTOV t? TT/?O? 
dpyvpiov TO 8' aXXo KaTa \6yov r^9 /xtfea)?* Kal 
TOVTO jjbev Bt,a(f>epov TI fyalvzTai KaTa TTJV evocr- 

VII. ? O Be Ka\a/jLO<i yiveTai Kal 6 a^olvos vTcep- 
ftaXkovTi, TOV Ai/3avov /zera^v TOV re Aiffdvov 
Kal aXXou rtz/o? oyoou? /j,iKpov ev T> avXwviaKw 
TOVTtt), Kal ou% w? Tives <f>ao~i TOV 'AimXt/3az>oir o 
yap 'AvTi\i/3avo$ f^cCKpav airiyzi TOV Ai{3dvov 
Kal jjLTav TOUTCOV eorT\v ov av\S)va KO\OVO~I Tre- 
BLov TroXu Kal Ka\6v. OTTOV Be o KaXa/jios Kal 6 
f)VTai \ip,vr) /jLeydX.^ Tvy^dvei,, TT/OO? 
Be ev TW e\ei TW dve^pajm/jLeva) Tr 

1 TOV I conj. ; TOV MSS. G's rendering shews that the 
explanation of the 'different reason' (i.e. to strengthen the 
tree) has dropped out of our texts. 2 70^ add. Sch. 



other things ; and what is known in Hellas is 
generally mixed with something else. The boughs 
are also very fragrant. In fact it is on account of 
these boughs, they say, that the tree is pruned (as 
well as for a different reason l ), since 2 the boughs 
cut off can be sold for a good price. In fact the 
culture of the trees has the same motive 3 as the 
irrigation (for they are constantly irrigated). And 
the cutting of the boughs seems likewise to be 
partly the reason why the trees do not grow tall ; 
for, since they are often cut about, they send out 
branches instead of putting out all their energy in 
one direction. 

Balsam is said not to grow wild anywhere. From 
the larger park are obtained twelve vessels con- 
taining each about three pints, from the other only 
two such vessels ; the pure gum sells for twice its 
weight in silver, the mixed sort at a price propor- 
tionate to its purity. Balsam then appears to be of 
exceptional fragrance. 

Of other aromatic plants all oriental, except the iris, 

VII. 4 Sweet-flag and ginger-grass grow beyond 
the Libanus between that range and another small 
range, in the depression thus formed ; and not, as 
some say, between Libanus and Anti-Libanus. For 
Anti-Libanus is a long way from Libanus, and 
between them is a wide fair plain called ( The 
Valley.' But, where the sweet-flag and ginger- 
grass grow, there is a large lake, 5 and they grow 
near it in the dried up marshes, covering an extent 

3 The 'motive' is the production of boughs, tv ravry 
alria I conj. ; ravrtjv antav UMP 2 Ald.; eV ravry atria conj. W. 

4 Plin. 12. 104 and 105. 6 cf. C.P. 6. 18. 2. 




OVK o^ovo-i Be / )(\wpol aXXa grjpavQevTes, TTJ 
Trpocro^rei Be ovBev Biacfrepovcrt, TWV a\,\a)V elcr- 

/3d\\OVTl, B* 6t9 TOV T07TOV ev6v$ OCTyU-77 7TpO(T- 

2 /3d\\ei' ov fir]V TroppwTepw ye 77 aTTOTrvorj yiveTai, 
KaOdirep Tives &acn, Tat9 Trpofftbepotievais vaval 

V \ / < ' "\ * / 9 > V 

7Ty009 T7)V %Gt)paV' KttL yap T07T09 OWTO9 rtTTO 

^aXaTT779 drre'^ei TrXelovs 77 eKaTov TrevTijKOVTa 
GTaBiovs' a\V ev TT} ' Apaftia TTJV djroTrvorjv 
elvai <>acri TTJV diro TTJS %a)pa<> evoff/jiov. 

'Ez/ fjbev ovv %vp[a Ta TrepiTTa TTJ barfjiy o"%eBbv 
TavT eo-Tiv 77 yap ^aX/Sdvrj.^apvTepov Kal fjia\- 
\ov (frapfJiaKwBes' eirel Kal avTrj yweTcu Trepl 
%vpiav K TOV TravaKovs KO\OV /jievov . Ta Be aXXa 
TfdvTa Ta evocrfj,a o?9 7T/oo9 Ta dpco/jiaTa %pwvTai, 
Ta fjiev e 'ItvBcov Kop,i^eTai KaKeWev eTrl Od\aTTdv 
KaTaTre/LLTreTai, Ta 8' ef 'Apa/3ta9, oloz^ 7T/909 TW 
KivafJLco/uq) Kal TTJ KaaLa Kal Kc&fjLaKov erepov 8' 
elvai TO Koo/jiaKov KapTrov TO 8' eTepov irapa^Lo'- 
yovaiv ei9 Ta (TTrovBaioTaTa TCOV pvptov. TO Be 
KapBdjjico/jLOV Kal dp,a)/j,ov ol fiev K M?7ta9, ol B* 
ef 'IvBwv Kal TavTa Kal T?)V vdpBov Kal Ta aXXa 
77 Ta 7r\ei<TTa. 

3 Ot9 fjuev ovv 6/9 Ta dpcojjiaTa ^pcovTai o"%eBbv 
TaBe ecrTi' Kaala Kivd/ucofAOV KapBd/jia)ju,ov vdpBos 
valpov /3d\(rafjLov d(nrd\aQo<$ orTvpat; Ipis vdpTij 

1 OVK uovffi conj. Guilandinus, c/. G. P. 6. 14. 8 ; ov SOKOVO-I 
P 2 Ald.H. 

2 C/. G. P. 6. 18. 1. TUJV &\\(DV : sc. KaXa[JL<av Kal ffxotvcav. 

3 7rpoo'^)6po J aVats vavffl irpbs conj. Seal. ; 7rpo<r<. clrat Trpbs P 2 

4 c/. 9. 9. 2 n. ' The plant,' i.e. one of the plants so called. 
6 Plin. 12. 135 ; c/. 13. 18. 



of more than thirty furlongs. They have 110 
fragrance 1 when they are green, but only when 
they are dried, and in appearance they do not 
differ 2 from ordinary reeds and rushes ; but, as 
you approach the spot, immediately a sweet smell 
strikes you. However it is not true, as some say, 
that the fragrance is wafted to ships approaching 3 
the country ; for indeed this district is more than 
150 furlongs from the sea. However it is said 
that in Arabia the breezes wafted from the land 
are fragrant. 

Such then are the plants in Syria which have 
remarkable fragrance. For that of khalbane is more 
oppressive and somewhat medicinal; 4 for this perfume 
also is produced in Syria from the plant called all- 
heal. As to all the other fragrant plants used for 
aromatic odours, they come partly from India 
whence they are sent over sea, and partly from 
Arabia, for instance, komakon^ as well as cinnamon 
and cassia. The fruit called komakon is said to be 
distinct 6 from this ; the komakon of which we 
are speaking is a perfume which they mix with the 
choicest unguents. Cardamom and Nepaul cardamom 
some say come from Media ; others say that these 
come from India, as well as spikenard and most, if 
not all, of the other species. 

Now this is a general list of the plants used for 
perfumes : cassia cinnamon cardamom spikenard 
natron balsam of Mecca aspalathos storax iris narte 

6 elvat has no government, and W. considers the passage 
corrupt. Comparison of Plin. I.e. suggests that the original 
text may have been something like this : rb K(*>/j.aKoi> Kapirbv 
ov rbi/ 5e x"^j> f.r.\., i.e. ' komakon is of different character 
from these, being a fruit, whose juice .' Plin. calls , a kind 
of cinnamon. 



TrvaKes /cpofcos (T/jbvpva KVTreipov 
/cd\afjios djudpaKOV XWTO? dvvrjros. rovrwv Be ra 
fiev pi^ai ra Be (j)\oiol TO, Be K\wve<; rd Be v\a 
rd Be air ep par a ra Be BaKpva ra Be dvOrj. ical 
rd fjiev Tro\\a%ov yiverai, ra Be irepirrorara real 
evoBporara irdvra etc r^? 'Acrta? teal e/c rwv 
d\eeivwv rorrwv. etc yap avrfjs EU/JCOTTT;? ovBev 
eariv ^co r?}9 ipi$o<>. 

Avrij 8* dpicrrr) ev *\\\vpiols, ov/c ev rfj TT/OO? 
6d\arrav X^P a > a ^^ & T ?7 dvaKe^wpi^KvLa Kei- 
fJiGvr) Be fia\\ov TT/OO? dp/crov. roTroi Be rorcwv 
Sia<f>epovcriv ev ot9 djAeivw epyaaia Be Trepl av- 
rrjv ovSe/Aia 7r\r)v rov rrepLicaOrjpavra dvaj;rjpdvai. 

Ta yap ev ry pd/crj (fivoueva pi^ta, KaOdrrep 
TO re rfj vdpBw irpocre/ji^eprj rr)v oa/jLrjv e%ov fcal 
erep drra, fii/cpdv nva fcal daOevrj rrjv evcoBiav 
Kal Trepl fjiev rwv evoa^v eVi roaovrov 

VIII. Ile/H Be rwv OTT&V ocra yitr; trporepov el- 
prjrai, \ejco B* olov et rives (f>ap/jiaKa)Be^ rj Kal 
aXXa? e'Xpvcn Bvvd/jieis, rreipareov oyLto/&)9 eljrelv" 
d/j,a Be /cal Trepl pi^wv, Kal yap rwv OTTWV rives e/c 
rovrwv Kal %&)/H9 avral Ka9* avrd? 7ro\Xa9 Kal 
Travroias e%ovcn Bvvd/j,ei$, oX&>9 Be Trepl irdvrwv 
(j>ap/J.aKcoBwv, olov KapTrov %V\KT JJLOV (f>v\\cov pi- 
wv 7roa,9' Ka\oi)(Ti yap Kal rroav evia rwv <pap- 

1 c/. G. P. 6. 14. 8 ; 6. 18. 12 ; Plin. 21. 40. 
3 See Index App. (25). 



kostos all-heal saffron-crocus myrrh kypeiron ginger- 
grass sweet-flag sweet marjoram lotos dill. Of these 
it is the roots, bark, branches, wood, seeds, gum or 
flowers which in different cases yield the perfume. 
Some of them grow in many places, but the most 
excellent and most fragrant all come from Asia and 
sunny regions. From Europe itself comes none of 
them except the iris. 

x This is best in Illyria, not in the part near the 
sea, but in that which is further inland and lies 
more to the north. In different districts it varies 
in quality ; no special attention is needed, except to 
scrape the roots clean and dry them. 

As for the roots which grow in Thrace, such 
as one 2 which has a smell like spikenard and 
certain others, their fragrance is but slight and 
feeble. Let this suffice for an account of sweet- 
smelling plants. 

Of the medicinal juices of plants and the collection of them : 
general account. 

VIII. Now we must endeavour to speak in like 
manner of those juices which have not been 
mentioned already, I mean, such as are medicinal 
or have other properties ; and at the same time 
we must speak of roots ; for some of the juices are 
derived from roots, and apart from that roots have 
in themselves divers properties of all kinds ; and 
in general we must discuss medicinal things of all 
kinds, as fruit, extracted juice, 3 leaves, roots, ' herbs ' ; 
for the herb-diggers call some medicinal things by 
this name. 

3 x v ^ lff Hv P 2 Ald.H ; KO.V\OV conj. W. The list is of the 
aspects in which the herbalist would regard the plant, not of 
the parts of the plant. 

25 1 


B piffiv TrXetou? /JLCV elaw at &vvd/n,i,<; KOI 
TrXetor fyrovvrai, >e ^oKiaTd at (f>ap/ma- 
ft>? xpTiai/jicoTaTai, Bia^epovo-ai rw re prj 

TTyOO? TdVTd KCtl TO) fJLrj 6V T0? dVTol^ 6%IV TT)V 

&)? S' ovv eVl TTCLV al TrXetcrrat /j,ev ev 
KCU roi? fcapTrols KOI rot? OTTO??, 
eviai Be KOI ev rot? 0vXXot?' ra? 3e (^uXXeoSet? 
8vvd/jbt,s ra? ?roXX? a^e^ov Troa? fca\ovcriv, wa- 

7T6p ipr)Tai fJLLKpS) TTpOTepOV, Ol 

r O /ze^ o5^ OTTtfryLto? yiverat 

eTTfc TO TToXu TOO 6epOV<$, TWV fJ,V Vl(TTafjiei'OV 
$6 TTyOOeX^Xf^OTO?. 77 ^6 pl^OTO/jiia ryiVTaL TIVWV 
aXX' ^ 76 7T\iCt)V TOV /jLT07T(i)pOV JUL6T *Ap/CTOVpOV, 

orav (frvXXopporjcrcoaiv, oawv Se KOI o tcapTro? 
, orav afjiepOaxn TOV tcapirov. <TTL 8e o 

OLTTO TWV KdvK&V, WCT7T6/3 TOV Tl0V/ild\- 

\ov KOI TT)? piafcivr]s KCU o-^eSbv TWV 

rj CLTTO rcov pi^wv, rj -rplrov airo ri)<; fce(f)a\f]<;, M 

T?;? fjutf/ccovos' TavTrjS yap fjLovrjs ovrco KCLI rovr 


1 From this point to 9. 19. 4, ytvecrOai, the text is repeated 
in U, with considerable variations, as a tenth book. Aid. 
also repeats the first few lines of this passage (down to end 
of 1) as a fragment of a tenth book. The two Medicean 
MSS also repeat 9. 8. 1, ruv 8e fri&v, down to 9. 10. 3, 
jSe'ATKTTot Se KO\ ols, as part of a tenth book. The ' tenth 
book ' readings in each case are distinguished by a *. 

2 piaJv : fria signifies a medicinal plant in general (c/. 
pt^orofjLot) as well as 'root'; the double sense makes transla- 
tion of this section awkward : I print it ' root ' where it has 
the wider sense. 



1 The properties of ' roots ' 2 are numerous and they 
have numerous uses; but those which have medicinal 
virtues are especially sought after, as being the most 
useful ; and they differ in not all being applied to 
the same 3 purposes and in not all having their virtue 
in the same parts of them. 4 To speak generally, 
most ( roots ' have it in themselves 5 ; or else it is 
found in the fruits or the juices of the plant ; and in 
some cases in the leaves as well, and it is to the 
virtues of the leaves in most cases that the herb- 
diggers refer, when they speak, as has just been 
said/ of ' herbs.' 

The collection of the juice from plants from which 
it is collected is mostly done in summer, in some 
cases at the beginning of that season, in others when 
it is well advanced. The digging of roots is done in 
some cases at the time of wheat-harvest or a little 
earlier, but the greater part of it in autumn after the 
rising of Arcturus when the plants have shed their 
leaves, and, in the case of those whose fruit is 
serviceable, when they have lost their fruit. The 
collection of juice is made either from the stalks, 7 as 
with tithymallos (spurge) wild lettuce and the majority 
of plants, or from the roots, or thirdly from the head, 
as in the case of the poppy ; for this is the only plant 
which is so treated 8 and this is its peculiarity. In 
some plants the juice collects of its own accord in 

3 ravra conj. Seal, from G ; TO.VTO. Aid. 

4 After Svya/juv U*Ald.* add ftvirep efpTjrat fjuitpQ Trp6repov ; 
omitted here by Sch.: see below. 5 Sc. in the roots. 

G o&<T7rep . . . irpdrepov inserted here by Sch. : see above ; 

faffTTCp efy>7JTCft Aid. 

7 navXwv Vin.Vo.Cod.Cas.: so also G ; Kapir&v Ald.HM*. 

8 fj.6vris ovrca Kal conj. W. ; ^6vtis /ecu Ald.H ; povov ovrta 
KCU M*. 



Ba/cpvtoBrjs rts, &o~ f jrep KOI rrjs rpaya- 
ravrrjv yap ovBe rep,veiv eeri- rwv Be 

7T\6l(TTCOV a-TTO TT)^ VTO/J,fj<$. 0)V CVIOVS JJL6V 6V0VS 

els dyyeia avvdyovo~iv, axrTrep teal rov rov tiQv- 
fid\\ov rj fjirj/cwviov, fcahovai, yap d/jL^orepws, KOI 
a7rXo)9 ova 7ro\vo7ra Tvy%dvi' TWV Be /JLIJ TTO\VO- 
TTCOV epio) \a^avov(Jiv wcnrep /cal rrj^ 

'QvitoV S' OuS' 07TiO-yLt09 X\' OLOV 

eariv, w&Trep ocra Ko-fyavres rj Tptyavres real v8a)p 
eVr^eWre? aTrrjOovat real \a^dvov(Ji rrjv VTTO- 
o-racnv f 77/009 Be Brj\ov on KOI e\drra)V 6 
TOVTWV. eari Be rwv /Jiev d\\wv piwv TO 
jj,a ddOevecnepov rov tcapTrov, TOV /cwveiov Be 
Icr^vporepov, Kal rrjv d7ra\\a>yr)v pda) Troiel teal 
ddrrco /jiiKpbv Trdvv /caraTrortov BoQev evepyo- 
repov Be real 6t9 r9 aXX9 %/>eta9. lo"xypov Be 
/cal TO T7)9 Oa-^rLa^. TO, Be aXXa irdvra dadeve- 
o-repa. ol /j,ev ovv OTTta/jiol o-%eBbv TocravTa^M^ 

T?}9 Be pi^oTojjiias OVK eart roiavrrj Bia<j)opd 
yv ev raw &pais olov Oepovs r) /jieroTroopov, /cal 
r dcrBe rj rdo-Be TWV pi^wv olov rov e\\e/36pov 
/carco rd$ Xe7TTa9' rrjv ydp ava) rrjv rra^elav 
rr)V /ee</>aXft)6"?7 (fraalv d^pelov elvat /cal BiBovai 

1 c/. Diosc. 2. 136 ; Plin. 20. 58. 

2 c/. Diosc. 3. 7. 

3 fide* conj. Sch.; ^oto U; a8/a>s M*Ald. 



the form of a sort of gum,, as with tragacanth ; for 
incision of this plant cannot be made ; but in most it 
is obtained by incision. In some cases the juice is 
collected straight into vessels, for instance that of 
tithymallos (spurge) or mekonion (for the plant has both 
names) and in general the juice of specially juicy 
plants is so collected. But that of those which do 
not yield abundant juice is taken with a piece of wool, 
as also that of wild lettuce. 1 

2 In some cases there can be no collection of juice, 
but there is a sort of extraction of it, for instance in 
the case of plants which are cut down or bruised ; 
they then pour water over them and strain off the 
fluid, keeping the sediment ; but it is plain that in 
these cases the juice obtained is dry and less copious. 
In most ' roots ' the juice thus extracted is less 
powerful than that of the fruit, but in hemlock it is 
stronger and it causes an easier 3 and speedier 4 death 
even when administered in a quite small pill ; and it 
is also more effective for other uses. 5 That of thapsia 
is also powerful, while all the rest are less so. Such 
then is a general account of the various ways of 
obtaining the juices of plants. 

Of the cutting of roots for medicinal purposes, and of certain 
superstitions connected therewith. 

As to cutting of the roots there is no such 
diversity of practice, except as to the season, which 
may be summer or autumn, and as to the particular 
roots selected. 6 Thus in hellebore the slender lower 
roots are taken, for they say that the thick upper 
part 7 which forms a sort of head is useless, and that 

4 edrrw conj. Sell.; eAarro) UM ; Qarrov U*M*Ald. 

5 cf. Plin. 13. 125. 6 Plin. 25. 53. 7 i.e. rhizome. 

2 55 


ra?9 Kvalv OTav ftoiiKwvTai KaOalpeiv. Kal e</> 
CTepcov Be TLVWV ToiavTas \eyov(7t Stafyopas. 

5 "EiTi Be ova ol (frapuaKO7rco\ai /cal ol pi 
Ta uev t<7ft>9 olKeicos TCL Be /cal eiriT 

\eyovcn. KeXevovat, yap r<&9 uev KaT aveuov 
lo-Tauevovs Tepveiv, wcnrep eTepas re Tivas Kal 
Trjv Oatylav, d\ei^rduevov \iira' TO yap aw/Aa 
dvoiBelv eav ef eVazma9. KCLT aveaov Be Kal TOV 
KWOfffiaTOV TOV KapTTOV o~v\\eyeiv, el Be [JUTJ KIV- 
Svvov elvat, TWV o^da\^wv. r9 Be vvKTCop r9 
Be ueO' rjuepav, evlas Be irplv TOV rj\Lov e7ri/3d\- 


6 Kal TavTa aev Kal TO, TrapaTT^tjaia rourot9 
rcr^' av OVK d\\OTpt,6)$ Bo^eiev \eyeiv em (rivets 
yap TLVWV at Bvvduew eEdiTTeiv yap (bacriv OHT- 

* I ^ fit 

Trep Tcvp Kal KaTaKaieiv eirel Kal 6 e'XXe/3oyoo9 
v Kaprj/Bapetv TTOLCL, Kal ov BvvavTai TTO\VV 
opvTTeiv, Bi o Kal irpoeo-OLovai orKopoBa 
Kal aKpaTOV eTTLTTivovo-LV. d\\a TCL ToiavTa 
cocnrep eTTiOeTa Kal nroppwOev, olov Trjv 
ol Be y\vKv<riBrjv Ka\ovvi, vvKTcop 
opvTTeiv' eav yap rjaepas Kal o(f)@f] Ti9 VTTO Bpvo- 
Ko\a7TTOv TOV fjiev Kapjrbv aTToXeywv KivBvveveiv 
Tot9 6(j)da\aoi<f, Tr)v Be pi^av Teavcov KTciTtTiv 
Trjv eBpav. 

1 en 8e oao. conj. Sch. from G ; en 5' us U*; en 5e us Aid. 
H ; ecrrt 8e us M*. 



it is only given to dogs when it is desired to purge 
them. And in certain other plants also such 
differences are mentioned. 

Further we may l add statements made by druggists 
and herb-diggers, which in some cases may be to 
the point, but in others contain exaggeration. Thus 
they enjoin that in cutting some roots one should 
stand to windward, for instance, in cutting thapsia 
among others, and that one should first anoint 
oneself with oil, 2 for that one's body will swell up 
if one stands the other way. Also that the fruit 
of the wild rose must be gathered standing to wind- 
ward, since otherwise there is danger to the eyes. 
Also that some roots should be gathered at night, 
others by day, and some before the sun strikes 
on them, for instance those of the plant called 
honeysuckle. 3 

These and similar remarks may well seem to be 
not off the point, for the properties of these plants 
are hurtful ; they take hold, it is said, like fire and 
burn ; 4 for hellebore too soon makes the head heavy, 
and men cannot go on digging it up for long ; where- 
fore they first eat garlic and take a draught of neat 
wine therewith. On the other hand the following 
ideas may be considered far-fetched and irrelevant ; 
5 for instance they say that the peony, which some 
call glykyside, should be dug up at night, for, if a man 
does it in the day-time and is observed by a wood- 
pecker while he is gathering the fruit, he risks the 
loss of his eyesight ; and, if he is cutting the root at 
the time, he gets prolapsus ani. 

2 Plin. 13. 124 ; Diosc. 4. 153. 
8 cf. 9. 18. 6. 4 Plin. 25. 50. 

6 Plin. 27. 85 ; 25. 29. 


VOL. II. 8 


<&v\dTTcr0ai, Be teal TTJV KevTavpiBa re/JLVOvra 
Tpiopxyv, 07ro)9 av arpcoro^ aire\0y. Kal a\Xas 
Be Tivas alrtas. TO 8' eirev^o/jievov Tefjuveiv ovOev 
LCTCOS droTTOV d)OC el TI /cal d\\o Trpocmdeaaiv, 
olov orav TO irdvaKes TO ' ' K<TK\r]TrieLov KaXovfj-evov 
di>T6fji/3d\\iv yap TTJ yfj Tray/capTTiav </cal> 

& TT)V %iplV, Tpl/jirjV 

fjaaOov Te/Jiveiv Be d 

%i<f>ei, Trepiypd-fyavTa els r/otV Kal OTI av 
TjuLrjOf) /jiGTecopov e%eiv eW* OVTCO TO eTepov 

Kal aAAa Se ToiavTa TrXeia). 7repiypd(f)iv 3e 
/cal TOV jjiavSpayopav els Tpl$ ^ityei, re/Avew Be 
717309 eairepav fSkeirovTa. TOP & eTepov KVK\M 
irepiop^elcrOai Kal \eyeiv &>9 7r\elaTa Trepl d(f>- 
po$K7i(0v. TOVTO $ ofJLOiov eoiKe TW 7repl TOV 
\eyofjievw KaTa TTJV ftXacr^rj/miav OTav 
Trepiypdtyetv Se Kal TOV e\\e/3opov 
TOV /Ji6\ava Kal Te/Aveiv [(JTCL^VOV Trpos ew Kal 
deTOV Be (f)v\dTTecr0ai Kal IK 
Kal ef dpiVTepas' KivBvvov yap elvai TOLS 
edvTrep eyyvs e7riyevr]Tai 6 aero9, cnro- 

1 Plin. 25. 69 adds that this plant was therefore also called 

cf. Diosc. 4. 162. 

2 Kal . . . alrias U*M*; ? KCU &\\a Se roiavTa W. 

3 Plin. 25. 30 and 31. 


It is also said that, while cutting feverwort l one 
must beware of the buzzard-hawk, if one wishes to 
come off unhurt ; and other reasons for caution - 
are also given. That one should be bidden to pray 
while cutting is not perhaps unreasonable, but the 
additions made to this injunction are absurd ; for 
instance as to cutting the kind of all-heal which is 
called that of Asklepios ; 3 for then it is said that one 
should put in the ground in its place an offering 
made of all kinds of fruits and a cake ; and that, when 
one is cutting gladwyn, 4 one should put in its place 
to pay for it cakes of meal from spring-sown wheat, 5 
and that one should cut it with a two-edged sword, 
first making a circle round it three times, 6 and that 
the piece first cut must be held up in the air while 
the rest is being cut. 

And many similar notions are mentioned. Thus 
it is said that one should draw three circles 
round mandrake with a sword, and cut it with 
one's face towards the west ; and at the cutting 
of the second piece one should dance round the 
plant and say as many things as possible about the 
mysteries of love. (This seems to be like the 
direction given about cummin, 7 that one should utter 
curses at the time of sowing.) One should also, it is 
said, draw a circle round the black hellebore and 
cut it standing towards the east and saying prayers, 
and one should look out for an eagle both on the 
right and on the left ; for that there is danger to 
those that cut, if your eagle should come near, that 

4 cf. Plin. 21. 42, who read Ipiv. cf. Diosc. 4. 22, where vpis 
is called a kind of Jpis ; so also Plin. 21. 142. 

5 rpi/j.Tjvov conj. Salm. ; rpi^vovs M*Ald.H. 

6 Tp\s conj. Sell, ; rpetj U*M*P 2 Ald. So also in next section. 

7 cf. 7. 3. 3. 


8 2 


eviavTw. ravra fjLev ovv e 
eoiKev, cbcrTTep eiprjTai. rpoTrot, o OVK elcrl TWV 

IX. "Ecr-u Be, wo-TTep eXe^Ofj, rwv pev irdvra 
Xpijori/jia Kal rj pia fcal 6 /capTrbs /cal 6 OTTO?, 
wvirep a\\o)V re /cal TOV Travaicovs' TWV 8e 77 
pi^a /cal 6 OTTOS, olov rrjs o-Ka/jLjuLcovias Kal TOV 
KVK\a/uiii'ov Kal rfjs Oatyias Kal erepwv, /cadaTrep 
Kal TOV [AavSpayopov TOV 'yap /jiavSpayopov TO 
(f)v\\ov ^prjcrifjiov elval (fracri Trpbs TCL \Kr) yu,er' 
a\<f>LTOV, Trjv & pi^av TT/OO? epucrtTreXa? ^vaOeladv 
T6 Kal o^ei SevOelcrav Kal TT/OO? Ta rroSaypiKa Kal 
rrpbs vTfvov Kal 737309 (f)i\Tpa' Si&oaa-i S' ev oivw 
rj o^er T6/j,vov(7i Be Tpo^icTKOvs wvTrep pa(f)avi&os 
Kal IveipavTes vrrep <y\evKov<; eKpe^aaav eirl 

2 f O Be eXXe/9o/?o? eVt ravra TTJ re pity Kal rcS 
S) eijrep oi ev 'AvTiKvpa, KaOdirep 
, TW Kaprrtt) Ka6aipovo~iv fyei Be <TOV> 


TlXetco Be Kal TOV TravaKovs Ta ^prjcnfjia Kal ov 
7T/309 Ta avid' a\V o /Jiev Kaprrbs TTpbs ra9 
Kal ra9 Bva-ovpias, 6 Be OTTOS rj 
Ka'X.ov/nev'ij 71/509 re ra9 e'fa/^/^Xwa-et? 


TTOVOVS, Ti Be TTpbs Ta a)T Kal Ta9 (f 

tyyvs eiriy4vqra.i conj. W. ; eav Se 6 fyyvs /.ify airoTffj.vr} 
airoQvtiffKei sviavrQ UMAld. Similar confusion with 
variations in U*M*PP 9 : restoration a makeshift, c/. Plin. 
25. 50. 2 9. 8. 1. 

3 Diosc. 4. 75 ; Plin. 26. 104 and 121. 

4 c/. 9. 12. 1. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. vin. 8-ix. 2 

they may die l within the year. These notions then 
seem to be irrelevant, as has been said. There are 
however no methods of root-cutting besides those 
which we have mentioned. 

Of the medicinal -uses of divers parts of plants. 

IX. As was said, 2 of some plants the root, fruit and 
juice are all serviceable, as of all-heal among others ; 
of some the root and the juice, as of scammony 3 
cyclamen thapsia and others, such as mandrake ; for 
the leaf of this, they say, used with meal, is useful 
for wounds, and the root for erysipelas, when scraped 
and steeped in vinegar, and also for gout, for sleep- 
lessness, and for love potions. It is administered in 
wine or vinegar ; they cut little balls of it, as of 4 
radishes, and making a string of them hang them up 
in the smoke over must. 

5 Of hellebore both root and fruit are useful for 
the same purposes, 6 if it is true, as is said, that 
the people of Anticyra use the fruit as a purge ; 
this fruit contains the w r ell-known 7 drug called 

Various parts of all-heal are also useful, and not all 
for the same purposes ; the fruit is used in cases of 
miscarriage and for disorders of the bladder, while 
the juice, 8 which is called khalbane, is used in cases 
of miscarriage and also for sprains and such-like 
troubles ; also for the ears, and to strengthen the 

5 Diosc. 4. 108, 109 and 162. 

6 ravTa conj. Sch. from G ; TO.VTO. U*M*Ald. 

7 I have inserted rbv. cf. 9. 14. 4 ; Plin. 22. 133 ; 25. 52 and 
64 ; Diosc. I.e. The drug was actually called o-T?<ra,uoet8es or 
a-Tjo-ajuoetSTjy. For the sense of TOVTOV cf. 3. 7. 3 ; 3. 8. 3 and reff. 

8 This seems to be a mistake, cf. 9. 7. 2 ; Diosc. 3. S3 ; 
Plin. 12. 126. 



77 Be pia TT/OO? re TOL? TO/COVS KOI ra yvvai/ceia 

KCll 7T/909 V7TO^Vyi(n)V (j)V(Ta<>' ^pliai/JLTj Be Kal 7T/)09 

TO i'pivov fjbvpov Bia rrjv evcoBiav la")(yporepov Be 
TO (T7rep/j,a rfjs pi^ri^. yiverat Be Trepl ^vpiav 
KOI Te/juverai irepl irvpa^rov. 

3 ToO Se KvicXafjilvov 77 /j,ev pi^a TT/JO? Te T? 

K7TV1J(TIS TWV (f)\yfJLOVWV Kdl TTpbadeTO 

KOI 7T/909 ra e\rcr) ev yueX^Tr o Se OTTO? TT/OO? 
CITTO K<f)a\ijs KaOcipcreis ev fjieXin 7^60/^6^09, KCLI 
7T/00? TO jJieOva-tcew, lav ev o'lvw Bta^pe^wv &&&> 
Tt? Tr'iveiv. ayaOr]V Se rrjv pi^av /cal ODKVTOKWI 

TTepiaTTTOV KOi 669 (f)L\Tp(l' OTCLV $6 Opvgwai,, KaTCL- 

Kaiovcnv eir* olvw SevcravTes T pokier KOVS Troiovcriv, 
too-Tre/o T^9 rpvyb? fj pvirro/jLefla. 

4 Kal TOU (TIKVOV $6 TOO djpiOV T7]V fjiV pl^CtV 

<7Tyoo9> a\(>ov<> /cal tya)pa<; /Bocr/crj/jidTcov TO Be 
ajrepi^a xv\i(r9ev iroiel TO ekarrjpiov. crv\\e- 
yerai Se rov (frfltvoTroopov rare yap (3e\TLGTOv. 

5 Tr)9 3e %a/jLai8pvos ra p,ev (pv\\a Trpos ra 
prfy/jbara teal trpbs ra rpav/^ara ev e\aiw rpi{36- 

fjL6Va KOI 7T/J09 TO, VfJi6/jiVa \KT]' TOV $6 KdpTTOV 

KaOaipeiv ^o\rjv ayaOov &e Kal ocfrOaX/nols' 77/309 
Se ra apye/j,a irpocrdyeiv TO (f>v\\ov rpityavra ev 
e\aiw. eyei Be (f)i>\\a /Jiev old-nep Spvs, TO Be 
di'ddTrj/jia TTJS oA?^9 oo~o^ aTriOajjaatov' evocrjjiov 
Be ical rjBv. 

To fj,ev ovv (JLTf ?r/)09 ravrb Trdvra ra /jiep^ 
rvy^dveiv OVK tVft)9 aroTrov TO Be T^9 

rvhaeis conj. Coraes from Plin. 26. 120, eruptiones 

-eis M*Ald. 
2 Diosc. 2. 164; Plin. 25. 133; 26. 149. 
a cf. Plin. 23. 63. 



voice. The root is used in childbirth, for diseases 
of women, and for flatulence in beasts of burden. 
It is also useful in making the iris-perfume because 
of its fragrance ; but the seed is stronger than the 
root. It grows in Syria and is cut at the time of 

Of cyclamen the root is used for suppurating 1 
boils ; also as a pessary for women and, mixed with 
honey, for dressing wounds ; the juice for purgings 
of the head, 2 for which purpose it is mixed with 
honey and poured in ; it also conduces to drunken- 
ness, if one is given a draught of wine in which it 
has been steeped. They say also that the root is a 
good charm for inducing rapid delivery and as a love 
potion; 3 when they have dug it up, they burn it, 
and then, having steeped the ashes in wine, make 
little balls like those made of wine-lees which we 
use as soap. 

4 Of ' wild cucumber ' (squirting cucumber) the root 
is used for 5 white leprosy and for mange in sheep, 
while the extracted juice makes the drug called 
' the driver.' G It is collected in autumn, for then it 
is best. 

Of germander the leaves pounded up in olive-oil 
are used for fractures and wounds and for spreading 
sores ; the fruit purges bile, and is good also for the 
eyes ; for ulcers 7 in the eye they pound up the leaf 
in olive-oil before applying it. It has leaves like 
the oak, but its entire growth is only about a palm 
high ; and it is sweet both to smell and taste. 

Now that all parts are not serviceable for the 
same purpose is perhaps not strange ; it is more 

4 Diosc. 4. 150 ; Plin. 20. 3. 5 *pl> 5 add. St. 
6 cf. 9. 14. 1 and 2. "' cf. 7. 6. 2 ; Diosc. 3. 98. 



auT?;<? pi&s TO fiev avw TO be Kara) icaOaipeiv 
Oav^aai^Tepov, olov KOI rrjs Oa^jrias teal T?}? 

t<7%ao9, Ol B* UTTIOV Ka\OV(TL, teal TTJS \t,^aV(DTL- 

So9' OTI <yap av KOI /cdrco /cal civa ravra BvvaTai 

[/caOaipeiv], /caQdirep TO eXarrjpiov, ovOev aroirov. 

"fi^6i Be TI Oa^ria (f)V\\ov fj,ev O/JUOLOV TM 

fiapddw Tr\r)v irXarvrepov Kav\ov Be 

C H 8' fc 

/3pa%v /cav\ov$ 8' 
pi^av Be o'lavirep o acr^o 
r)' <j)i\el Be opeiva x&)pia /cal 
KW&I. avXX.eyerai Be rov rjpos. rovro fjiev 
ovv iBiov T&V 6ipr)/j,eva)V. 

X. 'O &e eXXe/9o/)o? o re yueXa? /cal 6 Xeu/co? 
aivovTCii' Trepl Be TT}? 6S/rea)9 
ol ^ev <yap o/Wof? elvai, ir\r)v TU> 

[JLOVOV Bia<f)p6lV TT]V p'i^aV TOV JJLV 

v TOV Be /jLe\aivav ol Be TOV fjiev yu-eXa^o? 
TO (frvXXov BaffrvwBes TOV Be \evtcov TrpaacoBes, 
Ta? Be pi^as oyLtota? 7r\r)v TWV xpco/jLaTcov. ol S* 
ovv Oyu-otof? Xe^o^Te? Toidv&e <f>acrlv elvai, TTJV 
jjLOp(f)ijv Kav\ov jjiev dvOepitccoBr) Ppa^vv cr^oBpa' 
<pv\\ov Be irKaTva-^ia-Tov, irapo^oiov crfyoBpa TU> 
TOV vdpOriKos, p,r)KO<$ B* eyov evOv 8' etc T?}? pi 

1 OTI yap conj.W. ; oVa yap UU*M*; ra yap ]\I ; T? yap Aid. 

2 Diosc. 4. 153 ; Plin. 13. 124. 8 Diosc. 4, 175. 



surprising that part of the same ' root ' should purge 
upwards and another part downwards, as is the case 
with thapsia and iskhas which some call apios (spurge) 
and with libanotis ; for 1 it is not strange that on the 
other hand the same parts should purge both upwards 
and downwards, as is the case with ' the driver.' 

2 Thapsia has a leaf like fennel, but broader, a 
stalk like that of ferula, and a white root. 

3 Iskhas (or apios) has a leaf like rue and short, 
three or four prostrate stems, and a root like that of 
asphodel, except that it is composed of scales ; 4 it 
loves mountain districts with a gravelly soil. It is 
collected in spring. Now this account applies 
only to the above-mentioned plants. 

Of hellebores, the white and the black: their uses and 

X. 5 The white and the black hellebore appear to 
have nothing in common except the name. But 
accounts differ as to the appearance of the plants ; 
some say that the two are alike and differ only in 
colour, the root of the one being white, of the other 
black; some however say that the leaf of the ' black' is 
like that of bay, that of the white like that of the leek, 
but that the roots are alike except for their respective 
colours. Now those who say that the two plants are 
alike describe the appearance 6 as follows : the stem 
is like that of asphodel and very short ; the leaf has 
broad divisions, and is extremely like that of ferula, 
but is long ; it is closely attached to the root and 

4 c/. Diosc. 3. 134. 

6 Plin. 25. 47-61. See Index, c/. 9. 11. 5 n. 
6 i.e. of the two plants regarded as one ; but the text of 
the following description seems to be hopelessly confused. 


fcal eTTiyeiotyvXhov 7ro\vppL%ov &' ev 
fjia\a rat? XeTrrat? /cal xprjo-ljAOis. 

'Avaipeiv Be rbv fiev /j,e\ava /cal iV'Trou? KOI 
/3oO? /cal <?, Bi o /cal ovBev ve^eaOai rovrwv rbv 
Be \ev/cbv vefjLe(rOat rd rrpofBara /cal e/c rovrov 
Trpwrov GVVO$9r)vaL T^V Bvvafuv /ca6aipo/ji6i>a)i> 
e/celvcov topalos Be ///er OTTO) pov, rov &' ^05 awpos' 
a\\a TT/oo? Tr]V 7rv\aiav ol e/c r^? OLTIJS (rv\\e- 
7rXet(7T09 jap evravOa (frverai /cal apiGTos' 
v Be ^verai r?}? Olr?;? irepl TTJV Tlvpdv.<yerai Be Trpb? rrjv irocnv, OTTO)? eue/xe? y, TO 

ivvis crTrepjAa* TOVTO 8' ecrrl Trodpiov. 
Be 6 fjiev yLteXa? iravra^pv' /cal yap ev 
rfj BoiWT/a /cal ev E^y^ota /cal Trap 1 d\\ot<> TTO\- 
Xoi?' a/otcrro? Be 6 e/c TOV f EXiw^o9, xal oX&>? TO 
opos ev(f)dpfjiaKOv. o Be \ev/cb$ o\Lya%ov' /3e\- 
TKJTOI Be /cal 049 xpwvrai yu-aXto-ra rerrape? o 
OiTalos 6 Tlovri/cbs 6 'EXear??? o MaX^cor?;?. (fraal 
Be rbv 'RXedrrjv ev rot? djjL7re\w<Ti fyveaOai /cal 
TTOielv rbv olvov ovrco Biovpyri/cbv ware \ayapovs 

elvai Trdvv TOU? 

4 "Ap^crro? Be Trdvrcov /cal TOVTMV real TCOV aXXcov 
6 Qlraios. o Be Tlapvd&ios /cal 6 AtrwXf/co?, 
yiverai yap /cal evravOa /cal TroXXol /cal oDVovvrai. 
/cal TTwXovaiv ov/c elBores, [ov% ore] a/c\7jpol /cal 

1 Which were held apparently at Thermopylae regularly 
in autumn and sometimes in spring : the meeting would give 
opportunities for sale. dAAa implies a spring meeting. 



creeps on the ground ; the plant has numerous roots,, 
to wit, the slender roots which are serviceable. 

Also they say that the black is fatal to horses oxen 
and pigs,, wherefore none of these animals eat it ; 
while the white is eaten by sheep, and from this 
circumstance the virtue of the plant was first 
observed, since it purges them ; it is at its prime 
in autumn, and past its prime when spring comes. 
However the people of Mount Oeta gather it for the 
meetings 1 of the Amphictyons ; for it grows there 
in greatest abundance and best, though at only one 
place in the district of Oeta, namely about Pyra. 

(The seed of rupture-wort is mixed with the 
potion given to promote easy vomiting ; this plant 
is a small herb). 

The black kind of hellebore grows everywhere ; 
it is found in Boeotia, in Euboea and in many other 
places ; but best is that from Mount Helicon, which 
mountain is in general rich in medicinal herbs. The 
white occurs in few places ; the best and that which 
is most used comes from one of four places, Oeta, 2 
Pontus, Elea, and Malea. 3 They say that that of 
Elea grows in the vineyards and makes the wine so 
diuretic that those who drink it become quite 

But best of all these and better than that found 
anywhere else is that of Mount Oeta, while that of 
Parnassus and that of Aetolia (for the plant is 
common in these parts too and men buy and sell it, 
not knowing * the difference) are tough and ex- 

2 6 before Olralos add. Sch. 

3 Ma\ia>T7js conj, Hahnemann, c/. Strabo 9. 3. 3 ; McKrtrctAi- 
WTTJS Aid. Plin. I.e. gives Parnassus as the fourth locality: 
c/- 4. 

4 The words o\>x foe may have arisen from OVK et'SJres. 



dyav Trepiv/ceXeis. ravTa jj^ev ovv ojmoia rat? 
ovra rat? Bwd/jLeai BtacfrepovTa. 

Be TOV peXavd rives e/CTO/j,ov MeXa/x- 


KaOaipovGi Be KOI oiKias avrw teal 
Trpo/Sara avveTrabovTes TWO, eTrqybrjv /cal els d\\a 

& 7T\eiCt) J(pCt)VTai. 

XI. IloXXa Be eari /cal ra Travail] KOI ol TiOv- 
fjia\\oi teal erep* drra. Trdvaices >yap KaXovai 
TTpwrov /juev TO 6v ^vpiq, Trepl ov fLLKpw Trporepov 
eiprjTai. a\\a $6 ra rpia, TO fjbe 
Ka\ov/J,evov TO 8' ' A.o-K\r)7rieiov TO 8 
e^ei $e TO jj,6v Xeipcoveiov (f>v\\o 
\a,Tca6<> fiel^ov $e /cal 8acrvTpov, avOos Be XP V ~ 
aoeiBes, pi^av Be fJUKpdv (puXet Be fidX-iaTa TCL 
^wpia TO, Triova* %pwvTai Be Trpos T TOVS e%eis 
/cal TO, (f>a\djyia /cal TOVS afjiras Kal TCL a\\a 
epireTa BiBoVTes ev Oivqy /cal d\ei(f)ovTes /ACT' 
e\aiov TOV B* e%e&>9 TO Brjyfjia /cal KaTa7r\aTTOv- 
T9 teal ev o^ii'rj TTielv BiBovTes" dyaOrjv Be fyacri 
/cal e\/cwv ev oivw /cal eKalw Kal cfrv/udTcov ev 

To 8' 'Aa-KXyTTieiov TTJV pi^av /JLTJ/COS /j,ev to? 
(TTriOajuirjv \evtcrjv Be /cal Tra^elav a(f)6Bpa, Kal 
<j)\oiov Tra^vv /cal d\VKO)Br)' /cav\bv Be e%i yova- 
TcoBr) TravTa^oOev, $v\\ov Be olovirep r) Oa^ria 
Tra^yrepov dyaObv Be elva'i fyacri epjreTwv 

1 From this phrase ^KTO^OV came to be used as a synonym 
for ' black hellebore.' cf. Tim. 25. 47; Diosc. 4. 149 ; Hesy'ch. 
and Galen, Lex. Hipp. s.v. 

2 9. 9. 2. 3 Plin. 25. 32 ; 26. 139. 

4 fjuKpav conj. H. from Plin. 25. 32. radix parva ; /j.&Kpav\J* 



ceeding harsh. These plants then, while resembling 
the best form in appearance, differ in their virtues. 

Some call the black the 'hellebore of Melampus,' 1 
saying that he first cut and discovered it. Men also 
purify horses and sheep with it, at the same time 
chanting an incantation ; and they put it to several 
other uses. 

Of the various kinds of all-heal. 

XI. There are also several kinds of all-heal 
tithymallos (spurge) and other herbs. To begin with, 
one plant called all-heal is the one found in Syria, of 
which we have recently spoken. 2 3 Then come the 
three other kinds, known as that of Chaeronea, that 
of Asclepios, and that of Heracles. That of Chae- 
ronea has a leaf like monk's rhubarb, but larger and 
rougher, a golden flower, and a small 4 root ; and it 
specially loves rich ground ; they use it for the bites 
of snakes, spiders, vipers 5 and other reptiles, ad- 
ministering it in wine or anointing the place with it 
mixed with olive-oil. In treating a snake-bite they 
use a plaster of it, and also give a draught of it 
mixed with vinegar 6 ; and they also say that it is good 
for sores 7 when mixed with wine and olive-oil, and 
for tumours when mixed with honey. 

8 The kind called after Asklepios has a white and 
very stout root about a span long and a thick bark 
which is crusted with salt 9 ; its stem is jointed all 
the way up, its leaf like that of thapsia, but 
thicker ; it is said that it is good to scrape and drink 

5 (tTjros conj. Seal., cf. Arist. Mir. Ausc. 164 ; ffr/ras Aid. 
xal ev o^ivr, conj. Sch., cf. 9. 13. 3 ; eV ofay /eai PAld. 

7 For the genitive cf. 2, 3 ; Xen. Mem. 3. 8. 3. 

8 Plin. 25. 30 ; Diosc. 3. 49. 

9 aAuKwSrj : ? ' has a briny taste. ' 



re %vovTa Triveiv, /cal o-jr'Xrjvbs orav alpa Trepl 
avrbv ev fJLe\LKpdT(p, KOI /ce(pa\aias Tpiftovra ev 
eXaiqy d\el$eiv /cal aXXo Ti edv Trovfj rt? d(paves, 
/cal yao'Tpb? oBvvTjs ev ollvw ^vovTa. BvvaaOai Be 
/cal ra9 yLta/rpa? dppaxiTias e/c/c\iveiv. eireiTa TWV 
\/cwv TWV fjiev vypcov %7]pov eiriTrdTTovTa Trpo- 
/caTarc\vovTa ev o"v<p OepfAU), TWV Be ^ijp&v ev 
oiva) Bevaai /cal /caTa7r\dTTeiv. 

To 8' f Hpd/c\eiov <f)i>\\ov fjLev e^et fjueya /cal 
Kal Tpia-TTiOa/jiov TravTa^, pi^av Be tw? 
TO ?ra^o9 Bi/cpav rj Tpi/cpav, Ty yevcrei 
fjCev vTTOTTifcpov TTJ B* ocr/j,f) KaOdirep \(,/3ava>Tov 
KaOapov' dyaOi-jV Be TT}<? lepas vocrov /jnyvv fjuevr)v 
TTiTva ocrov TeTapTrjfjiopiov Trivetv, /cal 6Bv- 
/card ya&Tepa ev OLVM y\v/cei, /cal eX/cwv TMV 
vypcov ^pdv TWV Be t^ripwv ev fJie\iTi. aviai 
ovv raura? e^ovai Biatyopds re Kal BvvdjAeis. 
4 "AXXa Be Travd/cTj TO jjiev \e7rTO(f)u\\ov TO Be 
ov' al Be Bvvd/jieis d/4(polv al avTai, irpoo-OeTov re 
<yvvail /cal /caTdiT\ao'^ia yu-er' aX^trou /cal 
Ta e\K7) Ta aXXa /cal TT/JO? ra ve^6fj,va. 
6 ^VV&VVLLOI Be /cal ol GTQVVVOL Kal ol 

conj. Sch. ; /ce^aATjs Aid. 

Swv (sic) U*; TW 

we^aAaios con. c. ; /ce^aAT 

2 TWV e\Ku>v conj. Sch.; TWV 5e 
Ald.H. cf. 3. 

3 PI in. 25. 32 ; Diosc. 3. 48. 

4 SiKpav T) rplitpav conj. Sch,; SiKpaf ^ Tpitfav UM ; 
niKpav U*; Sixpavr) rj TpiKpavf) Aid. 


it against bites of reptiles, to take it -in a posset of 
honey for disorders of the spleen, when the blood 
collects about it, and against headache l to pound it 
up in olive-oil and anoint the head ; that it is of use 
also in other obscure troubles, and against stomach- 
ache, if scraped and taken in wine. It is said also 
to be able to prevent long periods of sickness. Again 
for running sores 2 one may sprinkle it on in hot 
wine, first washing the place, while for dry sores one 
may soak it in wine and apply a plaster. 

3 The kind named after Herakles has a large 
broad leaf, three spans each way, a root as thick as a 
man's finger, forking in two or three 4 ; in taste it is 
somewhat bitter, in smell like pure frankincense 5 ; 
6 it is good to drink it against epilepsy, mixed with 
the rennet of a seal in the proportion of one to four, 
or in sweet wine against pain 7 in the stomach ; it 
may be used dry 8 for running sores, and mixed with 
honey for dry ones. Such are the special features 
about these plants and their respective virtues. 

9 There are also other kinds of all-heal, of which 
one has a fine leaf, the other not; the properties of 
both kinds are the same ; namely they are used as a 
pessary for women, and a plaster may be made of 
them mixed with meal for spreading sores as well as 
for ordinary sores. 

Of the various plants called strykhnos. 
As to strykhnos again and tilhymallos (spurge) there 
is in either case more than one form of the plant 

5 \i/3ai r wTov KO.6a.pov conj. Sch. ; \tfavtarbv KaQapbv UM ; \i- 
flavuTov U*; \t^av^Toi' itadapwv Ald.H KaOapov perhaps due 
to K a.edirep. 6 c/. Fr. 1 75 ; Diosc. 2. 75. 

7 oSuvijsconj.W.j oMvai UMU*Ald. 

conj. Sch.; ^pa U*Ald.; frpa\ M. 9 Plin. 35. 33. 



\oi. rcov yap (TTpv%V(t)V 6 fjuev vTrvcoBrjs 6 Be 
/jiaviKo^. KOI o /jiev VTTVW^^ epvOpav e^cov rrjv 
pi^av axTTrep alpa ^paLVO/Lievrjv, opvTTo/jbev^v Be 
\evKrjv, Kal fcapTrbv epvOpoTepov KpoKov, <f>v\\ov 
Be Ti6vfjid\\w OJJLOLOV rf /j,rj\ea TTJ <y\vKeia teal 
avro SCHTV ical Trvy/Arjv fieya. TOVTOV TT}? pi^rjs 
TOV (f)\oibv KOTTTOVTCS \iav KOI /3pe%ovTs ev oivw 
(iKpaTw SiSoaai TTielv Kal Trotel KaOev&eiv. <f)ve- 
TCLI Se ev %apdSpai<? Kal rot? jjivi^fiacnv. 

? O Se /jiaviKos, ol Be Opvopov KO\OVGIV avTov ol 
Se TrepiTTov, \ev/cr}V e%6i rr^v pi^av Kal 
o>9 Trr^^eo)? Kal K0i\,rjv. SiSorai, 8* avrr)?, eav 
coo-re TTaifceiV Kal BoKelv eavrw KaXXiaTOV el 

aOfjitt)' eav be IJLOL\\OV fiaiveaOai, Kal 
riva? fyaivecrOai, Svo ^pa^fiai' eav & 
ware fj,rj TraveaOai fjbaivofJLevov rpet?, Kal CTV/JL- 
TrapafjLijvvvaL (fraalv OTTOV Kevravpiov eav &e 
wcrre aTTOKTeivai, reVra/oe?. e%et 8e TO /Jiev <j)v\\ov 
O/JLOLOV ev^ay/Liw jr\r)v /juel^ov, rbv Be KavXov wa-jrep 
opyvias, KefyaXyv Be wo-Trep y^Ovov fiel^w Be Kal 
Baavrepav eotKe Be Kal 7T\ardvou 

1 c/. 7. 15. 4, where a third ffTpvxvos is mentioned, which is 
b^wjj.03, not <rvvuvv/j.os, i.e. which has nothing in common 
with these two arpv-xyoi except the name. cf. also 9. 15. 5. 

2 Kp6i<ov conj. Dalec. from Diosc. 4. 72, Kapirbv . . . Kpoici- 
frvra ; K&KKOV MSS. 

3 irvy^v ptya U; TrvO/j.T]i> fj.eyas U*Ald.H. ; W. adopts Bod.'s 
conjecture a-niGa/j^v fj.eya. 

4 Plin. 21. 177-179 ; Diosc. 4. 73. 

5 Qpvopov Ald.H. ; 0pv6pov U*; fipvopov U ; fipvopov MmBas. ; 



denoted by the name. 1 Of the plants called strykhnos 
one induces sleep, the other (thorn-apple) causes 
madness. The first-mentioned has a root which be- 
comes red like blood as it dries, but when first dug 
up it is white ; its fruit is a deeper orange than 
saffron, 2 its leaf like that of tithymallos or the sweet 
apple ; and it is itself rough, and about a foot high. 3 
The ' bark ' of the root of this they bruise severely, 
and soaking it in neat wine give it as a draught, and 
it induces sleep. It grows in water-courses and 011 

4 The kind which produces madness (which some 
call thryoron b and some peritton Q ) has a white 
hollow root about a cubit long. Of this three 
twentieths of an ounce in weight is given, if the 
patient is to become merely sportive and to think 
himself a fine fellow ; twice this dose 7 if he is to go 
mad outright and have delusions 8 ; thrice the dose, 
if he is to be permanently insane ; (and then they 
say that the juice of centaury is mixed with it) ; 
four 9 times the dose is given, if the man is to be 
killed. The leaf is like that of rocket, but larger, 
the stem about a fathom long; the 'head' 10 is like 
that of a long onion, but larger and rougher. And 
it also resembles the fruit of the plane-tree. 

briorem G. Plin. I.e. seems to have read epvQpbv ; Diosc. I.e. 

Ald.H., i.e. 'violent'; pittsum G ; Plin. I.e. peris- 
son; Diosc. I.e. iTfpcriov. 

7 SpaxfJ-ai conj. Sch.; Spax/J-as Aid. 

8 /col . . . </miVecr0ai om. UM : ungrammatical, and possibly 
a gloss ; but cf. Diosc. and Plin. I. c. 

J rerrapes conj. Sch.; Tfrrapas Aid ; reVaapos U*. 
10 7. 4. 10 it was said that yydvov has no 'head,' i.e. bulb; 
here the ' head ' seems to be the inflorescence, cf. Diosc. and 
Plin. I.e. 



7 Twz> Be Ti0Vfj,d\\a)V 6 aev 7rapd\io<? Ka\ov- 
/iei'O9 KOKKLVOV <>v\\ov e%e TrepHpepes, Kav\bv Be 
Kal TO o\ov [AeyeOo? 0)9 <T7ri0ajjLT)<> TOV Be Kaprrbv 
\evKov. d/ACLTai Be OTav apTi TrepKa^rj o~Ta(f)v\r), 
Kal %Y)pav6ei<$ o Kaprrbs BiBoTai rriveiv Tpi(j)0el<> 
offov TpiTov fjiepos ov/3d<f)ov. 

8 ? O 8' apprjv Ka\ovfjievo^ TO p,ev (f)v\\ov eXa^w- 

TO Be o\ov ae<ve#09 Tnriyvalov. TOVTOV 

apa Tpvyrjrw Kal OepaTrevaavTes 
&>9 Bel xpwvrat,' icaOaipei, 8e KCLTW fj,a\\ov. 

TO /lev (j)v\\ov e^et, Kaddjrep 6 /jivppivos, Tr\r)v 
dKav0w$es air aKpov K\r)fj,aTa 8' dfyi^Giv eVl 
Ti]V ryrjv to? crmOafJuaZa, raOra 8' ov% a/Ml fyepei 
TOV KapTrov d\\d Trap 1 ero?, TO, p,ev vvv ra 8' et? 
vkwTa, 7re(f)VKOTa diro TTJS avTrjS pifys. (piXel Se 
opeiva ^copia. o Be KapTtos avTov KaXeiTai 
Kapvov. aiL&ai 8' orav dSpvvwvTai al Kpidal Kal 
%ripaivovTes Kal dTroKa6aipovTe<$' avTov TOV Kap- 
TTOV 7r\vvavT<; ev vBaTi Kal Tcakiv IjrjpdvavTes 
BiSoao-i Trielv av/jL/jLiyvvvres Bvo fJ^epij TT}? fj.e\aivt]^ 
/jirJKtovos, TO Be avva/JL^oTepov o&ov o%v(Ba$ov 
Kadaipet, Be <f)*\.ey/j,a KCLTW eav Be TO Kapvov avTo 
BiBaHTi, TptyavTes ev OLVW <y\VKei BiBoaaiv 77 ev 
a-rjcrd/uM Tre^pvyfjievw KaTaTpayeiv. TavTa 

OVV TOfc? T6 (f)V\\Ol<i Kttl T0t9 07T049 Kal T0t9 

1 Plin. 26. 68. 

2 K&KKIVOV conj.W. ; K^KKOJ MSS. cf. Plin. I.e. ramis ru- 
bentibus. 3 Diosc. 4. 164 ; Plin. 26. 62-65. 

4 OVTWS us Set xp' conj. Sell.; OVTWS us ty XP- U*; ovrcas XP- 



Of the various kinds of tithymallos. 

1 Of the various plants called tithymallos (spurge) 
that which is called sea-spurge has a round scarlet 2 
leaf ; the stem (and the size of the plant generally) 
is about a span long, and the fruit is white. It is 
gathered when the grape is just turning, and the 
dried fruit is given in a draught, the dose being the 
twenty-fourth part of a pint. 

3 That which is called the ' male ' has a leaf like 
the olive, and the height of the whole plant is a 
cubit. Of this they collect the juice at the time 
of vintage, and, after preparing it, use it as oc- 
casion demands 4 ; and it purges chiefly downwards. 

5 The kind of tithymallos called ' myrtle-like ' is 
white ; it has a leaf like the myrtle, but spinous 
at the tip ; it puts out earthward twigs about a 
span long, and these bear the fruit 6 not all at 
the same time but in alternate years, so that from 
the same root grow fruits partly this and partly 
next year. It loves hill-country. The fruit of it is 
called a f nut.' They gather it when the barley is 
ripening and dry and clean it ; (it is the actual fruit 7 
which they clean) ; they wash it in water and, after 
drying it again, give it in a draught, mixing with it 
two parts of ' black 8 poppy ' ; and the whole dose 
amounts to about an eighth of a pint. It purges 
phlegm downwards. If they administer the f nut' 
itself, they first pound it up in sweet wine, or give it 
in parched sesame to bite up. These plants then 
have leaves juices or fruits which are serviceable. 

5 Diosc. 4. 164 ; Plin. 26. 66. 6 cf. C.P. 4. 6. 9. 

7 W. adds 8e after a.vr'bv. The treatment of the leaves has 
perhaps dropped out. cf. Plin. I.e. G's version is even shorter. 

8 /j.f\aiva must here mean 'dark,' i.e. red. See Index. 

2 75 

T 2 


10 Twi> Be \i{3avc0riBa)v, Bvo yap elaiv, f) fjuev 
aKaprros 77 Be rcdpTrifJios, 77 /j,ev KOI T&> Kaprrw /cal 
TO) (j)i>\\(> xprjai/ji'rj 77 Be JJLOVOV rfj pityj. Ka\elrai 
Be 6 Kaprros Ka%pv. e%ei Be avrij TO pep <f>v\\ov 

e\iv(d eXetft) pei^ov Se 7ro\v, KavXov &e 
7777^60)9 i) yu,eta>, pl^av Be /jLeyd\r)v /cal 
Xev/crjv o&vaav waTrep \ifBavwrov, /cap- 
TTOV Be \evfcov rpa%vv 7rpo/jir)Kq' (frverai Be pd- 
\iGTa OTTOV av avy^pd ^copia 77 Kal Tr 
Xprjcri/jL?] Be i] f^ev pi^a irpbs re ra e\/crj Kal 
ra <yvvaiK6ia irivo^vr] ev olvw av&Trjpq) fjie\avi' 
6 Be /ca/OTro? ?rpo? re ra9 crrpayyovpias /cal Trpbs 
ra wra /cal apye/jia /cal 77^009 ofyOdXjJiias /cal ware 
yciXa <yvvaij;lv efjuroLetv. 

11 'H Be aKaprros e%et TO <f>v\\ov O/JLOLOV OptBa- 
#11/779 T?79 mKpas rpa^vrepov Be /cal \evKorepov, 
pi^av Be ^pa^elav. (frverat, Be orrowirep epei/cr) 
TrXeiarr). Bvvarai, Be 77 pla KaBaipeiv Kal dvw 
Kal Karw rb JJLGV yap 7T/)09 TTJV ^Xaa-rrjv dva), TO 
Be ?rpo9 rrjv yfjv Karw KwXvei Be Kal et9 i/udria 

TOU9 (rrjras. Gv\\e<yerai Be irepl irvpo- 

XII. Xa/jiai\e(t)v Be 6 fj^ev \CVKOS 6 Be 
al Be Bwd/jieis rwv pit^wv Kal avral Be al pi^ai 
Tot9 el&eai Bidcfropoi. rov jjuev yap \evKij Kal 
rra^ela Kal y\vKela Kal ocrfATjv e^ovcra /Sapelav 
v Be fyacn rrpos re TOU9 povs, orav e 

1 Diosc. 3. 74 ; Plin. 19. 187. 

2 c/. Plin. 24. 99 and 101. 

a c/. 7. 6. 2 ; 9. 9. 5. 

4 oTrovTrfp epei/cTj conj. Dalec. etc. from Diosc. I.e. ; oVot/Trep 

Ald.H.j 67r^Te epet'/cr? U*. 


Of the two herbs called libanotis. 

1 Of the plants called libanotis , (for there are two) 
one is barren, the other fruitful, the latter having 
both fruit and leaves that are serviceable, the former 
only a serviceable root. The fruit is called kakhry. 2 
This plant has a leaf like marsh celery, but much 
larger, a stem a cubit long or more, a large stout 
white root, which smells like frankincense, and a 
white rough elongated fruit. It grows chiefly wherever 
there is parched and rocky soil ; the root is serviceable 
for sores, and for diseases of women when given in a 
draught of dry black w r ine. The fruit is good for 
strangury, for the ears, for ulcers 3 on the eye, for 
ophthalmia and for producing milk in women. 

The barren kind has a leaf like that of the bitter 
lettuce, but rougher and paler ; the root is short. It 
grows where there is abundance of heather. 4 The 
root can purge both upwards and downwards, the 
upper part being used for the former, that nearer 
the ground for the latter purpose. Also, if it is put 
among clothes, it prevents moth. It is gathered at 
the time of wheat-harvest. 

Of the tivo kinds of chamaeleon. 

XII. 5 Of chamaeleon there is the white kind and 
the dark ; the properties of the roots are different, 
and the roots also differ 6 in appearance. In the one 
case the root is white stout and sweet, and it has a 
heavy smell ; they say that when cooked it is 
serviceable against flux ; it is chopped up like 

5 Diosc. 3. 8 ; Plin. 22. 45 and 46, who explains the name 
(tnutat cnm terra colores). See Index. 

6 Smtpepovtrat conj. W. ; Sio^e'pet U; fiiatyfpovcri 8e M; Stdtyopov 



/caTaTfj,r)0ei(ra KaOdirep pafyavls eveipo/jievr) e< 
oKocr'Xpivov, /cal 777)09 rrjv e\fjavda rrjv Tr\arelav, 
orav dara^iBa 7rpo(j)dyr) Trivetv e7n$ovTa ravrrjv 
ocrov o^vftcxftov ev OLVO) ava-rrjpu). dvaipel Be /cal 
Kvva Kal GVV tcvva /j,V ev aXffrirois ava^vpaOetaa 
e\atov /cal v&aros, avv 8e fiera pafydvwv 
rwv opia)v. yvvat/cl Be BiSorai ev 
rpvyl j\VKeia rj ev oivy yXv/cel. teal eav ftovXtj- 
Tai Tt? aaOevovvros dvOpooirov Bicnreipao-Qcu el 
ftiwcri/jios, \oveiv tce\6vov(Ti rpeis ry/Ae/?a9, fcav 
irepievey/cr} piwcnfjbos. (frverai Se ojjboiws Travra- 
%ov, /cal e%et TO <pv\\ov O/JLOIOV arKoKvfiw fiel^ov 
Be' avro Be TT/JO? rf} 777 nva /c(f>a\,rjv e%ei d/cavo- 
eiBfj fjLeydXrjv, ol Be /cal a/cavov /ca\ov(Ttv. 
2 'O Be //.eXa? r&) jj.ev (J)V\\M 7rap6fj,oio$, (TKO\U- 
yap e^ei 7r\r)v e\arrov Kal \eiorepov, 
8' 0X09 earlv Mcnrep a/ctdBiov, 17 Be pia 
teal fJieXaiva Biappayeia-a Be viro^avOo^. 
Be (j)t,\el tyv%pd /cal dpyd' Bvvarat, Be 
Xeirpav re e^e\avveiv ev 6'fet Tpi/36ju,evos /cal gvcr- 
^et? e7ra\ei(f)6fjL6vo<; /cal d\cj)bv toaavTW dvaipel 
Be /cal rou9 icvvas. 

5* elalv aypiai 7rXetof9' r) fJiev /cepa- 
TO <>v\Xov wcr- 

1 cf. 9. 9. 1. 

2 cf. Pseudo-Diosc. 4. 175 and Index. 

3 axavoetSr] conj. Sell.; KovofiSij U*; /cwroeiSJ) mP ; 6/j.oiav 
O.KO.VU> PAld. 

4 Be after T V om. Sch. ; ? nva Ke<aA V W. 

2 7 8 


radishes l and the pieces strung on a rush ; it is also 
good against the broad maw-worm ; the patient first 
eats a bunch of raisins and then drinks about an 
eighth of a pint of this scraped up in a draught of 
dry wine. It is fatal to dogs and pigs ; to kill a dog 
it is well mixed up in a meal paste with oil and water, 
to kill a pig it is mixed with f mountain cabbage ' 
(spurge). 2 It is given to a woman in sweet wine- 
lees or sweet wine. And if one wishes to discover 
whether a man that is sick will recover, they say 
that he should be washed with this for three days, 
and, if he survives the experience, he will recover. 
It grows everywhere alike and has a leaf like the 
golden thistle, but larger ; the plant itself has a 
large thistle-like 3 head 4 close to the ground ; some 
actually 5 call it the thistle. 

6 The dark kind resembles the other in leaf, which 
is like that of the golden thistle but smaller and 
smoother ; the plant itself is in general appearance 
like a sunshade ; the root is stout and black, and 
when broken is yellowish. It likes cold uncultivated 
soil : it has the property of expelling leprosy ; for 
this it is given pounded up in vinegar, or else 
scrapings of it are made into a plaster ; and it is also 
used for the white leprosy. This plant is also fatal 
to dogs. 7 

Of the various plant* called ' 'poppy,' 

8 There are several kinds of wild poppy : the one 
called the horned poppy is black : the leaf of this is 

6 Sc /cat a.Kai>ov I conj. ; 8' &KavQav U*mPar., so also Diosc. 
I.e.-, 8' &KCLVOV PAld.G. 

6 Diosc. 3. 9 ; Plin. I.e. 

7 KVVO.S : Kvvoppa'iffTas, dog-ticks, conj. Reinesius from Plin. 
ricinos canum. 

8 Diosc. 4. 64 ; Plin. 20. 205 and 206. 



<f)\6{jiov T^? fjieXaivYjs rjTTov Be fjie\av, TOV Be 
/cav\ov TO 1/^09 &>9 TTrj^valov, pi^a Be Tra^eia teal 
e7T77roA/uo9, 6 Be Kapiros KdjJiTrvXos wairep /cepd- 
TLOV a-v\\eyeTai Be irepl Trvporofjiia^. Bvvarai 
Be KctOaipeiv Koi\iav, TO Be (j>v\\ov apye/jua TT/OO- 

Be jrapa dd\arrav, ou 

Be ^r\Kwv poi,a<; 

rq> dypio), Bi o /cal eo-Oierar ev 
dpovpaiois Be (frverai, /jidXicrra ev rat9 KpiOais' 
avOos B* e%ei epvOpov /cwBvav 8' oar^v ovv^a TOV 
BafcrvXov. crvTO^eyerai Be Trpo TOV depta^ov TWV 
Be jjia\\ov. KaOaipei Be 

'EiTepa Be inrjtcwv r Hpa/c\eia KdKelTai TO /mev 
(f>v\\ov e^ovaa olov crTpovOos, w TO, oQovia \ev- 
KaivovGi, pi^av Be \TTT^V eTriTroXaiov, TOV Be 
/capTTov \evKov. Tavrtj^ 77 pi^a KaOaipct avco- 
Be Tive$ Trpbs TOU9 eTriXrjTTTOvs ev fjie\i- 
TavTa fjiev ovv WGTrep O/JLWVV/JHC^ Tivl 

XIII. Twz; Be pit^wv /cal ev rot9 ^u/xot9 al 
Btatyopal KOI ev rat9 ocr/Jiais' al p,ev yap elai 
Bpi/Aeiai, al Be Trucpal al Be y\vicelai, teal al pev 
evoB/jtoi al Be jBapelai. y\VKeia /j,ev TJ re vv^fyaia 
Ka\ovfJLevri' fyveTai, B 1 ev rat9 '\i/J,vais /cal ev TO 9 
e\a)Be(Tiv, olov ev TG Trj ^Op^ofjLevia /cal MapaQwvt 

1 Sxnrfp Kpdnov conj. W. ; tlxnrep Kepas UM ; S>ffirep ru 
riuv U*Ald. 

2 Diosc. I.e.; Plin. 19. 167-100. 

3 Diosc. 4. 66; Plin. 20. 207, 'c/. 19. 21. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xn. 3 -xm. i 

like that of the black mullein,, but it is not so black ; 
the stem grows about a cubit high, the root is stout 
and shallow, the fruit is twisted like a little horn 1 : 
it is gathered at the time of wheat harvest. It has 
the property of purging the belly, and the leaf is 
used for removing ulcers on sheep's eyes. It grows 
by the sea, wherever there is rocky ground. 

2 Another kind of poppy is that called rhoias, 
which is like wild chicory, wherefore it is even 
eaten : it grows in cultivated fields and especially 
among barley. It has a red flower, and a head as 
large as a man's finger-nail. It is gathered before 
the barley-harvest, when it is still somewhat green. 
It purges downwards. 

3 Another kind of poppy is called Herakleia : it has 
a leaf like soap-wort, with which 4 they bleach linen : 
the root is slender and does not run deep, and the 
fruit is white. The root of this plant purges upwards : 
and some use it in a posset of mead for epileptics. 

5 These kinds then are distinct plants, though they 
come under one name. 

Of roots possessing remarkable taste or smell. 

XIII. The differences between roots are shown in 
their tastes G and in their smells : some are pungent, 
some bitter, some sweet : some again have a pleasant, 
others a disagreeable smell. The plant called 
yellow water-lily " is sweet : it grows in lakes and 
marshy places, as in the district of Orchomenus, at 

4 This appears to refer to a-rpovQos, not to 'Hpa/cAeia, as 
Plin. takes it. cf. 6. 4. 3 and Index, arpovQiov (2). 

5 i.e. folds and 'Hpa/cAeia are popularly called ' poppies.' 
duKW/nia TIVI conj.W.; 6/j.uvvjj.a nva. Aid.; o/n.uivv/ji.a. nvi U*. cf. 
7. 15. 4. 

6 x v ^ is conj. Soh.; XU\G?S Aid. Plin. 25. 75. 



/cal irepl Kptjrrjv Ka\ovai ' avrrjv ol Botcorol 
/jiaBwvdiv KOI rbv /capTrbv eaOiovcnv. e^ei Be TO 
(frvXXiOV i^eya eVt rov vBaros" elvai Be <f>acriv 
l'o-%ai/LLOv, edv rptyas Ti? eVf- rrjv TrXrjyrjv TTi0fj' 

Se KOI TT/JO? Bvo-evrepuav Trivo^evrj. 
Y\VK6ia Be teal f) ^KvQiKr)' /cal evioi Be KO\OV- 
evOvs <y\VKeiav avrtfv ryiverai Be Trepl rrjv 
prja-l/jir} Be TT/OO? re ra aa-B/j,ara teal 
Tijv ft / r)X a tzvpav /cal 0X0)5 TOU? Trepl rbv 

VOVS' Tt, Be 7T/OO? TO, \Kr) ev fJL\lTL' 

Bvvarai Be /cal rrjv Btyav Traveiv, edv Tt9 ev TW 
(TTOjiiaTi, e%?7' Bi o ravrrj re /cal rf) iTTTra/cf) 
Sidyeiv (j)aa"l rou? 2,/cv0a<i rjfiepas /cal evBe/ca /cal 

['H Be api<jro\o'xia rfj oa'c^ptjcrei fjiev evoB/j,os rfj 
Be yevcret rrtKpa crcfroBpa rfj XP OL< ? ^ ^e\aiva. 
fyverai Be ev rot? opecnv rj fte\ria-rij' cf>vX\ov Be 
e^ei 7rpoa-p,(j)epes rfj akaivrj rr\rjv (rrpojyv\6- 
repov xprjdi/jir) Be irpb? 7ro\\d, /cal apiary rrpos 
/ce(f)a\rj$ dyaflr) Be /col Trpbs ra a\\a eX/cy, ical 

TT/OO? ra epjrera /ca 7rpo9 VTTVOV /ca TT/QO? vvrepav. 
ra fjiev ovv TTpoadyeiv Ke\evovcnv ev vBan dva- 
Bevaavra /cal /cara7r\drrovra, ra Be ci\\a et? 
yLteXi ev^vaavra /cal eXaiov rrpos Be ra rwv 
eprcerwv ev oivw b^ivrj rriveiv /cal errl rb Br)y/Aa 
emrrXdrreiv et? vrrvov Be ev oivw i^e\avL avcrrrjpM 
edv Be al fj,rjrpai TrpoTreo-wcri, r> vBart 

1 Diosc 3. 5 ; Plin. 25. 82. 

2 yXvKe'iav : yXvKvpptfav conj. Dalec., whence 'liquorice.' c/. 
Plin. 11. 284. 

a c/. Plin. I.e., who took iiriran-f) to be a plant. 



Marathon and in parts of Crete : the Boeotians, who 
eat the fruit, call it madondis. It has a large leaf 
which lies on the water : and it is said that it acts as 
a styptic if it is pounded up and put on the wound : 
it is also serviceable in the form of a draught for 

1 ' Scythian root ' (liquorice) is also sweet ; some 
indeed call it simply ' sweet-root.' 2 It is found 
about Lake Maeotis : it is useful against asthma or a 
dry cough and in general for troubles in the chest : 
also, administered in honey, for wounds : also it has 
the property of quenching thirst, if one holds it in 
the mouth : wherefore they say that the Scythians, 
with the help of this and mares' milk cheese 8 can go 
eleven or twelve days without drinking. 

4 [Birthwort is fragrant to the smell but in taste is 
very bitter : in colour it is black. The best grows 
on the mountains : it has a leaf like alsine, but 
rounder : it is useful for many purposes, and is best 
for sores on the head 5 and other sores, also for bites 
of reptiles, for inducing sleep and for disorders of 
the womb. 6 It is directed that it should be applied 
as a plaster, steeped in water, and for the other 
purposes should be given shredded into honey and 
olive-oil : for snake-bites it should be taken in sour 
wine and also used as a plaster on the bite : to induce 
sleep it should be scraped up 7 and administered in 
black dry wine ; in cases of prolapsus uteri a lotion of 
it mixed with water should be applied.] 

4 Diosc. 3. 4 ; Plin. 25. 93. This section is repeated 9. 20. 4. 
with considerable variations : that seems to be its proper 

5 Ke^oAyjs conj. W. ; K0a\V Aid. cf. 20, Kc<t>a\66\a(TTa. 

6 vtrrtpav conj.W., cf. below, eai> Se at /njrpai AC.T.A. and the 
duplicate passage 20 ; erepo MSS. 

7 Kviffai conj.W.; Kvlaras U*Ald. 



4 A.vrai fj,ev ovv y\VKelat,. a\\ai Be Tri/cpai, al 
Be (Bapelai rfj yevcrei. yivovrai Be rives rwv 
y\v/ceio)V al fjiev e/ccrrari/cai, /caOaTrep rj 6/jLoia rq> 
atcoKvfjLW irepl Teyeav, rjv KOI TldvBeios o dvBpiav- 
roTroibs (fraywv epya&^evos ev rw iepcp 

al $6 OavaTTj^opoi, tcaOanrep 77 irepl ra yu-e 
ev T0i9 epyois rot? eV parcy Koixfyij Se /cal 
irdvv rfj <yevarei /cal rov Odvarov VTTVW^I-] iiva 
Troiovaa /cal eKafypbv. e^ovcn Be /cal rot? XP' 
jjiaat Btacf)opas ov rc3 \evKW /cal p,e\avi /cal %av6w 
fjiovov, aXX' eviai /cal otVo^core?, al B' epvOpai, 
KaOdnrep rj rov epevdeBavov. 

5 f H Be rov irevra^vXX.ov T) jrevraTrerovs, /caXovcri 
yap d/jLffrorepa)?, opvrro/jievrj epvflpa fyipaivofjuevri 
Be /jL\aiva <yiverai /cal rerpdywvos' e^ei Be ro 
<f)v\\ov waTrep oivapov fJLitcpov Be /cal rrjv %poiav 
O/HOLOV /cal av^dverat, /cal (frOivei afj,a ry dfjLrre\w' 
rrdvra Be Trevre ra cpv\\a, Bi o /cal 77 TT poarjyopia' 
/cav\ov$ Be eVt yijv I'rjcn XeTrrou? /cal Kv^a^ e^ei. 

6 To Be epevOeBavov cj>vX\,ov O/JLOIOV KITTM TT\^V 
arpoyyvXorepov' (f>verai S' eVt 7% coajrep aypa)- 
<rris, (j)i\el Be 7ra\iaKia ^wpia. ovprjri/cr) Be, BL* 
o /cal xpwvrai 77/909 ra rijs oa^vos d\yrnjiara /cal 
777309 r9 IcrxidBas. 

"Qviai Be lBi6/jiop(f)OL rives, oxrTrep r) re rov 
a/copTTiov /ca\ovfjievov /cal r) rov r JTO\V7roBiov. rj 

1 These words shew that 3 is out of place. 

2 cf. C.P. 6.4.5. 

3 riconj. Sch.; al U*Ald. 

4 ev TO?S epyois TO?S W. from U*. ? a gloss on 
ret per. -ra iv 0. Aid. H. 

5 Plin. 25. 139. 



1 These then are sweet : other roots are bitter, and 
some unpleasant to the taste. Of those that are 
sweet 2 there are some that cause mental derange- 
ment, as the plant like the golden thistle which 
grows near Tegea : of this Pandeios the sculptor ate, 
and went mad while he was working in the temple. 
Others have fatal effects, as that 3 which grows near 
the mines in the fields of 4 Thrace : this however is 
inoffensive and quite sweet to the taste, and the death 
which it causes is easy and like falling asleep. There 
are also differences in colour, not merely as to being 
black or white or yellow, but some are quite wine- 
coloured and some are red, as the root of madder. 

5 The root of pentaphyllon or pentapetes (ciiiquefoil) 6 
(for the plant bears both names) is red when it is dug 
up, but as it dries it becomes black and square : its 
leaf is like a vine -leaf, and it is small and like it in 
colour : it grows and fades along with the vine. It 
only has five leaves in all, whence its name : it sends 
out long slender stems on the ground, and it has 
joints. 7 

8 Madder has a leaf like ivy, but it is rounder : it 
grows along the ground like dog's-tooth grass and 
loves shady spots. It has diuretic properties, where- 
fore it is used for pains in the loins or hip-disease. 

Some roots are of ' peculiar shape, as that of the 
plant called ' scorpion-plant ' (leopard's bane) 9 and 
that of polypody. For the former is like a scorpion 

6 irej/TaTrerous con]'. Sch. ; n^^rov UAld. ; TrevTeireTov M 
U*. c/. Diosc. 4. 42. 

7 /col Kvn/ ex et U*; /cat KV. e. TTVKVO.S Aid.; Kal KV(KO.S exet 
TTvifvds UM. cf. iro\i>Kvn/j.os, Diosc. 3. 94. Text probably de- 
fective, as nothing is said of the plant's medicinal vise. 

8 Diosc. 3. 143 ; Plin. 19. 47. 
<J c/. 9. 18. 2. 



uev yap o/jLoia cr Kopirlto Kal ^prjo-i/jurj Be 777)0? rrjv 
7r\r)yr)v avrov Kal TT/OO? aXX,' drra. rj Be rov 
7ro\i>7roBiov Baaeta Kal e^ovcra Korv\ri6vas, axr- 
Trep at rov TroXiTTToSo? 7r\Krdvai,. KaOalpei Be 
Kara)' KOV Trepidtyrjrai rt? ov $aaiv 

7TO\V7TOVV. %l Be (f)V\\OV OfJLOlOV Trj 

fjieydXy Kal (pverai, ev rat? Trer/oat?. 

XIY. TTao-w^ Be rwv pi^wv al p-ev 

al Be eXdrra) biafjuevovcrw. 6 fjuev 

Kal rpiaKovra ertj xprjo-i/juos, rj Be 
r) ef, %a/jiai\ea)V Be 6 fj,e\as 
Kevravpls Be BeKa rj BcoBeKa' 
TTieipa Be rj pi^a Kal TTVKVIJ' trevKeBavov Be Trevre 
rj e%, a/ui7re\ov Be dypias eviavrov, eav ev 
Kal aTr\r]KTOS, el Be /Jirj, aaTrpa Kal 
a\\ai Be aXXou? e^ovaai ' xpovovs. Trdvrwv Be 
rwv (frapfjidKwv TrXeicrrov Bia/jievei %povov TO 
, Kal TO Tra^aiorarov apHTTOv. larpbs 
8' ovv Tt? eXeyev OVK d\awv ovBe tyevvTY)? co9 eiy 
Trap* avTw Kal BtaKOGiayv erwv OavfJiaaTOV Be rfj 
2 apery, Bovvat, Be avra) nva Bwpov. atria Be T% 
%pov toreros r) vyporrjs' Bid ydp ravrrjv Kal orav 
Ko^rwai riOeaat, et? retypav vypov, Kal ovB' w? 
yiverai ffapov, aXX' a%/ot rrevr^Kovra erwv o-{3ev- 
vvcri rrpoo-ayofjievov TOU? Xv^fOV?. fyaal Be povov 

cf. the mediaeval doctrine of ' signatures.' 
Diosc. 4. 186. 

TIS oil conj. Sch. ; ns us Aid.; TIS UM ; ris &s U*. 
Plin. 27. 143. 6 cf. 9. 8. 7. 6 cf 9. 20. 3. 

&ir\r)KTOs : ? by worms, cf. &KOTTOS. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xm. 6-xiv. 2 

and is also useful l against the sting of that creature 
and for certain other purposes. 2 The root of polypody 
is rough and has suckers like the tentacles of the 
polyp. It purges downwards : and, if one wears it 
as an amulet, they say that one 3 does not get a 
polypus. It has a leaf like the great fern, and it 
grows on rocks. 

Of the lime for ivhich roots can be kept without losing their 

XIV. 4 Some roots keep a longer, some a shorter 
time. Hellebore retains its usefulness for as much 
as thirty years, birthwort five or six, the black 
chamaeleon for forty, feverwort 5 (whose root is thick 
and compact) for ten or twelve. Sulphur-wort keeps 
five or six years, the root of the ' wild vine ' 6 (bryony) 
for a year, if it be kept in the shade and not 
damaged : 7 otherwise it rots and becomes spongy. 8 
Others keep for various periods. But, to speak 
generally, of all plants used as drugs the ' driver ' 9 
keeps longest, and, the older it is, the better it is. 
At least a certain physician, who was no boaster nor 
liar, said that he had some which was 200 years old 
and of marvellous virtue, and that it was a present 
to him from some one. The cause of its keeping so 
long is its moisture : 10 for to secure this, as soon as 
they have cut it, they put it among ashes without 
drying it, and not even so does it become dry, but 
up to fifty years it will put the lamp n out if it is 
brought near it. And they say that alone of all 

8 ffo/j.<f><i!)8r]s conj. Sch. ; (ro-y/caSSTjs Ald.H. 

9 A manufactured drug. cf. 9. 9. 4. 

10 Diosc. 4. 150 ; Plin. 20. 5. 

11 \vxvovs conj 8ch. : so Vin.Cod.Cas.GPlin. I.e. ; avx/J-ovs 
U*Ald.; xpArs UM. 



YI fjid\iarTa vtrepivov dvw Troielv TWV 
avTr) /jiev ovv IBioTijs r^9 Bvvd^iew^. 
3 Twi^ Be pitwv oaai uev <y\VKVTVTd Tiva 

QGCLI 8e, TOVTO fjuev fir) Trdo"^eiv a/Jbavpov- 
a9ai 8* avrwv ra? Svvdpeis /uavov/jievcov KOI 

KVOVfjiV(jt)V. TQ)V S' ^O) Ql^lWV d\\ 

airreTai pi&s ^pifjieia^^ 77 Se a<f>ov$v\i] 

TOVTO jJieV OVV 1&IOV T?}9 TOV %O)OV (f)V(TW<>. 

Tlacrav $e %etpa> <yiveo-9ai pi^av, edv 
TeXeicodTJvat /cal d&pvv0r}vai TOV Kapirov waav- 

TO)9 Be KOI TOV KCtpTTOV, O,V OTTLdr}^ T1]V f)i^aV' ft)? 

eVl TO 7roXu Be at (ajiaKtoBei? OVK 

av TO, (TTcep/jLaTa (ap/Aa/CGoi], avTai r) 
xpTJGOai Be TIV& a<ji /JLO\\OV rat? 
pi^ais, OTL lo"%vp6Tepo$ 6 Kaptros wo-0' v 
TO awfjia. (frauveTat Be ov /caO^ o\ov TOVTO 
^e?' errel /cal ol ev 'AvTi/cvpa TOV o-rjaa/jLw 
[e\\e/36pov] BiBoaaiv, [OTL o /capTros O/JLOIC? 

XV. <&apfjiaKcoBeis Be BOKOVGIV elvai TOTTOL 

TOt)V jJLeV 6^0) T?}9 * \L\\dBo<$ 01 TTCpl Tr)V 

fcal T^V AaTivrjv, ev y /cal TTJV KlpKtjp 
elvai \eyov(TiV' ical GTL yu-aXXoz-' ye, a>9 

1 Plin. 27. U3. 

2 i.e. not engendered in the root. 
s A beetle? c/. Arist. H.A. 5. 8. 

4 This section is omitted in U*. Plin. 27. 144. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xiv. 2 -xv. i 

drugs, or to a greater degree than any, it effects a 
thorough purge upwards : this then is a virtue 
peculiar to it. 

Those roots which contain any sweetness become 
worm-eaten in course of time, but those that are 
pungent are not so affected, though their virtues 
diminish as they become flabby and waste away. 
1 No creature coming from without 2 touches a 
pungent root, but the sphondyle 3 attacks them all ; 
this then is a peculiarity of this creature. 

4 Any root, they say, deteriorates if one lets the fruit 
grow to maturity and ripen : and so in like manner 
does the fruit, if you drain the root of its juice : and 
in general roots with medicinal properties do not have 
the juice of their roots taken, and only those whose 
seeds are medicinal are thus treated. But some say 
that they use the roots for choice, because the fruit 
is too powerful for the human body to be able to bear 
it. However this does not appear to be true as a 
universal rule, seeing that the people of Anticyra 
administer 5 doses of the drug G desamodes made 
from hellebore, which is so called because its fruit is 
like sesame. 

Of the localities which specially produce medicinal herbs. 

XV. The places outside Hellas which specially 
produce medicinal herbs seem to be the parts of 
Tyrrhenia and Latium (where they say that Circe 
dwelt), and still more parts of Egypt, as Homer says : 

5 i.e. and it is in this case the fruit which is used. The 
drug in question, as well as the plant, was called <rri(Ta/j.oei$(s 
or ff-nffafjioeiS^s. cf. 9. 9. 2 n. ; Diosc. 4. 149. 

6 Or (if f\\ff$6pov is sound) ' of the sesame-like hellebore,' 
i.e. he 'black.' on. . . (rrja-dfj.^ I have bracketed, as a 
gloss on ffrio'a/j.woovs : e\\ffi6pov is probably also a gloss. 



<f>r)(ri, TO, Trepl A.iyv7TTOv e/ceWev yap TTJV ' 

(f>rjcrl \afteiv " eo~0\a TO, ol Ho\vBa/jiva iropev 

dpovpa (f)dp/jia/ca, TroXXa [j,ev eo~0\d 
TroXXa Be \vypd." wv Srj KOI TO 

VY)TTev6e<$ KiVO ^(TLV elvdi /COL a%0\OV, WCTT6 

\t]6r)v TToielv fcal airdOeiav rwv KCLKWV. KOI 
avrai /J,ev eoiicaa-iv cocnrep VTTO TWV Troirj- 
teal yap Atcr^uXo? ev rat? 
appaKQV \eyei rrjv Tvpprjvuav 
" Tvpprjvov yevedv, <pap/jiaKO7roibv Wvos" 
2 Ot Be TOTTOI Travres TTO)? fyaivovrai fjiere^eiv 
TWV (^apfJLaKwv, d\\a [TW /uaXXov KOI rjrrov Sia- 
(j)6piv /col yap ol TTyoo? apKTOv KOL fAecnj/Jiftpiav 
KOL ol 7T/309 dvaroXa? e^ovcrt, Oavj^ao-ra^ 8vvdfj,eis. 
ev KiOioTTiq yap 17 rou? oiarovs %piovai pi^a Tt9 
<TTI 0avaT7](f)6po^. ev Se ^/cvOaw avrrj re KOI 
erepai TrXeiov ?, al pev irapaxprjfjLa diraXXdrrovo-ai, 
TOU? TrpoaeveyKafjievovs, al 8' ev ypovois al fjuev 
e\drTO(nv al 8' ev TrXeioaiv, UHTT eviovs /cara- 
(f)@iveiv. ev 'IVSoi? Se /cal erepa yevrj Tr\elw, 
8e, eiirep a\rj6ri Xeyovcriv, r] re Svva- 
TO aljjia Sia^etv KOI olov virofpevyeiv, /cal 
avvdyovaa fcal TT/OO? eavTrjv eiTLo-TTw^evi-], 
a Sij (pa&iv ei>prj(T0aL TT/OO? ra TWV o<f>ioiwv TWV 

3 Hepl &e TTJV pd/c^v elvai fjiev /cal ere/oa? OVK 
0X^70,9, la-^vpOTaTrjv Be &>9 eiTrelv Trjv io"%ai,/jLov, 
rjv Brj \eyov(7t,v ol /j,e 

1 Od. 4. 221 foil. 

2 S>i> 8)j conj. Sch. ; wl $y U*; eV ols 87; PAld. 



for thence he says l that Helen brought " things of 
virtue which Polydamna, the Egyptian wife of Thon, 
gave her ; there the grain-bearing earth produces 
most drugs, many that are good, and many baneful." 
Among these 2 he says was nepenthes, the famous drug 
which cures sorrow and passion, so that it causes for- 
getfulness and indifference to ills. So these lands 
seem to have been pointed out, as it were, by the 
poets. For Aeschylus too in his elegies speaks of 
Tyrrhenia as rich in drugs, for he tells of the " Tyrr- 
henian stock, a nation that makes drugs." 

It seems that almost all places take their share in 
producing drugs, but that they differ in the extent 
to which they do so ; for the regions of the North, 
South, and East have herbs of marvellous virtue. 
Thus in Ethiopia there is a certain deadly root 3 with 
which they smear their arrows. And in Scythia there 
is this and there are also others, some of which kill 
at once those who eat them, some after an interval, 
shorter or longer, so that in the latter case men have 
a lingering death. In India there are many other 
kinds, 4 but the most extraordinary, 5 if they tell the 
truth, are these : there is one which has the power 
to make the blood disperse and as it were to put it 
to flight, 6 and another which collects it and draws it 
to itself; these they say were discovered as remedies 
for the bites of deadly serpents. 

In Thrace it is said there are fairly numerous 
other kinds, but that about the most powerful is 
' blood-stancher,' 7 which stops and prevents the flow 

8 Somali arrow-poison. Index App. (27). 
4 7tvTj conj. Dalec. ; jue/n; Aid. 

6 TrepiTT^TOTO COnj. W. ; ireptTTOTCtTTJ Aid. 

6 ? add troielv after vTroQevyeiv. 7 Plin. 25. 83. 

2 9 I 
u 2 


ol Se KOI cr<f)oopoTp(0<; ^iaTfJirfOei^r]^ ia-%eiv /cal 
/ca)\veiv TTJV ^VCTLV. [ravra pev ovv, wcrjrep eliro- 
jmev, eoi/ce or)\ovv TO /cotvov.] TWV fjuev ovv efco 
TOTTWV ol (jyap/jLa/cwoeo-TaTOi OVTOL. 

Twv Be 7Tpl TrfV 'EXXa8a TOTTGOV (frappa/caySe- 
a-TaTov TO re Uij\iov TO ev ^erraXta teal TO 
Te\@piov TO V Rvftoia /cat 6 Hapvao-6s, GTI $e 
KOI TI 'Ap/caSio, /col T) AafccoviKif KOI yap 
(frapjjLaKwoeis d/iKJioTepai' $i o KOI cfi ye 'A 
el(t)6a<Ttv dvTi TOV (frapjjiafcoTroTe 
Trepl TO eap, OTCIV ol OTTOL //-aXtcrra TWV TOIOVTWV 
(f)v\\a)V aK/jid^wa-f Tore yap fyapfJLdKw&eaTaTov 
TO yd\a" Trivovai 8e ftoeiov So/eel yap TTO\V- 
vo/j,(t)TCiTOV fcal 7ra/Ji<f)aya)TaTov elvai TCCLVTWV o 

oe Trap' avTols o re e'XXe/So^o? d 
/cal 6 \evfcos teal o yu/eXa? 1 eTi oe Sav/cov 
Kpo/coev, /cal TJV eicelvoi, /JLCV pd(f)avov 
dypiav Ka\ovo~i TWV 8' laTpwv Tives /cepdlv, /cal 
rjv ol jJiev d\6aiav e/ceivoi, 8e fjLa\d%rjv dypiav, /cal 
rj dpi(TTO\o%ia /cal TO crecreXt /cal TO iTTTroaeXivov 
Kal TO Trev/ceSavov /cal rj ( Hpdrc\eia /cal 6 aTpv^vo^ 
a^orepo? o re <f>ou>itcovv e^wv TOV Kapirov /cal 6 

QveTai oe /cal 6 cri/cvos 6 aypios, ef ov TO 
e\aTr}piOV avvTiOeTai' Kal 6 rt^u/AaXXo?, e'^ ov TO 
tTTTTO^ae?' dpio~Tov $e TOVTO Trepl Teyeav /cd/ceivo 
fjbd\io'Ta (TTrov&d^eTai' (frveTat 8' e/cei eTrl 

1 I omit ravra . . . KOIVOV as apparently out of place and a 
duplicate of the last sentence of 8. 

a Plin. 25. 94 ; cf. 4. 5. 2. 3 Plin. 25. 110. 



of blood, some say if the vein is merely pricked, 
others even if it is deeply cut into. 1 These then 
of the places outside Hellas are those that are most 
productive of drugs. 

2 Of places in Hellas those most productive of drugs 
are Pelion in Thessaly, Telethrion in Euboea, Parnas- 
sus, and also Arcadia and Laconia, for both these 
states produce medicinal herbs ; wherefore the Arca- 
dians are accustomed, instead of drinking medicine, 
to drink milk in spring when the juices of such plants 
are at their best, for then the milk has most medi- 
cinal virtue. It is cows' milk that they drink, since 
it appears that the cow eats more than any other 
animal and is more impartial as to what she eats. 

3 Both kinds of hellebore, the white and the black, 
grow in their country, and also carrot, 4 a saffron- 
coloured plant like bay, and a plant which the 
Arcadians call ( wild cabbage ' 5 (spurge) but some 
physicians kerdis ; also a plant called by some marsh 
mallow, 6 also birthwort hartwort alexanders sulphur- 
wort Herakleia, and both kinds of stry/chnos, 7 that 
which has a scarlet and that which has a black fruit. 

There also grow there the ' wild cucumber ' 
(squirting cucumber), of which the drug ' driver ' 8 
is compounded, and the tithymallos (spurge) of which 
hippophacs 9 is made ; this is best about Tegea, and 
that kind is much sought after; it grows there in 

4 tiavKov. This name recurs 8 and 9. 20. 2. Text must 
be defective here: the epithets are unintelligible, and 
perhaps belong to another plant whose name has dropped 
out. See Index. 

5 cf. 9. 12. 1. and Index. 

6 a\eaiav conj. Sch., cf. 9. 18. 1 ; a\6fav Aid. cf. Plin. 20. 222. 

7 cf. 9. 11.5. 8 cf, 9. 9 4 ; 9. 14. 1. 

9 nrTro</>aes is elsewhere the name of a plant : cf. Diosc. 4. 159. 
e| ov may be corrupt, or the text defective. 



Be Kal Ka\\i(rrov (frverai, Trepl rrjv 

7 'H Be rravciKeia yiverat Kara TO rrerpalov Trepl 
tyaxfriBa Kal Tr\ei(TTr} /ecu apiary. TO Be fia)\v 
Trepl <&evebv Kal ev rfj K.v\\tfvrj. fyavl B* elvat, 
Kal OfJLOiov w 6 "Ofirjpo^ eiprjKe, rrjv aev pi^av 
e%ov crTpoyyvXrjv TTpoa-e/jL<j)epf) Kpopva) TO Be (f)v\- 
\ov o/jioiov aKiX\rj' xprjaflai Be avry TT/JO? re ra 
d\e!;i<f)dpfjLaKa Kal Ta? [Aayeias' ov t arjv 

7' elvat, 'xakeirov, a>9 f/ Oyu-?7/909 (f>r](ri,. 

8 To Be KMveiov apwrov Trepl SoOo-a Kal ev 

Lfi TOTTO^?. yiverat Be Kal ev rf) 
ra TroXXa rovrwv Kal yap avrrj 7ro\v<f>dp- 
ev 'A%aia Be v] re rpayaKavOa 7ro\\r) 
Kal ovBev ^eipwv &)? oiovrai TI}? Kyo^Tt/t?}? d\\a 
Kal rfj o"^rei Ka\\ia)V Kal BavKov Trepl rrjv Tla- 
rpalKrjv Bia(f)epov' rovro Be Oep/AavriKOv 
piav Be e^ei /jueXaivav. fyverai Be ra 
rovrcov Kal ev ra> TLapvaorw Kal Trepl TO TeXe- 

n \^\ ^v' ' 

Opiov. Kau ravra pev Koiva rrheiovwv %a)p(t)v. 
XVI. To Be BiKrapvov iBiov rfjs K/O?;TT;?, 6av- 
Be rfj Bvvdaei Kal 777305 rrXelw %pyj(Ti/jiov 
Be Trpo? rovs To/cof? rwv yvvaiKwv. ecrn 
Be TO /lev <j)v\\ov Trapo/JLOiov rfj /3\rj%oi, e%et Be 
ri Kal Kara rbv ftvXbv e/jLffrepes ra Be K\covia 
\errrorepa. %pwvrai, Be Tot? 0uXXot5, ov TO?? 
K\oD<rlv ovBe rw Kaprrw' xprjo-i/jiov Be TT/JO? TroXXa 
fj.ev Kal aXXa, /jidXiara Be, cocnrep e\e%0ri, 

1 Plin. 25. 30-33. 2 arct conj. St.; Kal Ald.H. 

3 Plin. 25. 151. 

4 SoCtro : c/. 9. 16. 8 ; Aovffa (a town in Arcadia) conj. 8ch. 
(usually Aova-oi), the other places mentioned being all in 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xv. 6-xvi. i 

considerable abundance, but in greatest abundance 
and best about Kleitoria. 

1 All-heal grows in great abundance and best in 2 
the rocky ground about Psophis, moly about Pheneos 
and on Mount Kyllene. They say that this plant is 
like the moly mentioned by Homer, that it has a 
round root like an onion and a leaf like squill, and 
that it is used against spells and magic arts, but that 
it is not, as Homer says, difficult to dig up. 

3 Hemlock is best about Susa 4 and in the coldest 
spots. Most of these plants occur also in Laconia, for 
this too is a land rich in medicinal herbs. In Achaia 
tragacanth 5 is abundant and is as good as that of 
Crete, it is believed, and even fairer in appearance. 
Daukon 6 again is excellent in the country about 
Patrai 7 ; this is by nature healing, and it has a black 
root. Most of these grow also 011 Mount Parnassus 
and about Telethrion. So these plants are com- 
mon to several lands. 

Of the medicinal herbs peculiar to Crete. 

XVI. 8 But dittany is peculiar to Crete. This plant 
is marvellous in virtue and is useful for many purposes, 
but especially for women in child-birth. Its leaf is 
like pennyroyal, to which it also bears some resem- 
blance in taste ; but the twigs are slenderer. They 
use the leaves, not the twigs nor the fruit : and the 
leaf is useful for many other purposes, but above all, 

Hellas. But Plin. 25. 154 has Susa : it can hardly be the 
Persian town. 

5 Plin. 13. 115. 

6 Repeated 9. 20. 2 ; cf. 9. 15. 5 and Index. 

7 narpcuKV conj. Sch., cf. 9.20.2; iraTpiK^v Aid.; ffTrapTta- 
V U*; a-trapTiK^v MP ; Patrensi ayro G. 

8 Plin. 25. 92. 



TMV yvvaiicwv rj yap evTo/celv (fraai 
TToieiv T) Traveiv ye TOVS irovovs 6fj,o\oyovfjievw 
BiBoTai Be iriveiv ev vBaTi. awdvLOV Be ecrrt* /cal 
yap o\iyo<> o TOTTO? o (pepcov, Kai TOVTOV at aiyes 
e/cve/jbovTai Bid TO ^iX'rjBelv. a\ i rjOe^ Be (f>acrii> 
elvai /cal TO Trepl TWV /3e\wv, on (frayovvais orav 
To^evOwat, eK^d\\ei. TO jnev ovv Bi/cra/jivov 
TOIOVTOV re /cal Toiavras e^eL T? BwdjAets. 

To Be tyevBoBi/cra/Jivov TU> fjiev $v\\a> opoiov 
T0t9 K\a)viois B' eXarrov rfj Bvvd/j,ei Be TTO\V 
\enr6jjievov. (3oj]9el fjuev yap /cal ravrd, ^elpov Be 
TroXXw /cal dcrOevea-Tepov. eari Be evOvs ev ry 
o"TOfJLdTL fyavepa rov Bi/crd/jivov rj Bvva/J,i<i' Bia- 
6epfJiaivei yap diro fJLUcpov cr<j)6Bpa. riOeacn Be 
T9 SecTyLtt^a? ev vdpOrfKt, r) Ka\d^i(d irpo^ TO fir} 
aTTOTrveiv dorOeveaTepov yap cnroTrvevaav. Xe- 
yovcri Be Tives ft)? 77 fj,ev $vai<s /Jiia rj TOV BIK- 
TafJivov /cal Y) TOV ^revBoBLKTdfivov, Bia Be TO 
ev evyeiOTepois <$>vea6ai, TOTTO^? ^elpov yiveaOai, 
KaOdnrep KOI a\~ka Tro\\a TrXetft) TOVTWV Kara 
T? Bvvd/jieis. TO yap 

Be fcal eTepov Bl/cTa/jivov wcnrep OJUWVV/JLOV, 
OVT Trjv O-^TLV oviie Tr]v Bvva/jiiv e%ov T?JV avTtjv 
yap e^ei OJULOIOV o-icrv/n/3pi(p TOU9 ^e K\>- 
Be Trjv ^peiav /cal TTJV Bvva/Liiv 

OVK ev T0i9 avTois. TOVTO fjiev ovv, wvTrep 

OV d/na /cal iBiov Tf)$ vrjcrov. (pacrl Be 

ct conj. Sell.; (K0d\\eit> Aid. 

2 Plin. 25. 93. 

3 vdp6r]Ki ^ conj Sch. ; vap6f]Ki8'f} fy U ; i>ap6r)Kii T) M ; va.pQi\Ki 

KOl Aid. 



as was said, against difficult labour in women ; for it 
is said that either it makes labour quite easy or at 
least it confessedly makes the pains to cease : it is 
given as a draught in water. It is a scarce plant : 
for the region which bears it is not extensive, and 
the goats graze it down because they are fond of it. 
The story of the arrows is also said to be true, that, 
if goats eat it when they have been shot, it rids 
them * of the arrow. Such then is dittany and 
such its properties. 

2 ' False dittany ' is like it in leaf, but has smaller 
twigs, and in virtue is far inferior. For it is of 
service in the same ways, but is feebler and not 
nearly so powerful. The virtue of dittany is perceived 
directly it is taken into the mouth : for a small piece 
of it has a very warming effect. The bunches of it are 
put in the hollow stem of ferula 3 or a reed, so that it 
may not exhale its virtue : for, if it does so, it is less 
effective. Some say that dittany and ' false dittany ' 
are essentially the same plant, but that the latter is 
an inferior form produced by growing in places with 
richer soil ; just as many other things 4 become 
inferior in their properties for the same cause. For 
dittany loves rough ground. 

5 There is also another plant called ' dittany,' 
though it has nothing in common with these except 
the name. This has neither the same appearance 
nor the same virtue ; for its leaf is like bergamot- 
mint and its twigs are larger, and further its use and 
virtue are differently shewn. The true plant is, as 
was said, marvellous, and is also peculiar to the 
island of Crete. Indeed some say that the plants 

4 irXeio) TOVTCOV Aid., probably a duplicate of &\\a iroAAa ; 
not represented in G ; dAAotoCrot conj. W. 6 Plin.25. 94. 



oXft)9 TWV <f)vX\(i)V KOI TWV OpoBd/JLVCOV Kal 

a7rXo)9 TWV vTrep 7779 ra ev Kptfrr) Bia<f>epeiv, rwv 
Be a\\ci)v TWV ye TfkeiaTwv ra ev TO* Tiapvacrw. 

4 To 8' aKoviTov yiveTai pev KOI ev Kpijrrj KOI ev 
ZiaKvvda), '7r\elo'TOV &e KOI apiarov ev 'H^a^Xeta 
rfi ev TIovTw. e^ei Se <f>v\\ov fjiev Ki%optwSe<i, 
pi^av Be 6/Aoiav TO) d^fian Kal rw ^pcopart 
tcap&i, Trjv Se Bvva/Jiiv rrjv Qavarrj^opov ev Tavrrj" 
TO Be (f>v\\ov Kal rbv Kapjrbv ovOev (pavi, Troielv 
KapTTos Be ecrTi Troa? ov% vX^a-ros. ^pa^ela Be 
j] Troa /ecu ovBev e^ovaa Trepirrov, a\\a Trapo/jioia 
TW 0"trct> TO Be (TTrepiJua, ov (TTa%vr)p6v. (j)verai Be 
7ravTa%ov Kal OVK ev rat? 'A/coi/at? povov, <' wv 
e%ei T^V TTpoo-rj^opiav avrrf Be ea-n KCO/JLTJ r^? rwv 
MftpiavBvvwv (j)i\6i Be /j,a\io'Ta TOU9 TrerpwBeis 
T07TOVS' ov vefjuerai Be ovre 7rp6/3arov OUT* a\\o 

6 fcoov ovBev. cvvTiOeaOai Be rpoTrov nva irpos TO 
epyd^ecrOai Kal ov Traz^To? elvai' Bi? o Kal TOU9 
larpov? OVK eTria-Ta/jievovs avvriQevai O-^ITTIKW re 
%pr)o-0ai Kal 777)09 a\\a arra' TTIVO/JLCVOV B 1 
ovBe/jiiav alo-Orjo-iv iroieiv our ev oivq> our ev 
/jL\iKpdr(f)' crvvTiOeaOai Be were Kara 
TaKTOvs avaipelv, olov Bi/jirjvov Tpi^vov 
eviavrov, TOV9 Be Kal Bvo err)' ^eipio-ra Be a?raX- 

this word seems to occur onl} 7 here in T. 

2 Diosc. 4. 76 and 77 ; Plin. 27. 9 and 10. 

3 KaptSi conj. W. ; Kaptai U; Kapva Aid. c/. Diosc. I.e. 

4 cj. 9. 8. 1. 

Plin. 6. 4, portus Acone veneno aconito dims. But in 27. 10. 
he apparently did not recognise 'AJvats as a proper name, 



of Crete are superior in leaves boughs 1 and in 
general all the parts above ground to those of other 
places ; while those of Parnassus are superior to most 
of those found elsewhere. 

Of wolfs-bane, and its habitat, and of meadow-saffron. 

2 Wolf's-bane grows in Crete and in Zakynthos, 
but is most abundant and best at Herakleia in 
Pontus. It has a leaf like chicory, a root like in 
shape and colour to a prawn, 3 and in this root resides 
its deadly property, whereas they say that the leaf 
and the fruit produce no effects. The fruit is that of 
a herb, 4 not that of a shrub or tree. It is a low- 
growing herb and shows no special feature, but is 
like corn, except that the seed is not in an ear. It 
grows everywhere and not only at Akonai, 5 from 
whence it gets its name (this is a village of the 
Mariandynoi) 6 : and it specially likes rocky ground. 
Neither sheep nor any other animals eat it. 7 In 
order to be effective it is said that it must be com- 
pounded in a certain manner, and that not everyone 
can do this : and so that physicians, not knowing 
how to compound it, use it as a septic and for other 
purposes : and 8 that, if drunk mixed in wine or a 
honey-posset, it produces no sensation : but that it 
can be so compounded as to prove fatal at a certain 
moment which may be in two three or six months, 
or in a year, or even in two years : and that the 

and translates it in nudis cautibus, misled perhaps by rovs 
TrerpwStiS r6irovs below. 

VlapiavSvvuv conj. Meurs. ; TTfpiavtivvwv U*Ald.H. 

7 U* adds here fioijBe'ia.i 5e TOJS eve-y/cajueVois etVi and omits 
5, 6 . . . 6t8ei/ai, continuing iro\\<i>as yap fya.a\ TO. avSpdiroSa. 

8 Se add. Sch. 



\aTT6iv TOV9 ev 
TOV a a) pen 09, paara Be TOVS Trapa^pijfjia. Xim- 
KOV Be (f>dppafcov ov% evprjaOai, Kaddrrep d/covo/iev 
erepcov TL fyvevOai. XXa TOVS ey^wpiovf dvaa-a)- 

%IV Tt,vd<$ fjL6\LTl KOI OlVCt) Kol TOLOVTOIS TiGl, 

Be /cal TOVTOV? KOI p<ya>Ba)<;. 
rov e(f>r)/y,pov TO 
erepov yap rt pityov elvai o e^rf/ 
rovro Be (j)vX\ov O^OLOV e%eiv rw e\\e{36p(i) fj r& 
\eipLw' KOI TOVTO TrdvTas elBevai' Bi? o KOL ra 

adac, KaTreira larpevetv avrd TT/OO? TOVTO opfiwvTa, 
Kal yap ovBe Td^elav rcoteladai TTJV drraXX.ayrjv 
ouBe l\a<f)pav aXXa Bva^eptj /cal ^poviov el ^ 
dpa Bid TO evdepdirevTov elvai KCLI aKaTacr/cevacr- 
TOV co? Bel. (pacrl yovv /cal Trapa^prjfjia aTca\- 
\aTTeaQai Kal v<?Tepov %povu> TOU? Be /cal et? 
dyeiv, /cal T9 Boareis dftor)0?JTOVs elvai. 

1 i.e. no herb having that effect. 

2 trepcDV conj. Sell.; erep^v ri QvfffOat UAlcl. H. ; fTfp6v TI 
<t>vo/j.evov conj. W. G seems to have had a fuller text. 

3 aAAa TOUS yx- UM ; aAXa TIVGS rots evyKafj.vois fior)6eiai 
ei/'pTj^rai- rovs yap tyx* Ald.H., which the indicative evprjvrat 
shews to be a gloss. 

4 TOV etprj/nepov U ; ra l(p' rj/nepov M ; /col rb ffp^nepov Aid. 
The passage about e > 4>T) J uepoj>, which interrupts the account of 
O.KOVITOV, is confused, and the text probably defective ; trans- 
lation a makeshift. The sense of tl p$ ....'&* Set" being 
perhaps irrecoverable, the connexion of what follows is 
obscured. W. gives up the passage. 



longer the time the more painful the death, since 
the body then wastes away, while, if it acts at once, 
death is quite painless. And it is said that no anti- 
dote l which can counteract it has been discovered, 
like the natural antidotes to other 2 poisonous herbs 
of which we are told : though the country-folk 3 can 
sometimes save a man with honey and wine and 
such like things, only however occasionally and with 

(On the other hand they say that for meadow- 
saffron 4 the antidote has been found : for that there is 
another root which counteracts that herb : 5 and that 
it 6 has a leaf like hellebore 7 or the madonna lily : 8 
and that this 9 is generally known. Wherefore they 
say that slaves often take meadow-saffron when 
greatly provoked, and then themselves have recourse 10 
to the antidote and effect a cure, seeing that the 
poison does not cause a speedy and easy death, but n 
one that is lingering and slow, unless indeed, 
merely because the cure is so easy, 12 the antidote 
has not been properly prepared. 13 At least they 
say that though death may ensue at once, sometimes 
it only occurs after a considerable interval, which in 
some cases extends to a year, and that in these latter 
cases the dose given has incurable effects : and that 

5 & s<f>T}fj.pov PH. ; 6 ^fjfjLfpaioi/ U ; 6 ec/>' rifj.fpo.1ov M ; 6 OVK 

<p-h/J.fpOV Aid. 

6 TOVTO oe Aid.; roV&e 8e xal U; ru>t>df 8e ical M. 

7 i.e. the 'black ': see Index. 

8 \eiplcp conj. Guilandinus from Diosc. 4. 84 (Kplvcf) ; alpiy 
Ald.H. 9 TOVTO Aid.; TOVTO /j.fv UM. 

10 After opfjiSavTO. UM add Kal TOVS ot/cc'ros eVJ TOVTO dp/nav and 
omit Kal yap . . . 6avaTTi<j>6pwv. n a\\a Aid. ; oiSe U*. 

12 evdepdirevTov Aid. ; aOepdirevTOV U*P. 

13 In which case apparently the slave outwits himself as 
well as his master by ' dying on him.' 



ravra Be e^aKpiffwO^vai pdXicrra Trapa rot9 Tvp- 

7 pivots Tot9 eV 'H/^a/eXeta. rovro fiev <ovv> ovBev 

>, el rpbrrov /jiei> TWO, dfSoi]6r)rov aXXa>9 Be 
tv, wcrrrep Kal (Irepa rwv Oavarrifybpwv. 
To Be OKOVlTOV d^prjo-rov, wajrep eiprjrai, rot9 
fjirj 6?r terra ftevo ^9 ovBe KeKTijaOai Be e^eivai, aXXa 
Odvarov rrjv fy/uav rrjv Be rwv xpovcov Bia^opdv 
aK6\ovOelv Kara ra<; o-fXXoyaV i<ro%p6vovs; yap 
TOU9 Oavdrov? yiveaflai rot9 aTro r?)9 <TV\\oyfjs 

8 paava<; 8' o Mazm^ei^ evprJKei TI roiovrov, 

T0fc9 07TOfc9 %pCOyL6^09 KtoVGlOV T ATttl 

Kal erepcov TOIOVTWV, ware evoyKov elvai 
&(f)6Bpa Kal fJiiKpov oaov et9 Bpa^rj^ O\KI]V. 
d/3orj0rjTOV Be TrdvTr) Kal Bvvd 
OTTOCTOVOVV ^povov Kal ovBev dXXoiov/jievov. 
(Save Be TO Ktoveiov ov% oOev ervy^avev aXX' CK 
^ovuwv Kal i T9 aXXo9 T07T09 ^f^yoo9 Kal Tra- 
\icrKios' cocrauTa)9 Be Kal TaXXa. avveriOei Be 
Kal erepa fydpjjiaKa TroXXa :at e/c TroXXw^. Beivo? 
Be Kal 'AXefta9 o ^a6r]rr]^ avrov 
Kal yap T^9 a/ 

oSv add. W. 

2 &.voAoi;0etV Kara COllj.W. ; aKoyetf elvai /caraAld.H. ; a/couel 
wal M. 

3 02 


these facts have been most carefully ascertained 
among the Tyrrhenians of Herakleia. Now l it is not 
surprising that in some circumstances the effects of 
the poison should be incurable, and yet in others that 
a cure should be possible, this being also the case 
with other deadly poisons.) 

To return wolfs bane, as has been said, is useless 
to those who do not understand it ; in fact it is 
said that it is not lawful even to have it in one's 
possession, under pain of death ; also that the 
length of time which it takes to produce its effects 
depends on 2 the time when it is gathered ; for that 
the time which it takes to kill is equal to that which 
has elapsed since it was gathered. 

Of two famous druggists and of the virtues of hemlock. 

Thrasyas of Mantineia had discovered, as he said, 
a poison which produces an easy and painless end ; 
he used the juices of hemlock poppy and other such 
herbs, so compounded as to make a dose of con- 
veniently small size, weighing only somewhat less 
than a quarter of an ounce. For the effects of this 
compound there is absolutely no cure, and it will 
keep any length of time without losing its virtue 
at all. He used to gather his hemlock, not just 
anywhere, but at Susa 3 or some other cold and 
shady spot ; and so too with the other ingredients ; 
he also used to compound many other poisons, using 
many ingredients. His pupil Alexias was also clever 
and no less skilful than his master, being also versed 
in the science of medicine generally. 

3 2otWi> MSS. ; Aavacev conj. Sch. cf. 9. 15. 8 n. The men- 
tion of Mantineia makes it likely that a place in Arcadia is 



9 Tavra /j,ev ovv vprjar6ai So/eel TTO\\W fjid\\ov 
vvv r) TTpoTepov. OTI Se 8ia(f>epei, TO %pfyrQ<ai 
TTco? e/cdvTW (fravepbv e/c 7ro\\wv eVel /cal Keloi 
TO) Kwveito TrpoTepov ov% ourco a\\a TpifBovres 
, KaOdjrep ol d\\or vvv 8' ovB* av el? 
, a\\a irepiTrTicravTe^ KCLI a(f)e\ovT<> TO 
} TOVTO yap TO TTjv Svcr^epeiav Trape^ov 
ov, yitera TavTa KOTTTOVCTIV ev TW 
KOI SiaTTrjcravTes XCTTTOL eVtTraTTO^Te? e^>* 
Trlvovaiv, wcrre ra^tav KOI e\a(f)pav yive- 

XVII. ' A.7rdvT(i)V Se TWV ^apfjidKwv al 
do-@eve<TTpcu rot? (rvveiOio-jjievois rot? 8e real dv- 
evepyels TO o\ov. evioi yap e\\e/3opov ecrOi 
TTO\VV W(TT dva\i(TKiv ^eVytta? oXa? 
-)(ov<nv oTrep eTTolei KCLI Spaevas SeivoTaTos wv 
&)? eBo/cei Trepl ra? pi^as. TTOLOVCTL 3e ro00' &>? 


(frap/JiafcoTrcofojv TOV 0av/Aa6/j,i>ov &>? 
pi^av fjiiav rj &vo rrapayevo/jLevos 6 TTOI/ATJV 
dvaXftMras O\TJV TTJV Bfopcrp iTroirfcrev dbo 
e\e<yTo 8' OTI icaO* /cdaTr)v rj/JLepav TOVTO iroiel 

2 KivSvvevei, yap evia TWV (pap/Aa/ccoi? Ty d 

: cf. C.P. 1 14. 4. 
2 8mTT7]<rai'Tey conj. Hoffmann from G ; SiairTfiffavTes Ald.H. ; 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvi. 9 -xvn. 2 

Now these things seem to have been ascertained 
far better in recent than in former times. And 
many things go to shew that the method of using 
the various drugs makes a difference ; thus the 
people of Ceos formerly did not use hemlock in 
the way described, but just shredded it up for 
use, as did other people ; but now not one of them 
would think of shredding it, but they first strip off 
the outside and take off the husk, since this is what 
causes the difficulty, as it is not easily assimilated 1 ; 
then they bruise it in the mortar, and, after putting- 
it through a fine sieve, 2 spriqkle it 011 water and 
so drink it ; and then death is made swift and 

How use diminishes the efficacy of drugs, and how they have 
not the same effect on all constitutions. 

XVII. 3 The virtues of all drugs become weaker 
to those who are accustomed to them, and in some 
cases become entirely ineffective. Thus some eat 
enough hellebore to consume whole bundles and 
yet suffer no hurt ; this is what Thrasyas did, who, 
as it appeared, was very cunning in the use of herbs. 
And it appears that shepherds sometimes do the 
like ; wherefore the shepherd who came before the 
vendor of drugs (at whom men marvelled because 
he ate one or two roots) and himself consumed the 
whole bundle, destroyed the vendor's reputation : 
it was said that both this man and others did this 
every day. 

For it seems that some poisons become poisonous 
because they are unfamiliar, or perhaps it is a more ac- 
curate way of putting it to say that familiarity makes 

8 Plin. 27. 144. 




elireiv &>9 rfj avvrjOeLa ov <f)dp/jLarca' 
fjievijs yap rfjs $>vo~ew<$ /cal KaraKpaTOVcr)? ov/cen 
(j)dp/jLa/ca, KaOdrrep /cal paavas e\eyev eicelvos 
yap e</>?7 TO avrb rofc uev <f)dpfj,a/cov elvai rot9 S' 

yap Belv /cal rjv Seivbs Siayvwvat. Troiei Se n 
orjXov on 7T/909 rfj <j)vo~ei /cal TO e0o$. Ei;S7;//09 
yovv 6 cj)apfjLa/co7r(ai\rj<; evSo/cifAGbv o~(f)6Spa Kara 
rr)v re^vi]v crvvOefievos urjSei' rreiaea-Oai Trpb 
rj\iov Svvavro? Kare^aye fAerpiov Trdvv KOI ov 
?v8' eKpdrr^aev. b Be X?09 Ei;8?7yLto9 
e\\e{3opov OVK Ka6aipero. Kai rcore e(f>rj 
ev /Mia rj/Aepa Svo Kal eiKoai iroaeu^ ev rij 
dyopa KaOrjjJLevos eVl rwv ffKevwv Kal ov/c e%ava- 
CTTJvai Trpb rov SeiXvjv yeveaQai' rore 8' eXOoDV 
Kal \ovaaa6ai Kal Benrveiv wa-nrep elcoOei, Kal OVK 
e^e/jueo'ai,' irKrjv ouro9 ye /3oij0eidv nva rrapa- 
o-Kevacrd/jLevos Karecr^e" Klo-crrjpiv yap ei 
eV of 09 Bpi/AV melv e(f>rj pera rrjv } 
Kal 7rd\iv varepov ev ollvw rov avrbv rpbrrov' rrjv 

f ^ * 9 / * //I O/ 5/ 

COCTT eav Tt9 et9 muov ^eovra <oivov> 
Traveiv rrjv %eo~iv ov rrapa^priiJia povov d\\d Kal 
Kara^Tjpaivovadv re Brj\ov on Kal dvaBe^o 
rb Trvev/jia Kal rovro Siielcrav. ovros p,ev 
ovv rb ye 7rA?j#09 ravrrj rfj ^o^OeLa Karea^ev. 
4 "On Be KOI TO 6^09 larvvpbv dtavepbv eK 7ro\\cov 

1 This story is quoted by Apollonius, Hist. Mirab. 50. 


poisons non-poisonous ; for, when the constitution 
has accepted them and prevails over them, they cease 
to be poisons, as Thrasyas also remarked ; for he 
said that the same thing was a poison to one and not 
to another ; thus he distinguished between different 
constitutions, as he thought was right ; and he was 
clever at observing the differences. Also, besides 
the constitution, it is plain that use has something 
to do with it. At least Eudemus, the vendor of drugs, 
who had a high reputation in his business, after 
making a wager that he would experience no effect 
before sunset, drank a quite moderate dose, and it 
proved too strong for his power of resistance : 1 while 
the Chiaii Eudemus took a draught of hellebore and 
was not purged. And on one occasion he said that 
in a single day he took two and twenty draughts in 
the market-place as he sat at his stall, and did not 
leave the place till it was evening, and then he went 
home and had a bath and dined, and was not sick. 
However this man was able to hold out because he 
had provided himself with an antidote ; for he said 
that after the seventh dose he took a draught of tart 
vinegar with pumice-stone dust in it, and later on 
took a draught of the same in wine in like manner ; 
and that the virtue of the pumice-stone dust is 
so great that, if one puts it into a boiling pot of 
wine, 2 it causes it to cease to boil, not merely for 
the moment, but altogether, clearly because it has a 
drying effect and it catches the vapour and passes it 
off. It was then by this antidote that Eudemus was 
able to contain himself in spite of the large quantity 
of hellebore which he took. 

However many things go to show that use makes 

2 otvov add. Sch., cf. Plin. 36. 42; 14. 138. 

x 2 


ejrel Kal rb cutyivOiov TCL /Aev evTavOa 7rp6/3ara ov 
$aai Tives ve/JLeaOai, TCL ' ev TW HOVTW 
Kal <yiV6TCU Triorepa Kal Ka\\ia) tcai, &>? Sij 
\eyovcriv, ov/c e^ovra ^p\i]v. a\\a yap ravra 
fjiev ere/oa? av TWOS eirf QeoypLas. 

XVIII. At 8e pi^ai /cal TCL uX^yu-ara, KaOdirep 
e'tprjTai,, 7ro\\a$ e^ovai vvdjjii<$ ov TT/QO? TCL efi- 
^v^a atofjiaTa JJLOVOV d\\a /cal Trpos TCL d^u^a. 
\eyovai, yap aicavOdv Tiva elvai r) Tr^vvai TO 
vBwp /u/3a\\,ofj,viy Trrjyvvvat, Se /cal TTJV r?}? 
d\0aia<; pi^av, edv TI<$ Tptyas ejaffdXr] /cal Of) 
VTraiOpiov e%i & i] d\6aia $v\\ov i^ev O/AOIOV 
TTI fjia\d%y 7T\r}v fJiel^ov Kal SavvTepov, rou? ^e 
v6o<$ Be JJL^\LVOV, Kapirov S' 
pl^av &6 Ivtobij \evKrjv TYJ 
yevaei, oe wajrep r% yu-aXa^? o Kavkos' XP<* yVTai 
8e avTrj Trpos re TCL ptjy/LLaTa Kal ra? /3?^9 ev 
oivq* <y\VKi Kal eVt TCL \KTJ ev e\ai(p. 
2 '1&Tpav Se Tiva avvetyo/jievijv rot? KpeaffL GVV- 
dirfeiv et9 TavTO Kal olov iryyvvvar ra? Be Kal 
\KLV, wcnrep 1} \ido<$ Kal TO rjKeKTpov. Kal 
TavTa fikv ev rot? dtyv^ois. 

To Be 0r)\v(f)ovov, ol Be o-Kopiriov Ka\ovcri Bid 
TO TIJV pL^av o/Aoiav e^etv TW (TKopiriw, ITTI^VO- 

1 c/. Plin. 27. 45. 

2 uATtyiara : here a general term for shrubs and under- shrubs, 
c/. 9. 20. 6. 

3 Diosc. 3. 146 ; Plin. 20. 84. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvn. 4 -xvm. 2 

much difference ; 1 thus some say that the sheep of 
some places do not eat wormwood ; yet those of 
Pontus not only eat it but become fatter and fairer 
and, as some say, have 110 bile. But these things 
may be said to belong to a different enquiry. 

Of plants that possess properties affecting lifeless objects. 

XVIII. Herbs and shrubs, 2 as has been said, have 
many virtues which are shown in their effects not 
only on living bodies but on lifeless ones. Thus 
they say that there is a kind of akantha (gum arabic) 
which thickens water, when it is put in it ; 3 and that 
so also does the root of marsh-mallow if one shreds 
it and puts it in and stands the water in the open 
air. Marsh-mallow has a leaf like mallow, but larger 
and rougher ; the stems are soft, the flower yellow, 
the fruit like that of mallow, the root fibrous and 
white, with a taste like that of the stem of mallow. 
They use it for fractures and for coughs in sweet wine, 
and for sores in olive-oil. 

4 They say that there is another kind which, if 
cooked with meat, combines with it and as it were 
sets it hard ; and there are others that attract things 
to them, like the magnet or amber. So much for 
effects produced on lifeless things. 

Of plants whose properties affect animals other than man. 

5 Wolf's bane, which some call ' scorpion-plant be- 
cause it has a root like a scorpion, kills that animal 

4 Referred to by Apollon. Hixt. Mirab. 41. c/. Diosc. 3. 147 ; 
Plin. 27. 42 ; 25. 67. 

5 Referred to by Ael. H. A. 9. 27 ; Apollon. Hist. Mirab. 41. 
c/. Plin. 25. 122 (c/. 27. 6) ; Diosc. 4. 76. This is evidently a 
different plant to the a-Kopirios mentioned 9. 13. 6. See Index. 



aTTO/creivet, TOV cr/copTriov edv Be Tt9 e\- 
\e/3opov \ev/cbv /car air aery, rrd\iv dvlvTavOal 
dir6\\vori, Be KOI flovs real 7rp6{3ara /cal 
/cal aTrXw? TTCLV rerpaTrovv eav et9 TO, 
alBoIa reOfj rj pi^a TJ TO, <f)v\\a avOrifiepov 

Se TTyOO? (TKOpTTLOV r 7T\rj'yrjV TTlVOfJieVOV. 

Be TO fjuev (f)v\\ov ofjbouov KVK\a/jLivw rrjv Be 
, &(77T6p e\e%0r), (TKOpTrlw. (frverai Be wcnrep 
TI aypwcms /cal yovara e%ei' <pt,\el Be ^copia 
(TKLtoBrj. el Be d\r)0ij TCL Trepl TOV afcopTriov vjBr} 
/cal ra\\a, ov/c diriOava TCL roiavra. /cal ra 
Be ov/c aXoyct)? avy/celrai. ev Be rot? 
-fo/^aai %ft)/ot9 TWV TT/OO? vyeiav teal 
voaov /cal OdvaTov /cal TT/OO? a\\a Bwd/Aeis e^eiv 
ov fiovov TWV o-wfAari/ccov d\\d /cal TWV 

XIX. 11^09 Be TJ]V ^v^(r]v TOV fjiev 
ware TrapaKivelv /cal e^Hrrdvai, /caddjrep 
rrpoTepov, fj Be TOV ovoOijpa pi^a BoOetcra ev oivy 
rrpaoTepov teal l\apcoTepov rroiel TO rjdos. e%i 
Be 6 /jiev ovo9r)pas TO /JLCV (frv\\.ov O/JLOLOV d/AvyBa\f) 
/jii/cpoTepov Be, TO Be avO'os epvOpov &<nrep poBov 
ai)Tos Be iieyas Qd^vo^' pia Be epvOpd Kal 
jj,eyd\ij, ofei Be avavBeLa^ wa-Trep oivov (f)i\et 
Be opeivd %copia. fyalveTai Be ov TOVTO UTOTTOV 
olov yap 7rpocr(j)opd r^9 yiveTai Bvvajuiv 

1 ffKopiricp conj. W. ; aKopiriov Aid. 

2 18. 3, \tyu 5e ffupanicuv ... 18. 11 (the account of the 
phj'sical effects) is here omitted. 

3 9. 11. 6. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xvm. 2 -xix. i 

if it is shredded over him ; while if one then sprinkles 
him with white hellebore, they say that he comes to 
life again. It is also fatal to oxen sheep beasts of 
burden and in general to any fourfooted animal, and 
kills them the same day if the root or leaf is put on 
the genitals; and it is also useful as a draught against 
a scorpion's sting. It has a leaf like cyclamen, and 
a root, as was said, like a scorpion. 1 It grows like 
dog's-tooth grass, and is jointed, and it loves shady 
places. Now if what has been told already about 
the scorpion be true, then other similar tales are not 
incredible. (Indeed fabulous tales are not composed 
without some reason). 2 And in relation to our own 
persons, apart from their effects in regard to health 
disease and death, it is said that herbs have also 
other properties affecting not only the bodily but 
also the mental powers 

Of plants possessing properties which affect the mental powers. 

XTX. As to those which affect the mind, strykhnos, 
as was said before, 3 is said to upset the mental 
powers and make one mad ; 4 while the root of 
onotheras (oleander) administered in wine makes the 
temper gentler and more cheerful. This plant has 
a leaf like the almond, but smaller, 5 and the flower 
is red like a rose. The plant itself (which loves hilly 
country) forms a large bush ; the root is red and 
large, and, if this is dried, it gives off a fragrance 
like wine. And this does not seem surprising, since 
there is a sort of ' bouquet ' given off by a thing which 
has the peculiar quality of wine. 

* Diosc. 4. 117; Plin. 26. 111. 

6 /j.tKp6repov conj. W. ; iriKptrepov UM ; TrXarurepov Aid. (so 
also Diosc. I.e. ). G seems to have read ^a 


2 'AXXa rdBe evriOearepa KOI dm9avtorepa rd 
re rwv rrepidrrrwv KOI 0X0)9 r&v d\e%i$apfidKtoV 
\eyofjLevwv rot9 re cr^^.acri KOI rat? ol/ciais. /cal 
to? Brj (fraai, rb rpircoXiov /ca@* c Ho~toSoi> /cal 
M.ovaalov et9 rrdv TTpdy/jia arrovBalo 

elvai, i o teal opvrrova-iv avro vv/crayp 
Trri^dpevoi. /cal ra irepl TT)? evK\eias Be /cal 
ev$oj;{a<> ofjbolws r) /cal fjuaXkov evicKeiav <ydp fyaai 
iroielv TO dvrippivov /ca\ov fievov rovro &' O/JLOIOV 
rfj cLTraplvr)' pi^a Be ou% vireaTiv o Be 
tocrirep fioo")(ov plvas e%ei. rbv 3' CLTTO 

3 TOVTOV d\ei(f)6fjievov evBo^eiv. evBo^eiv Be- /cal 
edv Tt9 rov eXeio^pvaov TO) avOei, (TTefyavMTai. 

paivcov e/c xpva-iov aTrvpov. e%ei Be 6 
TO fiev avQos xpv&oeiBes, <f>v\\oi> 
Be \V/cbv /cal rbv /cav\bv Be \e7rrbv /cal aK\iipbv 
pl^av Be eTunroKaiov /cal \e7mjv. xpcovrai Be avry 
?r/)09 ra Batcerd ev oiva> KOI 7r/oo9 rd Trvpi/cavara 
tcaratcavo-avres /cal fjiij;avre<; p,e\in. rd /j,ev 
ovv roiavra, icaOdrrep KOI rcporepov 
Gvvav^ew povKofJLevwv earl rd$ eavrwv 

4 At Be rwv pit^wv /cal rwv Kaprr&v /cal rwv OTTWV 

eVet TToXXa? eyovei /cal rravrolas Bvvd- 
, ocrai ravrb Bvvavrai /cal rwv avrwv alriaL, 

conj. Seal. afterG: so also Cod.Cas.Vin.Vo. ; 
U*; iri6av6Tpa Aid. 
2 rpnr6\iov UMU*Ald.; G from Plin. 21. 44 has polium. It 
may be observed that rpnr6\iov can hardly have occurred in a 
hexameter. Hesych., however, gives Tpianr6\iov as the name 



Of plants said to have magical properties. 

On the other hand what is said of amulets and 
charms in general for the body or the house is some- 
what foolish and incredible. 1 Thus they say that 
tripoKon 2 according to Hesiod and Musaeus is useful 
for every good purpose, wherefore they dig it up 
by night, camping on the spot. So too what is said 
of good or fair fame as affected by plants is quite as 
foolish or more so : for they .say that the plant called 
snapdragon 3 produces fair fame. This plant is like 
bedstraw but it has no root : and the fruit has what 
resembles a calf's nostrils. The man who anoints 
himself with this they say wins fair fame. 4 And they 
say that the same result follows, if he crowns himself 
with the flower of gold-flower, sprinkling it with 
unguent from a vessel of unfired gold. The flower of 
gold-flower is like gold, the leaf is white. The stem 
also is white 5 and hard, the root is slender and does 
not run deep. 6 Men use it in wine against the bites 
of serpents, and to make a plaster for burns after 
burning it and mixing the ashes with honey. Such 
tales then, as was said before, proceed from men who 
desire to glorify their own crafts. 

A problem as to cause and effect. 

Now since the natural qualities of roots fruits and 
juices have many virtues of all sorts, some having 
the same virtue and causing the same result, while 

of a plant. Plin. I.e. seems to combine Diosc.'s account of 
Tr6\tov (3. 110) with his account of rpnr6\iov (4. 132). 

3 rb avripptvov conj. St. from Diosc. 4. 130 ; Plin. 25. 129 ; 
rb avrippifrv Aid. H. ; r~bv avr. UM ; rJ> avripi^ov U*. 

4 Diosc. 4. 57 ; Plin. 21. 66. Cited also by Athen. 15. 27. 
6 \cvxbv conj. Sch. ; Xfirrbv UMU*Ald.G. 

6 Diosc. I.e.-, Plin. 21. 168 and 169. 



Kal Tfd\iv ovai ra evavria, BiaTroprjo-eiev av TJ? 

KOLVOV t'cTft)? CLTTOprj/jia Kal 6(/>' Tpa)V CLTTOpWV, 

TTOTepov ocra TWV avTWV aiTiCL Kara fiiav Tiva 
lv eo-TW, -/) teal a^ erepwv evSe^erai ravro 
at,. TOVTO fiev ovv ravry r)7ropr)o-0a)' el Be 
Kal a\\wv ra? <f)v<rei<; rj ra? Svvd/jieis 
elirelv, ravra prjreov. 
XX. To 8r/ TreTrepi Kapirbs fiev eari SITTOV $e 
avrov TO 76^09* TO [lev <yap arpoyyv^ov wcrirep 
opoffos, /ceXv(f)OS e%ov KCU crdptca Kaddirep al 
, V7repv6pov TO Be Trpofjbrjtces p,e\av 
irjicayviKa e%ov la^vporepov Be TTO\V 
TOVTO BdTepow Oep/jLCLVTiKCi Be a/ji<pw BI? o KCU 

TTyOO? TO KCOV610V fiorjOel TCLVTCi T Kal 6 Xt/3<X^ft)T09. 

f O Be KviBios KOKKOS aTpo<yyv\oi> Ipv6pov Trj 
XP 0i ^ p^ov Be TOV Treirepios lo-^vpoTepov Be TTO\V 
TV] OepfAOTrjTi, Bi? o KOI OTav BiBcocn KaTaTtoTov, 
BiBoacn jap TT/JO? KoiKias \vaiv, ev apTto rj 
aTtCLTi 7repi7T\dTTOVT<;' Kaei, yap aXXw? TOI^ 

QepfJiavTiKov Be KOI rj TOV TrevtceBdvov <pia,> 
BS o Kal aXei/jL/jid TL TTOIOVO-IV e avTijs 
cocnrep Kal e d\\wv. BiBoTai Be rj TOV 

1 a(/>' conj. Sch.; e</>' U*P ; Aid. omits the preposition. 

2 Cited by Athen. 2. 73 ; cf. Diosc. 2. 159. 

3 Plin. 27. 70. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IX. xix. 4 -xx. 2 

others have opposite virtues, one might raise a 
question which is perhaps equally perplexing in 
regard to other matters, to wit, whether those that 
produce the same effect do so in virtue of some 
single virtue which is common to them all, or whether 
the same result may not come about also from 1 
different causes. Let us be content to put the 
question thus : but now we must proceed to speak of 
the natural qualities or virtues of any other plants 
that we can mention. 

Of certain plants, not yet ' mentioned, which possess special 

XX. 2 Pepper is a fruit, and there are two kinds : 
one is round like bitter vetch, having a case and flesh 
like the berries of bay, and it is reddish : the other 
is elongated and black and has seeds like those of 
poppy : and this kind is much stronger than the 
other. Both however are heating : wherefore these, 
as well as frankincense, are used as antidotes for 
poisoning by hemlock. 

3 The ' Cnidian berry ' is round, red in colour, 
larger than that of pepper, and far stronger in its 
heating power ; wherefore, when it is given as a pill 4 
(for it is given to open the bowels) they knead it up 
in a piece of bread or dough : otherwise it burns the 

5 The root 6 of sulphur-wort is also heating, where- 
fore they make of it an ointment to produce a sweat, 
as with other things so used. This root 6 is also 

4 KO.Ta.-n or ov conj. Sch. ; Kara TTOTOV Aid. cf. Kmaironov 9. 8. 3. 

5 cf. 9. 14. 1 ; Piin. 25. 117. 

6 pl{a. add. W. 



Bdvov pi^a Kal TT/OO? TOU? <rir\rjva^' TO Be arrepfJia 
ov xpijcri/jiov ovBe 6 OTTO? avrrjS' yiverai Be ev 

AavKOV Be rrepl HarpaiKrjv TTJ? 'A^aia? Bia- 
(pepov, flepaavriKov <ucrer pi^av Be e%et /jbeXaivav. 

ep/j,avriKov Be Kal Bpifjiv Kal TT)? d/j,rreXov TT}? 
dypias pia' Bi? o Kal et?- ^ri\w6pov %prfa(,/j,ov Kal 
e^w/XtSa? djrdyeiv' rco Be Kaprrw ^iXovcn, rd 
Bep/jiara. re/jLverai Be irdcrav atpav oTroo^a? ^6 

1 Be pia yS/}^a? ev 
rraveiv ^prjcrifir). Kav\ov Be e^ei rroiKiXov o(j)[,(*)Br)' 

/ 5\' ' " 

'H Be r/}? Oa^ias e/jLeriKrj' edv Be rt? Karda^rj, 
KaOaLpet, Kal dvco Kal Karw Bvvarai Be Kal rd 
rre\id>fjiara e^aipelv VTrcoTria Be rroiel aXXa K~ 
\evKa. o Be OTTO? la-^vporepo^ avrr/s KaOaipei 
Kal dvo) Kal Kara)' o-7repfj,ari 8' ov xpwvrar 
yiverai Be Kal a\\o6i fjuev drdp Kal ev rfj 'ArriKfj' 
Kal rd poa-KijfjLara ravrys ov% arrrerai rd 
ey%copia, rd Be geviKa /BoaKerat, Kal Biappoia 
4 To Be 7ro\v7roBiov perd rd vSara d] 

i ^\ y I / 

o~rcepiJia oe ov wvsi* 

To Be r^? e/3evov v\ov Kara fj,ev rrjv 

(^XolaOev Be ae\av yiverai' 
Be TT/OO? 6<f>0a\fjiias aKovy rpi/36fjievov. 

1 cf. 9. 15. 5. 2 cf. 9. 15. 8. n. 

3 cf. 9. 14. 1 ; Diosc. 4. 181-183 ; Plin. 23. 19 and 21. 

4 cf. 7. 12. 2 ; Diosc. 2. 167. cf. Plin. 24. 89. 

5 Diosc. 4. 153 ; Plin. 13. 125 and 126. 



given for the spleen : but neither its seed nor its 
juice is of use : it grows in Arcadia. 1 

2 Daukon of excellent quality grows in the district 
of Patrai in Achaia, and is heating by nature : it has 
a black root. 

3 The root of the ' wild vine ' (bryony) is also 
heating and pungent : wherefore it is useful as a 
depilatory and to remove freckles : and the fruit is 
used for smoothing hides. It is cut at any season, 
but especially in autumn. 

4 The root of edderwort given in milk is useful for 
stopping a cough. It has a variegated snake-like 
stem : the seed is not used. 

5 The root of thapsia has emetic properties : and, 
if one retains it, it purges both upwards and down- 
wards. It is also able to remove bruises : and it 
restores other contusions to a pale colour. 6 Its 
juice is stronger and purges both upwards and 
downwards : the seed is riot used. It grows especially 
in Attica, but also in other places : the cattle of the 
country do not touch it, but imported cattle feed on 
it and perish of diarrhoea. 7 

8 Polypody springs up 9 after rain, and produces no 

10 The wood of ebony is in appearance like box, but 
when barked it becomes black : it is useful against 
ophthalmia, and is rubbed on a whetstone for that 

9 vTrwTTia . . . fKXevKCf. : text perhaps defective. 

7 Siappola conj. Sch. ; Sidppoiafi UM : Sidppoia avrols yiverat 1) 

8 c/. 9. 13. 6 ; G.P. 2. 17. 4. The account of the virtues of 
this plant is evidently missing. 

9 ava^affrf? conj. W.; alel Bd\\ei Aid. 

10 Diosc. 1. 98 ; Plin. 24. 89. 


f H Be dpi(TTO\o%ia Trayela Kal ea-Oto/jLevrj TriKpa 
TO) %pa)fj.aTi, /AeXaivo, Kai evoa/jios, TO Be (>v\\ov 
CTT poyyv\ov , ov TTO\V Be TO inrep r?}? 7779. 
Be Kal /jid\i,(TTa ev rot? opeor /cal avrt] 
Tr]V Se %peiav avrr}? et? 7ro\\a 
apidrrj pev 7r/?o9 Ta K(f>a\,60\a(7Ta, dyaflr) $6 real 
TT^O? ra aXXa eX^^ #al 77/009 Ta epirera Kal 7r/?o9 

VTTVOV KOI 7T/J09 VCTTepdV ft>9 7T6CTO-09, Ta yL6I^ (7W 

vbari avaSevopevyi teal fcaraTrXaTTOfjievrj, ra 8' 
aXXa 6i9 /AeXi ^VO/JLCVIJ Kal eKaiov TWV Se epjrerwv 
ev otvq* o^Lvrj 7Tivofj,vrj Kal eVl TO Sij<y/na eVt- 
7rarro/jivr]' et9 VTTVOV Be ev olvw yueXaw avarTjpo) 
eav Be al /jifJTpai, TrpoTrecrwo'i, TO) vBari, 
. avrrj fjbev ovv eotKe Biatyepeiv rfj 

wcnrep e evavrias 6 071-09 
aXXo 8* ovBev. 


e\iJLLv9a Be TrXarecav e/c^aXXef 
Be OUK e'xei ovBe OTTOV TefMveaOaL Be wpaiav 
trwpov (paaiv. 

'H 8' IX/U9 crv/jL^vrov eWoi9 eOvecriv e%ovcri 
yap a>9 eVt ?ra^ AlyvTmoi "Apafies 'Ap/jievioi, 
KtXt/c9' paKe$ B* OVK e 

ovBe Qpvyes' TWV Be 'EXX^ct)^ 7)j3aioi re ol 

Trepl ra <yvu,i'dcria Kal oXw9 BoteoTot* ' AOr^valoi 
^ >/ 
o OL. 

Tldvrwv Be TWV ^ap/jidKcov 009 a7rXa>9 elirelv 
/3e\Tia) Ta e/c TCOV xeifiepivwv Kal irpoa-jBoppwv 

1 c/. 9. 13. 3. 2 al /ioAia-ra conj. W.; p-aKurra. /col Aid. 
3 au'TTj conj. Seal.; OUT^ Aid. 



1 Birth wort is a stout plant and is bitter to the taste : 
it is black in colour and fragrant ; the leaf is round. 
However there is not much of the plant above 
ground. It grows especially 2 on mountains, and 
then 3 it is best. Many uses of it for various purposes 
are enumerated ; it is best for bruises on the head, 
good also for other wounds, against snake-bites, to 
produce sleep, for the womb as a pessary : for some 
purposes it is soaked with water and applied as a 
plaster, for others it is scraped into honey and olive- 
oil : against snake-bites it is drunk in sour wine and 
also sprinkled over the bite ; to induce sleep it is 
given pounded up in black dry wine : 4 in cases of 
prolapsus uteri it is used in water as a lotion. This 
plant then seems to have a surpassing variety of 

5 Of scammony, as though by contrast, only the 
juice is useful and no other part. 

Of male-fern no part but the root is useful and it 
has a sweet astringent taste. It expels the flat 
worm. It has no seed nor juice : and they say it 
is ripe for cutting in autumn. 

6 (This worm naturally infests certain races : 
speaking generally the following are liable to it 
the Egyptians, the Arabians, the Armenians, the 
Matadides, the Syrians, the Cilicians : the Thracians 
have it not, nor the Phrygians. Among the Hellenes 
those Thebans who frequent wrestling-schools and 
the Boeotians generally are liable to it : but not the 

Of all drugs, to speak generally, those are better 
which come from places that are wintry, face the 

4 Cited by Apollon. Hist. Mirab. 29. 

a Diosc. 4. 170; Plin. 27. 78-80. 6 Plin. 27. 145. 



Kal t;ijpa)V Si o teal TWV ev Eu/9ota ra ev 
Alyais fj TO, ev rw TeXeOpia) <f)aat' %r] pore pa yap' 
TO Be Te\e@piov (TVCTKIOV. 

6 Tlepl fjiev ovv T&V pi^wv oaai <pap/jLaK(*)$t<; /cat 
oiToiaaovv e^ovat Sv vdjjieis ei're eV aurat? etre ev 

T0t9 OTTOt? fj KOI a\\(p TLVl TWV fJLOpicOV, Kal TO 

o\ov et TL (frpwyavi/cbv fj TrowSe? e%et roiavras 
^vvdfJie^t Kal Trepl rwv %u\co^ rwv re evoo-pcov 
Kal TWV doa/jbcov Kal 6Va? e^ovcri Bt.a(j)opd<;, 
a f L7Tp ovOev rjrrov <pvaiKai elo-iv, eiprjrat. 



north and are dry : wherefore of those which grow 
in Euboea best, they say, are the drugs of Aigai or 
Telethrion, these places being dry, while Telethrion 
is also shady. 

1 Thus we have spoken of drugs, those that are 
medicinal and those that have virtues of whatsoever 
kind, whether in the root itself, or in the juice, or in 
any other of their parts, and in general of all the 
shrubby or herbaceous plants which have such 
virtues, as well as their tastes, whether they be 
fragrant or without fragrance, with the differences 
between them, which are equally part of their 
essential character. 

1 This section begins a tenth book in UMAld.H.O ; cf. 
9. 8. 1 n. The concluding words can hardly represent the 
original text. 

VOL. ii. v 


Y 2 




THE text of the two opuscula given here is re- 
printed from that of Wimmer in the Teubner series, 
1862, and in the Didot edition, 1866; the latter is 
very carelessly printed : a few slight alterations are 
mentioned in the notes. Both works are included 
in the Aldine edition (1497), and in that of Camotius 
(see p. x). For the de odoribus two MSS., Cod. 
Vaticanus (A) and Cod. Parisiensis (Q) were collated 
by Brandis. The text of the de signis is considered 
by Wimmer to be very corrupt and defective : he 
has admitted some emendations made by Schneider 
from an old Latin translation published at Bologna 
in 1516. Schneider's commentary makes frequent 
reference to an edition of the opuscula of Theo- 
phrastus by Turnebus and Daniel Furlanus, printed 
at Hanau in Prussia in 1605, and reprinted there in 

The de signis was one of Aratus' authorities for 
his Diosemeia : I have only however made reference 
to that work where it appears to throw light on 
the text of Theophrastus. These and most other 
references for the two fragments I owe chiefly to 

3 2 4 




1-3. Introductory : Of odours in general and the classi- 
fication of them. 

4. Of natural odours : Of those of animals and of the 

effect of odours on animals. 

5. Of smell and taste. 

6. Of odours in plants. 

7-13. Of artificial odours in general and their manufac- 
ture : especially of the use of perfumes in wine. 

14-20. Of the oils used as the vehicle of perfumes. 

21-26. Of the spices used in making perfumes and their 

27-31. Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and 
of the composition of various notable perfumes. 

32-35. Of the properties of various spices. 

35-36. Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes. 

37-41. Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing 
of various perfumes. 

42-50. Of the properties of certain perfumes. 

51-56. Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes. 

57-59. Of the making of perfume-powders and compound 

61-63. Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain 
curious facts as to the smell of animal and vege- 
table products. 

64-69. Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions. 



I. At OGfjial TO fjiev o\ov e/c yiueft>9 elori, 
Ka0a7Tp ol %v/zot* TO yap dfjLi/crov cijrav aoB/jiov 
a%v/jLov, Bio /cat ra arrXa aoB/jua, olov 
ar)p Trvp' T] Be <yfj ^a/UoV rj 

at jJLev worirep aeiSei? KCLI v 
eirl rwv 'XVJJL&V, al 8' e^ovaai 
l&eas. al &' IBeat So/covert, fj,ev aKo\ovOeiv rat? 
ov [Jir]V eftovai ye Trdffai ra? aura? 
wcnrep ev ro?9 irporepov eiirofjiev, 
OUT&) Sicopicr/jLevai rot? eiBecriv wcnrep 
ol %f / aot aXX' 009 av rot? ryeveaiv, on, ra /nev 
2 etW/za ra Be /cdfcocr/jia. TTJS S' evcoBtas /cal 
OVKCTI ra eiBrj KaroDvo/jLaarai KaLirep 
/j,eyd\a<; etri <y avrwv TWV 
fcal TTiKpwv, a\\a Spi^ela \e<yerai /cal 
/cal fjLa\a/crj /cal y~\,VKia /cal ftapeia o&fj,rj' 
Koival B' eviai rovrwv /cal TMV /ca/ccoBwv. 

1 i.e. there is not one set of terms applied to the varieties 
of ' good ' and another distinct set applied to the varieties of 
' evil ' odours, but we get a cross-division, some terms (such 
as 'strong') being applied to varieties of both classes, cf. 



Introductory : Of odours in general and the classification of 

I. ODOURS in general, like tastes, are due to 
mixture : for anything which is uncompounded has 
no smell, just as it has no taste : wherefore simple 
substances have no smell, such as water air and fire : 
on the other hand earth is the only elementary 
substance which has a smell, or at least it has one to 
a greater extent than the others, because it is of a 
more composite character than they. 

Of odours some are, as it ware, indistinct and 
insipid, as is the case with tastes, while some have 
a distinct character. And these characters appear 
to correspond to those of tastes, yet they have not in 
all cases the same names, as we said in a former 
treatise ; nor in general are they marked off from 
one another by such specific differences as are tastes : 
rather the differences are, one may say, in generic 
character, some things having a good, some an evil 
odour. 1 But the various kinds of good or evil odour, 
although they exhibit considerable differences, have 
not received further distinguishing names, marking 
off one particular kind of sweetness or of bitterness 
from another : we speak of an odour as pungent, 
powerful, faint, sweet, or heavy, though some of 
these descriptions apply to evil-smelling things as 
well as to those which have a good odour. 



'H Be tca9o\ov KOI wcTTrep 7rl rraai T09 Bia- 
<f>0eip0fjbevois a airports, arrav yap TO a-^rco^evov 
tcatcwBes, el firf Tt9 rrjv o^vrrjra \eyei, rov OLVOV 
3 o-airpoTijTa rfj O/JLOLOTIJTI r% (frflopas. ev arracn 
' ecrrlv rj rov aaTrpov KaK(0$ia /cal ev <f>VTois 
/col ev foiof? teal ev rot? atyv^oiS' ev arraai Be 
&ia(j)@ipofjievoi<; wv /jurj 77 avarao-^ ev0i)s etc 
\r)$' e^ei yap evia teal rr]V rrjs y\7j^ 
ov n/r)V eirl irdvTwv ye TOUT* aico\ov6el. 

V^P V KCLKCtiBrj TO, K TO)V (Ta7Tp)V, O>9 

ouS' ol /jiv/cyres ol etc r^9 KOTrpov (^vo^evoi' ra 8' 

etc 7?^eft)9 (fivofjieva fcal avviarrd/jieva 

evoa/jia fjiev ovv o>9 a7rXw9 elirelv ra 

KOI \errra teal rjKLcrra yewSiy TO yap T7/9 

ev dvaTTVofj' KatcwSij Be 8rj\ovori, rdvavria. 7ro\\a 

Be tovrrep rwv y\v/cea)v e^aivei nva Tri/cporrjTa, 

teal rwv eva)B(ov (Bapvr^ra rais oafjial^. 

II. "E%et Be etcaarrov ocr^v IBiav teal 
teal (f)vr(t)i> teal rwv d-^v^cov oaa ocr/>tft)5>?' 

1 And so here we have a term which possibly is applied 
only to the one class of ' evil ' odours. 

2 Which is not an 'evil' odour. 

3 i.e. putridity is a quality which things acquire as they 
decay, and does not necessarily imply that they are them- 
selves formed out of decaying matter. In fact things so 
produced are not always ' putrid.' 

4 The sense is apparently that ' lighter ' (or less solid) 
things exhale a lighter and pleasanter odour because in their 



Putridity however is a general term, applied, one 
may say, to anything which is subject to decay 1 : for 
anything which is decomposing lias an evil odour, 
unless indeed the name putridity be extended to 
sourness 2 in wine because the change in the wine is 
analogous to decomposition. The evil odour of 
putridity is found iri all things, alike in plants in 
animals and in inanimate things : it attends the 
decay of things which are not formed directly out of 
a substance which is decaying : for some things have 
also the odour of that substance, though it is not 
found in every case. 3 Thus in many instances things 
which are produced by decaying matter have no evil 
odour : for instance, mushrooms which grow from 
dung have none : but things which grow from decay 
and are actually formed out of it have such an odour. 
To speak generally then, things that have been 
cooked, delicate things, and things which are least of 
an earthy nature have a good odour, 4 (odour being a 
matter of exhalation), and it is obvious that those of 
an opposite character have an evil odour. But, even 
as many things pleasant to the taste present a certain 
bitterness, so many things that have a good odour 
have a kind of heavy scent. 

Of natural odours; of those of animals and of the effect of 
odours on animals. 

II. Every plant animal or inanimate thing that 
has an odour has one peculiar to itself: but in many 

case exhalation is easier. The sense given to avairvori requires 
illustration (the passages cited by LS. are not in point). Sch. , 
construing apparently as W. does, ' since smell depends on 
breathing' (? inhalation), admits that he does not see the 
point of this clause. 



S* rj/juv ov (fraiverai Bta TO %6ipi(7Trjv e^eiv rrjv 
aiaOrjdiv ravrrjv ft)9 elirelv. eVet rot? 76 aXXot9 
/cal ra TrayreXftw aoSua (fraivoueva SiSwa-i riva 
rjv, axTTrep al /cpiOal rofc vTro^vyiois al etc T?}? 
, a? ov/c ea'Olova'iv Sia rrjv 

KOi al TWV %(00)V \av9aVOV(TLV TWV O 

SofcovvTtov. evcoSia fjiev ovv OV&GV 
/caO' avrb %aipeiv co? elTrelv, aXX* ocra TT/JO? rrjv 
Tpo<j)r)v teal rrjv airoXavaiv. irovelv S' evia 
(f)a,LVTai rat? oa"yaat? /cal rat? evcoSiais, eiTrep 
a\r]6e<$ TO eirl TWV yvTrwv teal TCOV Kavddpwv. 
TOVTO Se &i}\ov a)? Si? evavTiwaiv TT}? ev avTois 

. to? Be tcaO* eicaaTOV ayu-a Set TTJV ye 

Trjv Ka(7TOV teal Tr)V T^ 

pen ovv eviat, TWV evoo-fjLwv /cal eV rat? 
t9, olov al TWV d/cpoopvwv /cal diTicov /cal 
)v' avTai yap avev r?}? Trpoafy 
/cal /Jia\\ov ft>9 eiTrelv. ov fjirjv aXX' w? 7' a 

al aev elai xaff avTa? al oe /caTa crvu- 
s' al pev TWV %v\cov /cal r^9 T/oo^?)9 /cara 
iiKos, al & axjirep TWV di>6cov /caO^ avTas. 
co9 8' eTTLTrav TCL evoa/jia, /caQc'nrep /cal TrpoTepov 
/cal crTpv(f)va /cal vTro 

1 In Thrace, c/. Arist. H.A. 9. 36. Turn, quotes an illus- 
tration from Scriptor Oavpaaiav o.KovfffjLa.rwv 126. 

2 CUwStOIS. ?lw8(Tt. 



cases it is not obvious to us because, one might 
almost say, our sense of smell is inferior to that ot 
all other animals. Thus things which appear to us 
to have no odour give forth an odour of which other 
animals are conscious : for instance beasts of burden 
can smell the barley of Kedropolis, 1 and refuse to eat 
it because of its evil odour. Also we are unaware of 
the odour of animals which appear to possess one. 
Now no animal appears to take pleasure in a good 
odour for its own sake, so to speak, but only in the 
odour of things which conduce to its nurture and 
enjoyment. Indeed some animals seem to be annoyed 
by odours, even good 2 ones, if what is said ot 
vultures and beetles be true ; the explanation is that 
their natural character is antipathetic to odours. 
To appreciate this in particular cases one should 
take into consideration the temperament of the 
animal in question and also its power of smell. 

Of smell and taste. 

Now the odour of some things which have a good 
odour resides in things which are used for food, for 
instance that of stone-fruits 3 pears and apples, the 
smell of which is sweet even if one does not eat 
them ; indeed it may be said to be sweeter in that 
case. However, to make a general distinction, some 
odours exist independently, while others are inci- 
dental ; 4 those of juices and things used for food 
are incidental, those of flowers exist independently. 
And, as was said above, 5 things which have a good 
odour are generally of unpleasant, astringent or 

3 aKpoSpvuv here apparently plurns, peaches, etc. 

4 i.e. the smell is a kind of 'accident,' or by-product of 
the taste. 6 1. 3. 



Be TMV ev%v JJLWV KOI KaKtoB?), tcaOaTrep Kal TO 
ALJVTTTLOV /ca\ov/jiei>ov OTVKOV, y\vKV ov, Kal el 
fjLrj nravTa^ov aXX* eVta%oO. KOI 77 ap/cevOos 
e/uicfraivei, Tivd rfj /AaGnjcret, KaKwBiai* <y\VKeia 
ovaa' TO B 1 ovpov TTOLGL euwSe?. 

Be TWV OCT^MV at /j,ev eV <pvrois Kal rot? 
jjiopiois, olov K\wal <f>v\\ 
SaKpvois, al Be w&Trep BieiXopev ev 
[Kal cfrv rot?] Kal rot? a^v^ois, avTai {JLCV <f>avepov 
OTi Tre-^LV eKao-rat \ap,(3dvov(iiv ev TO?? 
[at?]* Kal TO evwBes Kal KaK&Bes aKo\ov6el 
Ta? olfceias (frvaeis, 77 Be Trei/a? TW oi 
ev Be Tot? a^jrv^oi^ Tat? TWV ajrXwv Bvvd/j,<n, Kal 
ryivovTai Kal fieOiaTavTai KaOdirep ol %fyuot. 

III. f/ O<7at Be Brj KaTa Te^vrjv Kal eTrivoiav 
<ylvovTai Trepl TOVTWV ireipaTeov eiTrelv wcnrep Kal 
irepl TWV ^v\wv. ev dpfyolv Be Bfj\ov w? del 
TO {3e\,Ti,ov [^v] rjfjiLV 7) dvatyopd* Tracra <ydp 
O%afeTat TOVTOV. elal p,ev ovv Kal TO?? 
6cr/jiai Tives TT^O? a? crvvepyetv 
Kal Tat? 7rapa<<TKvai<;, a>? Kal> TT/OO? 
evcrTOfAtas. ov ^v a\\ a;? <y 

1 c/. H.P. 1. 11. 2. 

2 i.e. the berry: Sch. would read apKcvOts. cf. H.P. 3. 12. 4, 
with which this statement is inconsistent. Sch. suggests 
punctuating y\vKv ov. /col fl /A)] ira.vra.xov a\\' 

?; &piteu6os K.T.\. y ical <UTO?S om. Turn. 

4 als I omit ; p Kal rb eu. conj. Turn. 



somewhat bitter taste. Again some things which 
have a good taste have also an evil odour, such as 
the carob, 1 which is sweet (this is true of some 
regions, if not of all). Again the Phoenician cedar/ 2 
though it is sweet to the taste, when chewed pro- 
duces a sort of evil odour, though it makes the water 

Of odours in plants. 

. Some odours being found in plants or in their 
parts as twig, leaf, bark, fruit, gum and others, as 
we distinguished, in animals 3 and in inanimate things, 
it is plain that the former are matured each of them 
in the part to which it belongs ; and 4 a good or evil 
odour follows according to the natural character of 
that part, the maturing being due to the warmth 
which is found in it. On the other hand in inanimate 
things the odour, like the taste, is formed and 
modified by the properties of the simple substances 
of which the thing is made. 

Of artificial odours in general and their manufacture : especially 
of the use of perfumes in wine. 

III. Next we must endeavour to speak of those 
odours, and also those tastes, which are artificially 5 
and deliberately produced. In either case it is clear 
that improvement is always what we have in view ; 
for that is the aim of every artificial process. Now 
even uncom pounded substances have certain odours, 
which men endeavour to assist by artificial means, , 
even as they try to assist nature in producing 
palatable tastes. However, to speak generally, the 

5 The same phrase occurs in similar connexion C.P. 6. 11. 2. 

6 Text defective. Aid Bas.Vo. have marks of omission. 
W. after Turn, gives rol rats irapcKO-iteuais, us nal> ra'is TWV 

uo-To<jLu'oj*>, which I have slightly altered. 



elirelv ev /uf et rb 7r\eov, Kal ovrcos al 
Bvolv fjiev &>9 r) yevei \a/3eiv, vypov Kal 
T/oi^o>9 Be yi<.vovrai>, orav rj ofjboyeves o/Jioyevel, 
r) 7rapd\\arrov ra) irapa\\drrovri, rj vypw vypov 
rj %ripw r)pov, <rj vypu* ^r/pov>. 

'E/c BVOLV yap rovrcov Kal r) rwv f )(v\o)v Kal 
rwv oo-fjiMV yevecw 009 uev ol rd dpcofjiara Kal rd 

(rvvriOevres f^/oot9 7r/?o9 
ol rd fJLvpa Kepavvvvres TJ rw OLVW 
7T/D09 vypd. rb Be rpirov, o Kal 
ct>9 ol LLVpeilrol fciypols ?rpo9 vypd' 
yap fjuvpov Kal %pio- paro*; 77 o~vv6eo~i<$ avrrj. Bet 
8* elBevai rrolai 7rotot9 ev/jLiKroi Kal rcolai 
(Tvvepyovo-w et9 TO rroielv jjbiav wairep eirl 
XVIACOV. Kal yap CKCL ravrb rovro tyr)rov<Jiv ol 
jj,iyvvvre<$ Kal olov dprvovres. ravra /JLCV ovv 
ev 049 Kal i &V al re^vai noiovvrai rd reXrj. 
9 Miyvvvrai Be rd jj^ev avrij^ T^9 6cr/^i)9 eveKa 
Kal 7rpo9 ravrrjv rrjv alo-Q^^LV, rd B* wcrrrep 
f3ov\6/jt,eva rrjv yev&iv, olov &>9 ol rd 
rj rd dpco/jiara 

1 I have supplied /j.{eis to fill the lacuna marked by W. 
after OVTUS al : the text to the end of the section is defective, 
but a makeshift restoration and rendering seem possible : 
the sense of OVTCOS is obscure. 



result is usually obtained by a mixture, and accord- 
ingly l such mixtures are of two things (or classes 
of things), a liquid and a solid : but there are 
three ways in which the result may be reached (the 
combination 2 being one either of like with like, or 
of unlike substances), according as a liquid is com- 
pounded with another liquid, a solid with another 
solid, or a solid with a liquid. 

For tastes and odours alike are derived from these 
two things : the method of the makers of spices and 
perfume-powders 3 is to mix solid with solid, that of 
those who compound unguents or flavour wines is to 
mix liquid with liquid : but the third method, 
which is the commonest, is that of the perfumer, 
who mixes solid with liquid, that being the way in 
which all perfumes 4 and ointments are compounded. 
Further one must know which odours will combine 
well with which, and what combination makes a 
good blend, just as in the case of tastes : for there 
too those who make combinations and, as it were, 
season their dishes, are aiming at this same object. 
So much for the ingredients and the methods 
whereby these arts attain their ends. 

The object of the mixture is in the one case 
simply the production of a particular odour and the 
gratification of the corresponding sense, in the other 
there is a desire to produce, as it were, a pleasanter 
taste : this for instance is the object of flavouring 
wine with perfumes or of putting spices into it. 

2 i.e. given two components we have three possible com- 
binations, A with A , B with B, or A with B. 

3 8ta7rci<r/jLOTa. cf. Plin. 13. 19 ; 21. 125. 

4 The difference between /avpou and xp^'A taTOS does not 
appear ; pvpov seems to be loosely used, as just above it was 
used of an entirely liquid mixture. 



a yap acrricreis <rvveyyv<$ ovcrai TTOLOVGI TLVCL 
a,Tr6\avo~iV a\\r)\wv, oOev /ecu avrois rot? yev- 

CTTOt? ^rjTOVCTl T9 6VO(7fJiLa<i. 

10 'ATTOpijcreie 8' civ TI$ tVo)? Sid rl TTOTC pvpov 
KOI Ta\\a vocr^a rou? fiev otVou? rjSvvei rwv & 

ovBev, a\\a irdvra \v naiverai /ecu 
teal TreTrvpco/jueva. TO 8' aiiiov VTTO- 
on av/jL/Saivei, rcov p,ev %r]p&v afyaipel- 
re TOV ol/ceiov ^v\ov Sia rrjv layvv KOI 
(TVV7ri(f)aiviv rbv avrov OVTCL arpvtyvov 
teal vTroTTiKpov airav jap TO evoa-fjiov TOLOVTOV, 
$LafAa(Ta)/ji6voi<> Be /eal /JLO\\OI> e/jifpaves Bid re Trjv 

11 6\i^riv /eal TOfj,rjv /eal GTL TW XpovifeaQai. rov 

8' OiVOV OVOTpOV 7TOiL' Kal jap 6 %f\O? l(7^Vp6- 

raro? /eal Tc\eiwv et? TO jjur) tepaTeicrOai /eal ovBeva 
TTJ jevaei %pbvov 6'jrto'iaTpij3a)v dX)C ocrov eVt- 
Oiyydvwv, UXTTC TO jj^ev rjBv evSi&ovai Trj 
TO oe TU/epbv /eal BVO-^VJJLOV Ty yeveei /J 
vew, d\\a av/jiftaiveiv r&5 OVTL KaOdirep tj 

ryiV6(T0at, TW TTO/AaTt TY)V 0(T fjUJV TW /J,V 

y\v/eel teal fjid\icrTa Seo/jievco Bid TO 
rot? & aXXoi? wcrTrep [Alas e 

1 c/. 67 ; Arist. de Sens. 5. 2 c/. Arist. l.r. 

3 As opposed to wine. Sch., misunderstanding this, thinks 


4 I have restored KO), which Sch. and W. omit, missing the 
point of the antithesis fiet> . . . Se. 



1 For the two senses of taste and smell being akin to 
one another, each provides in a way for the enjoy- 
ment of the other : wherefore it is through things 
which appeal to the taste, as well as those which 
appeal to the sense of smell, that men try to discover 
fragrant odours. 

The question may perhaps be raised why perfume 
and other fragrant things, while they give a pleasant 
taste to wine, 2 yet have not this effect on any other 
article of food, but in all cases spoil food, whether it 
be cooked or not. The explanation we must take 
to be that this is what happens the perfume if 
mixed with solid 3 things is in any case powerful 
enough to deprive them of their proper taste, and at 
the same time it makes obtrusive its own taste, 
which is astringent and somewhat bitter, all per- 
fumeries having that character, while, if one bites 
up the food, this effect is even 4 more apparent 
because the food is crushed and broken up, and also 
because it remains longer in the mouth. But on 
wine neither effect is produced, since in this the 
taste is very strong and too generally diffused to be 
overpowered : also wine does not linger on the 
palate for any length of time, but merely touches it, 
so that, while it makes one conscious of its own 
pleasant taste, it does not make the palate feel the 
bitter unpalatable taste of the perfume : in fact the 
odour of this acts as a sort of relish 5 to the draught. 
This effect indeed c it has on wine which is sweet 
and specially needs the addition of perfume, because 
it has no ( relish ' of its own ; while with other wines 
the reason is that, as the effect of the mixture, the 

5 Sc. ' bouquet.' 

6 I have restored yap, omitted by Sch. and W. 




Bid Trjv fAigiv. 6 yap olvos, tocnrep Kal Trporepov 

12 "E^et ' curoprjcriv /cal ToBe, Bid ri ra uev 
dvdtj Kal TO, o-Tetyavco/juaTa daOevecTepa ovra rat? 

KOI TTOppcaQev o&t, , t] 8' Ipis /cal TO vdpSov 
ra\\a TO, euoayia TWV grjpwv Icr^vporepa 
Kal evid ye TrpoaeveyKafjievois, evia Be 
/cal Tpityews TrpOG&eirat, Kal Siaipea-ecos, ra 8e 
/cal irvpoMrews, wa-jrep j] (Tfjivpva Kal o X 

13 /cal Trdv TO Ov/juaTov. ainov 8* on T&V 

7rnro\rjs TO TTOLOVV rrjv oa-fi^v are 
/cal ovtc 6%ovTO)v j3d0o<;, TCOV Be pi^wv teal 
TWV arepewv ev ffdOei, ra 8' e^todev 
Kal ireTTVKvwfieva' 810 Kal d<j)ia(n 
Ta9 aTTOTT^ota?, Ta 8' otoi^ dvoi^ea)<; Beovrai 
Tropcov, 06 ev Biatpov/j,eva Kal Koirro/jieva 
evcoBea-repa, ra B* avOr] KaKcoBea-repa rpi- 
/36/jieva' rd /juev yap eK<f>alvei TO oiKelov rd Be 
TT poa\afjL^dvei TO d\\OTpiov. 6 Be \i/3ava)To? 
Kal T) Gfjivpva TTVKVOTepav eTi TTJV (frvcriv 
Trpo&BeovTai, Trvpcoaea)^ /jLa\aKrj<;, fj KUTCL 
eKOepjJualvovcra Troirfcrei, Trjv avaQvplaGiv. edv 
yap KOTTTrj TJ9 ^ Tpifty TavTa, TrpoaoiaovTai 

1 i.e. of the unadulterated wine and of the perfume. 

2 C. P. 6. 19. 2. Seh.'s reasons for bracketing this sentence 

seem inadequate. 

3 i.e. fragrant 

4 Made from the rhizomes : cf. H.P. 1. 7. 2, and Index. 


3 i.e. fragrant leaves, etc. cf. H.P. 1. 12. 4. 
e fr 


two 1 odours combine, as it were, to form one. Wine 
indeed, as was said before, 2 has a special property of 
assimilating odours. 

Another question also suggests itself, why it is 
that, while the smell of flowers and other 3 things 
used for garlands, though it is not so strong, can be 
perceived even at a great distance, the iris-perfume, 4 
spikenard and other fragrant solids smell stronger at 
a short distance : and of some of these the smell is 
only perceived when they are eaten, while some 
need even to be bruised and broken up, and others 
to be subjected to fire, as myrrh frankincense and 
anything that is burnt as incense. The explanation is 
that, whereas in flowers that which causes the smell 
is on the surface, seeing that the texture of flowers 
is open and they are not substantial, in all such solid 
substances as roots the power of producing smell 
is diffused through a substantial mass, while the 
exterior parts are dried up and of close texture : and 
this is why flowers emit the scent which exhales from 
them to a long distance, while things like roots need 
an opening of their passages. Hence, when these 
are broken up or bruised, they are in all cases more 
fragrant, while, 5 if flowers are crushed, they have a 
comparatively evil smell : for under such treatment 
roots give forth the property which belongs to them, 
but flowers acquire a property which is not their 
own. Again frankincense and myrrh, since they are 
by nature of even closer texture than roots, need a 
gentle application of fire, which, by gradually 
warming them, will cause the scent to be exhaled. 
For, if these substances are bruised or crushed, they 
will indeed present an odour, but it will not be so 

5 cf. Arist. Probl 12. 9 ; 13. 3 and 11. 

z 2 


ov% o/jLoia)^ Be jjBeiav ovB* 

TOVTWV fiev ovv TOiavTa Tives at arai. 

14 IV. Twv Be fj,vpa)v j] o-vvOeais real 1} 

TO o\ov olov et? Orjcravpia-fjLov eaTi TWV 
BioTrep et? Tov\aiov TiQwTai' TovTo 'yap 
TdTOv KOI a/j,a 7T/30? ' 

7rel (frvaet, fJKHTTa Se/CTifcbv 6cr/jiij$ Bia rrjv TTVKVO- 
rrjra /cal TO XtTro?, CLVTWV Be TOVTMV TO \i7rapa>- 
TCITOV, olov TO d/jLvyBd\ii>ov TO Be crrjo-d/jiivov 
/cal TO e/c TWV eXaiwv fjLd\icrTa. 

15 XpaivTai Be /jidXia-Ta TU> e/c TT)? ftakdvov TIJS 
At<yu7TTta9 teal %vpia<;, ijicio-Ta yap \iTrapov eirel 
teal TU> e/c TWV eXaiwv yuaXto-ra %p(*)VTai TO> 
a)/jiOTpi/3ei TT}? <f>av\ia<f BOKCL yap d\iTre<JTaTov 

/cat, \7TTOTaTOv KOL TOVTM veq) teal /i-r; 
TO yap vTrep eviavTov d^pelov 7ra%v- 
Tepov real \L7rapcoT6pov yevofjuevov. eXaiov {lev 
ovv TO TOIOVTOV oltceioTaTov, d\nre(TTaTOV ydp. 
fyacrl Be Tives teal <ev> TO> ^pia-fiaTi TO e/c TMV 
TTitcpwi' dfjLvyd\u)v iro\\a Be ylveTai Trepl KtXt- 

16 Kiav teal jroiovaiv ef avT&v ^picr^a. (fracrl Be 
/cal et? TCL <T7rovBa1a TWV fjivpwv dpfJLOTTeiv, wGTrep 
teal TO etc T?)? ftdKdvov /cal avTO' Troiet Be <ra> 
tc\v(f>r) avTwv evovfjLov els TO e\aiov 

1 This passage was misunderstood by Plin. 13. 19. The 
sense seems to be that the viscous character of oil, though 
preservative of perfume, is not easily receptive of it. 

2 cf. H.P. 4. 2. 1 ; 4. 2. 6. pd\avos, balanites aeyyptiaca. 
See Index. 



sweet nor so lasting as when they have been sub- 
jected to fire. Such are the explanations of these 

Of the oils used as the vehicle ofptrfumes. 

IV. Now the composition and preparation of 
perfumes aim entirely, one may say, at making the 
odours last. That is why men make oil the vehicle 
of them, since it keeps a very long time and also is 
most convenient for use. 1 By nature indeed oil is 
not at all well suited to take in an odour, because of 
its close and greasy character : and of particular oils 
this is specially true of the most viscous, such as 
almond-oil, while sesame-oil and olive-oil are the 
least receptive of all. 

The oil most used is that derived from the 
Egyptian 2 or Syrian balanos, since this is the least 
viscous ; the olive-oil which is most used is that 
which is pressed from ' coarse olives ' 3 in the raw 
state, since this is thought to be the least greasy 
and the least coarse : this is used while it is new, 
not when it is old, for that which is kept above a 
year is useless, having become thick and viscous. 
This then is the kind of olive-oil which is most 
suitable, since it is the least greasy. Some say that 
for unguent the oil derived from bitter almonds is 
best : these are abundant in Cilicia, where an 
unguent is made from them. It is said that this is 
suitable for choice perfumes, like the oil of the 
Egyptian balanos : this is suitable in itself, 4 however 
the shells of the fruit are thrown into the oil to give 
it a good odour : indeed they are also thrown into 

3 cf. If. P. 2. 2. 12 ; G. P. 6. 8. 3 and 5. 

4 avrb conj. Sell.; TOVTO Vulg.W. 



fJt,ei>a' 7Tl Kal TO TMV TTlKpWV. Tj^rf $6 7Tft)9 OVK 

evavTiov a/j,a pev TO (wo-fiorarov ^tjTelv, wo"nep 
Kal TO &>//,OT/o^e9 CK Twv <f)av\io)V, dfia 6" ev 
Troieiv; Spi/jLVTijra yap e%ei TO 

el jmrj ap on TO e\aiov 
. ravra pev ovv 7ricrfce7rT60V. 
17 Xpwvrai ^e TT^O? irdvra TO?? dpu>^acn, 

/JLV 7TiaTV<j)OVTe<i TO \CilOV TOt9 ^6 KOI TYjV 6(7/JLrfV 

e/c TOVTWV e/jLTTOiovvres. vTroo-Tvcpovfft, yap Trdv 
et9 TO et;acr6ai fjud\\ov rrjv oo-^rjv, axrTrep rd epia 
et9 rrjv ftafyrfv. vTroartxperat, Se TOt9 d 
po^9 TWV dpay/jidrcov, eW^ varepov 
d<fi ov av fjov\,wvTai rrjv off^v \a(3elv ITTL- 
tcparel <ydp del TO ea^arov efJi^aXXofievov Kal 
av e'Xarrov rf olov edv 6t9 KOTV\r)v <T/jLvpvrjs 
teal varepov e^^XrjdMdi KivafitofjLOV 
l Svo, KpaTovdiv at TOV KWCL/JLCO/JLOV Svo 

18 avjj,dcreie 8' av T^9 laws rovro re Kal Sid 
TI 7TOT6 rd dpco/jiara r jrpoe^a\\6jjbeva SeKTitcto- 
repov Troiel rovXaiov oa/jirjv e^ovra' el <ydp 
dwSes elvai TO Se^o/JLevov, TO Se KaTeCKr^^i^kvov 
v$> erepov OVK d&Ses, (>o~6* fjrrov e^prjv elvai 
aiTiov $ dfjL^orepwv TI Trdvrcov TO 
d yap ovra TO \LTTOS eXrcei Tr/709 e 

1 rb conj. Sch.; ra Vulg.W. Sch. also adds a/j.vy8d\<av after 


2 i.e. those derived from the Egyptian halanos and bitter 



that 1 which is made from bitter almonds. Once 
more, is it not inconsistent to seek the vehicle which 
has the least odour of its own, such as the oil which 
is pressed raw from ' coarse olives/ and yet at the 
same time to use the above-mentioned 2 oils as 
vehicles ? (for oil of almonds has a pungent smell). 
Possibly the explanation is that it is only by 
being cooked that oil acquires an evil smell. 3 These 
matters then are subject for enquiry. 

They use spices in the making of all perfumes ; 
some to thicken 4 the oil, some in order to impart 
their odour. For in all cases they thicken the oil to 
some extent to make it take the odour better, just as 
they treat wool for dyeing. The less powerful spices 
are used for the thickening, and then at a later 
stage they put in the one whose odour they wish 
to secure. 5 For that which is put in last always 
dominates, even if it is in small quantity ; thus, if a 
pound of myrrh is put into a half-pint of oil, and 
at a later stage a third of an ounce of cinnamon is 
added, this small amount dominates. 

At this one may well wonder ; and also why it is 
that the previous addition of spices, which have an 
odour of their own, renders the oil more receptive : 
for the vehicle should be scentless, but a substance 
over which another substance has thus prevailed, 
cannot be scentless, so that it ought, one would 
think, to have become less receptive. However both 
facts, or rather all of them, may be accounted for in 
the same way : the spices, being solid, attract to 

3 So. ' and these oils are used in the raw state ' (?). I do 
not see how Furlanus' explanation, quoted by Sch., is to be 
found in the text. The following sentence shews that T. 
does not claim to have settled the question. 

4 i.e. to make it less volatile. 5 cf. Plin. 13. 19. 



Kal dvaBe^erai, Bio /cal rrjv crvve^eiav 
fjiavbv Be yevofjievov [fcai] rov \i7rov<? d<f)aipe@vros 
ev & Kal r) oiKeLa adXio-ra 0071,77, BeKriKtbrepov 
eyevero rov 7ri/3aX\,o/j,evov Bid TO /JLTJ dvrio~Ta- 

19 f H Be OLTTO TWV dpwfidTWv oSfirj /cal d 

are et9 TO \irrapov dvrjXco/jLevrj, /cal en /care%erai, 
rovrtp Sia TO rrXr^pwaaL rovs iropovs. Mare Kara 
\6yov /cav eXarrov fj TO 7n,/3a\\6fj,vov liriKparelv 
rrjv rovrov ooy^y et? d<j6eve(rrarov yap e^TTiTrrei 
Kal BeKriKcorepov. dva \6yov 8' e%ei Kal r) TTO\V- 
Xpoviorrjs j] ev eKdcrra) Kal 77 TT/JO? rrjv rcvpwaiv 
evaOeveia Kal rd\\a ra roiavra. TO yap BeKn- 
Kwrarov, olov T?)? {3a\dvov, Kal ^povitorarov, Kal 
Bid rrjv avrrjv alriav udXicrra yap wcnrep ev 
ylverai Kal o-vu<f)ve<; TO /jidXiara Be^ofjievov del 
ydp TO roiovrov Biafj,ov(t>rarov, Bio Kal Trvpov^e- 
vov fjid\io-ra djraOe^. 

20 'Ho-avTft)? Be Kal rwv a\\oyv TO o-rjo-duivov, 
rovro ydp BeKriKcorarov TO Be dfjLvyBdXivovjrap- 
aKfid^ei ra%v Kal o\iyo%povi(t)rarov Bid rrjv evav- 
rlav alriav TO ydp iJKiara Begd/jievov rd%icrra 
fjL0i?)(ri. rov poBuvov Be fjid\icrra BeKriKov TO 

1 I have bracketed Kal. 

>2 ~ 2 This passage is omitted, apparently by accident, in 
both VV.'s texts, though represented in his Latin version. I 



themselves the viscid part of the oil, and so it 
attaches itself to them ; thus the density of the oil 
is destroyed : the oil, thus becoming thinner by the 
removal ! of its viscid part which chiefly contains 
the characteristic odour, becomes more receptive of 
the spice which is added to it, because it does not 
now offer resistance. 

Again that odour which is due to the spices be- 
comes less powerful as it is spent on the viscid part 
of the oil, while at the same time it is preserved by 
this because it has entirely filled up its passages. 
Wherefore it naturally follows that, even if the 
added spice is in small quantity, its odour pre- 
dominates, since it passes into a vehicle which is 
in itself not at all powerful and which is more 
receptive than itself. A corresponding account may 
be given of the keeping quality of the several oils, 
of their power of resisting fire, and other such 
qualities. Thus that oil which is most receptive, 
for instance, that of the Egyptian balanos, will also 
keep longest, and for the same reason ; namely that 
that oil which is most receptive unites, more than 
others, into one single substance, as it were, with the 
spices. Such a substance will always last longer than 
others ; which also explains why, if exposed to fire, it 
is less affected than others. 

Of the other oils the same applies to that of 
sesame, this being specially receptive ; 2 but, for the 
contrary reason, almond-oil soon loses its virtue arid 
keeps for a shorter time than any other, for that oil 
which has been least receptive parts soonest with 
the property received. Sesame-oil however receives 
rose-perfume better than other oils 2 because of its 

have printed it from Sch.'s text. The omission is evidently 
due to the double occurrence of rb v^craijuvov, 



crrj&d/jiivov Bid TIJV \iTrapOTr)Ta' irvpovfievov Be 
e^ofei arjcrd/jiov KaOdirep dvaKvofJievov. al 
ovv TWV eXaicov cfrvcreis KOI Bvvd/uueis roiavrai. 
21 V. Ta B* dpa/mara irdwra o-^eBbv KOI 
7T\r)v TWV dvO&v %rjpd /cal OepfJLa teal 
/cal SrjfCTis/cd. rd Se /cal e^pvrd TWO, TriKporrjra, 
ical ev rot? TrpoTepov ei7ro/j,V, cocnrep 
(Tfivpva Xt/9a^ft)T09, o>? 8' aTrXw? elwecv /cal 
rd /Jivpa. /coivorarai Be rwv Svvd/Jiecov TO re 
orrvTm/cov /cal TO 0ep/j,avTi/c6v, a $rj /cal epyd- 

KVpa<$ OCT/Za? eV 

22 r T7rocrTV<f)OVTai fj,ev ovv iravra Trvpov^eva, ra? 

/cvplas evta \a/jL/3dvet Tfrv%pd /cal 
. /cal eoifcev Wdirep TWV dvOwv ra 

TO. 8e depfJioftafyri 
/cal eVt TWV oa-fjbwv. TCCLVTWV Be TJ 

T6 T7)V VTfQGTV-fylV Kal T? KVpla<$ OCT/Z 

TWV dyyeicov vBaTi yiveTai /cal ov/c 
TW Trvpl %p(i)/2VCi)V' TOVTO Be, OTi /jLa\a/cr)v elvai 
Bel TTJV 6epfioTr]Ta, /cal aTrovaia 7ro\\r) ^kvoiT av 
Tfi (f>\oyl %po)/ji,evQ)v, /cal eTi icavcnv dv o^ot,. 

23 Tioiei B* eXarrft) TVJV drrovaiav oaa irvpovfjbeva 
Xapftdvei T9 icvplas oa/Aa? fj.d\\ov rj oaa -fyw^pd 
Bid TO Trpofyvpdcrdai, ra Trvpovpeva, Ta [lev OIVM 
evcoBei, Ta Be vBaTi' YJTTOV yap dvaTrlvei' Ta Be 
T]rv%pd %ripd OPT a /jLa\\ov, KaBdrrep IpiS KOTrelcra. 



viscid quality ; and, when subjected to fire, it gives 
out a smell of sesame, as though it were being 
disintegrated. Such are the special characters and 
properties of the various oils. 

Of tlit spices used in making perfumes and their treatment. 

V. Almost all spices and sweet scents except 
flowers are dry hot astringent and mordant. Some 
also possess a certain bitterness, as we said above, 
as iris, myrrh, frankincense, and perfumes in general. 
However the most universal qualities are astringency 
and the production of heat ; they actually produce 
these effects. 

All spices are given their astringent quality by 
exposure to fire, but some of them assume their special 
odours even when cold and not exposed to fire ; and 
it also appears that, just as with vegetable dyes some 
are applied hot and some cold, so is it with odours. 
But in all cases the cooking, whether to produce the 
astringent quality or to impart the proper odour, is 
done in vessels standing in water and not in actual 
contact with the fire ; the reason being that the 
heating must be gentle, and there would be con- 
siderable waste if these were in actual contact with 
the flames ; and further the perfume would smell of 

However there is less waste when the perfume 
obtains its proper odour by exposure to fire than 
when it does so in a cold state, since those perfumes 
which are subjected to fire are first steeped either in 
fragrant wine or in water : for then they absorb J less : 
while those which are treated in a cold state, being dry, 
absorb a more, for instance bruised iris-root. Thus, if 
1 avairtvet. So Sch. explains, cf. eKirlvuxriv, 24. 



yap TOV djji(f)opea)<> %r)pd<$ iptBo? 
Krcojj,fj,vr]s /jieBifjivov teal Bvo fjpieKTa 7ro\\rjv 
Troieiv (fiao'lv cLTTOvdlav, eav be /jLerpCcos <pvpdarj 
\eiTreiv o<rov Bvo %o9, rot? Be 7roXXo?9 e\arrov. 
24 Twer at Be TO /BeXriov ipwov av r) typa real 
aTTvpcoros r) Ipw a/cpareo-Tepa yap rj SvvafjLi? 77 
eav (j)vpaBelcra Kal 7rvpov/j,evr). (rv^aLvet, Be 
Kal K0\i/3eo-0ai, fia\\ov etc TWV irpo- 
Sia TO TITTOV ava^e^eaOai Kal 
' Trpocrrv^ovTe^ Se ov TTO\VV %/oo- 
vov ea)(7i TO, apw^Lara aXX* egaipovcrw, OTTW? firj 

25 IT/009 eKaarov Se TWV /jivpcov efjbffdXXovffi rot, 
7rp6o-(f)0pa TMV. dpco/jLarayv, olov t9 pey TTJV KV- 
irpov KapbdjUicopov dairdXaOov dvafyvpaaavres rw 
eva)Sei. et? Be TO poBivov (f^plvov a 
Ka\a/jLOV. r) 8' avafyvpaGis O^JLOLW^. Kal 
aXXot? del ra apjjLOTTOvra. rq> poBivy 8' e/ 
\ovrai Kal a\9 7ro\\ol Kal TOUT' iBiov jrapa 
rd\\a, Bio Kal TrXetcrT?; airovala yiverar fj,i,y- 
vvrai yap els rbv d/j,(j)opea Bvo peBi/jivoi. 

26 T>)9 Be KVTrpov r) fiev epyaaia 7rapa7T\ija-ia rp 

1 Dry measure : the equivalents given are, of course, only 

^ rJ> ySe'Artoj/ tptvov W. after Soh. ; TO fif\Tiov rb Ipivov Vlllg. 
The article must be omitted in one place or the other. 

Kvirpos, called from a tree of that name : not mentioned 
in H.P. cf. Plin. 12. 119. 

4 cf. H.P. 9. 7. 2 and 3. 6 cf. H.P. 9. 7. 3. 



into eight and a half gallons of oil we put thirteen 
gallons 1 of dry and bruised iris-root, they say that much 
loss is caused, while if one does not steep it too 
much, only about eleven pints and a half are wasted : 
and in the case of most perfumes the waste is less. 

However the superior 2 iris-perfume is made by 
using the root dry and not subjecting it to fire : for 
then its virtue asserts itself more completely than 
when it is steeped in a liquid or subjected to fire. 
It also comes to pass that, if the perfumes have been 
first steeped, their virtues are, as it were, squeezed 
out of them to a greater extent, because they take 
in and absorb less : and so, when they are making 
them astringent, they do not leave the spices in the 
oil for long, but take them out, so that they should 
not absorb an excessive amount. 

For making each perfume they put in the suit- 
able spices. Thus to make kypros* they put in 
cardamom 4 and aspalathosf having first steeped 
them in sweet wine. 6 To make rose-perfume they 
put in ginger-grass aspalathos and sweet-flag : and 
these are steeped as in the case of kypros. So too 
into each of the others are put the spices which 
suit them. Into rose-perfume moreover is put a 
quantity of salt 7 : this treatment is peculiar to that 
perfume, and involves a great deal of waste, twenty- 
three gallons 8 of salt being put to eight gallons and 
a half of the perfume. 

The manufacture of kypros resembles that of 

6 T$ fvwSci here evidently means the same as r$ y\vKc7, 44, 
where r<? otvcf T$ fvuSei occurs just above : c/. ^eAt/c^ary Jj 
yXvKet, C.P. 6. 17. 2. 

7 To prevent decay, as Diosc. 2. 53 explains. 

8 Turn, suggests that /le'Si^oi should be p.vat> the initial M 
having been misunderstood by a copyist. 



rou poBivov 7r\r)V aXV edv ris p, 
teal aTToO\i^T[) <r/}^ri? eyyivoaevrj (f)0eipet rd fj,vpa 
Bid rrjv Bv0(i)Biai>' Troiel yap arj^v dvvypai- 
epyao~ta /cal rov arj\ivov 
yap eXaiov /cal ra /J,rj\a eyu-^aX- 
^aipovai 7rd\iv TTpb rov 
Kara Trdaas ra? e'ya/3oXa5' /j,6\aivo- 
/aevcov yap crrj-fris Bta TO avvypaLvea-Oai, icaOdirep 

Kal Girl T7J9 KVTTpOV. 

27 VI. "A-Tra^Ta Be crvvTiOev-rcu TO, pupa ra /j,ev 
anr dvOwv ra Be airo fyvXkwv ra Be arro tcKwvos 
ra 8' ttTro pi&s ra B 1 djro %v\a)v ra 5' drro /cap- 
TTOV ra B* diro Batcpvcov. at/era Be rrdvO^ a>? 
el7rii>. art* dvOwv fjuev olov TO poBivov /cal TO 
\VKolvov. /cal TO VQVGWOV /cal yap rovro e/c 
rSiV Kplvwv en Be TO aKrvaftpivov /cal TO epirv\- 


/9eXTio~T09 B 1 ev Alyivrj /cal KiXi/cia. diro Be rwv 
(f>v\\(ov olov TO re fivppwov Kal TO olvdvQivov 
avri] B* ev KvTrpqy <f>verai opeivrj /cal TroXvoB/juos' 
aTrb Be TT}? ev rf) f R\\dBi ov yiverai Bid rb 

28 'ATTO pi^wv Be TO re ipivov /cal rb vdpBivov /cal 
rb d/jLapdfcivov e/c rov Koarov rovro yap bvo- 

1 cf. Diosc. 1. 68. 

2 I have bracketed KO) as suggested by Sch. 

3 This passage, with some variations, is quoted by Athen. 
15. 39. 4 cf. Plin. 13. 11. 

5 cf. H.P. 6. 6. 11. for the plant, and for the perfume 
Athen. 15. 38. 



rose-perfume, except that, unless one soon takes out 
the flowers and squeezes them out, decay sets in and 
ruins the perfume by giving it a disagreeable smell, 
since they cause decay as they get soaked. Similar 
also is the manufacture of quince-perfume l : the oil 
is first made astringent, and is cold when the quinces 2 
are put into it : then they take them out before they 
turn black, removing each batch before the next is 
put in : for, as they turn black, decay ensues because 
they get soaked through just as in the case of 

Of the various parts of plants used for perfumes, and of the 
composition of various notable perfumes. 

VI. 3 Perfumes are compounded from various parts 
of the plant, flowers leaves twigs root wood fruit 
and gum : and in most cases the perfume is made 
from a mixture of several parts. Rose and gilli- 
flower perfumes are made from the flowers : so also 
is the perfume called su&inon* this too being made 
from flowers, namely, lilies : also the perfumes named 
from bergamot-mint and tufted thyme, kypros, 
and also the saffron-perfume ; the crocus which 
produces this is best in Aegina and Cilicia. Instances 
of those made from the leaves are the perfumes 
called from myrtle and drop-wort 5 : this grows 
in Cyprus on the hills and is very fragrant : that 
which grows in Hellas yields no perfume, being 

6 From roots are made the perfumes named from 
iris spikenard and sweet marjoram, 7 an ingredient in 
which is koston ; for it is the root to which this name 

6 Instances of perfumes made from twigs seem to be 
missing. 7 cf. 30. Text perhaps defective. 



TTJV pL^av. TO Be xpiar/jLa TO 
K TOV Kvireipov. /co/jii^eTat Be CLTTO TWV Kf K\d- 
Bwv TO KVTreipov. diro v\ov Be 6 <f>olvi Ka\ov- 
fjLevos' e^/3d\\ovo~t yap Trjv ovo/^a^o/jie^v cnruOrjv 
%r]pdvavTes. UTTO /capTrwv Be TO re fjujkivov KOI 


7r\eLovwv } K T TOV KivafjLw/jiov teal /c o~/j,vpvr]s Kal 

29 "Eri 5' K irXeiovcw TOVTOV TO /j,yd\6iov KOI 
<yap /c Kiva/j,o)fjt,ov . . . KOI e/c r>?9 o-fJLVpvri<$ KOTTTO- 
fievrjs e\aiov pel- aTa/CTV] yap Ka\elTat Bia TO 


aTT\ovv elvai /ecu devvOeTOV TMV fjivpwv TO, $ 
d\\a TrdvTa, crvv0Ta, 7T\rjv TO, fj,v tc TT\eibvwv 
TCL $ ef eXdTTovwv, ef IXa^io-TCov Be TO 'ipivov. ol 
fiev ovv OVTCO \6yovaiv, ol Be TTJV epyaaiav r^9 
aTa/erfy elvai TOidvBe- Trjv cr^ivpvav OTCLV KO^COO-L 
Kal BtaT^wo-i ev e\aiu> /3a\avivw irvpl /jLaXa/ca) 
vBwp eiri^elv' avvi^dvetv B 1 et? ftvOov Tr)v 
o-fjivpvav Kal Tov\aiov KaOdjrep l\vv oiav Be 
TOVTO GVjAftr), TO fJiev vBwp djDjOelv TIJV 8' VTTO- 

To Be /j,eya\eiov e/c prirlvr)*} /cc/cav/newi? GVV- 
TiOeaOai /cal e\alov (BaXavivov ^i^vuaQai Be 
tcacriav tavd^jjiov cr/jivpvav. Tr\eia-Tr)v Be Trpay- 
l TO /jLya\iov /cal TO AlyviTTiov elvai, 

1 c/. H.P. 9. 7. 3; C.P. 6. 11. 13. 

2 c/. H.P. 2. 8. 4. aita.Qi)v appears to be a conj. of W. for 
Vlllg. TrAaTTji/ : e\a.TT}V Turn. C/. LS. S.r. 

3 Said to l)e called after the inventor, one Megallos : c/. 
Plin. 13. 13. 



,1s applied. The Eretrian unguent is made from 
the root of kypeiron, 1 which is obtained from the 
Cyclades as well as from Euboea. From wood is 
made what is called ' palm-perfume ' : for they put 
in what is called the ' spathe/ 2 having first dried 
it. From fruits are made the quince-perfume, the 
myrtle, and the bay. The ( Egyptian ' is made 
from several ingredients, including cinnamon and 

Again from several parts of the plant is made the 
perfume called niegaleion? which is made from 
cinnamon and . . . . 4 and from the myrrh when 
it is bruised flows an oil : it is in fact called 
stakte 5 (in drops) because it comes in drops slowly. 
Some indeed say that this is the only simple un- 
compounded perfume, and that all the others are 
compound, though made from a larger or smaller 
number of ingredients, and that iris-perfume is 
made from the smallest number of all. Some 
assert this, but others declare that the manufacture 
of stakte (myrrh-oil) is as follows : having bruised the 
myrrh and dissolved it in oil of balanos over a gentle 
fire, they pour hot water 011 it : and the myrrh and 
oil sink to the bottom like a deposit ; and, as soon 
as this has occurred, they strain off the water and 
squeeze the sediment in a press. 

Megaleio?i, these authorities say, is compounded of 
burnt resin 6 and oil of balanos, with which are mixed 
cassia cinnamon and myrrh. They add that this 
perfume and the Egyptian are the most troublesome 

4 The end of the account of megaJeion and the beginning of 
that of myrrh-perfume seem to be missing. ? Supply ot 
Kaffias ital cr/uvpi'Tjy. 

5 cf. H.P. 9. 4. 10. 6 cf. Plin. 13. 7. 




1r\l(TT<Ol> yap fJLl^LV Kttl 7TO\VT\O'rdTCi)V. f ft) Be. 

/jLe<ya\ei(p Kal TO eXaiov eifreaOai Se%' r)^epa<; KOI 
BeKa vvKTas, elra OVTOOS rrjv prjrivrjv e/uy&iXXe<7#ac 
teal raXXa* Se/cTiKwrepov jap d(j)e^lr7]dev. TO 8' 
ajj,apdfcivov TO XprjaTov etc TWV /3e\TicrTa)v apco- 
crvvTiOeeOaL %ft>/3t9 d/J,apd/cov TOVTM 8* ov 

JJLOVW T&V dpw^eiTwv TOU? 
t9 ev /jivpov, d\\a 't/reuSaW/to? Ti? 
31 HOIOVGI Se real TO, /J,ev a^pdd^dncrTa TCL Se 

poSivov /jLeyaXelov , 


pep AlyvTTTiov Kal Trjv KVTTpov \v/cd elvai /3ov- 
\OVTCU, TO) 8e /jL7]\iv( 

8' eVT\6(7LV OV \VCTLT6\el TO 

^pwfjLaTi^ovcri, Be ra /JLEV epvOpd TTJ dj^ova-y, TO & 
dfjiapaKivov TW Ka\ovfMevw ^pa/maTr TOVTO 8' 

o ayovcnv IK T7/9 ^vpias. 

VII. ^vvepyelv Be BOKOVCTI, Trpbs ra9 yevcreis 
al oB/jial /Jiovov d\\d /cal at Bpi/jLVTijTe? /cal 
at OepfJLOT'YjTes evlwv, Bib Kal TWV olvwv Ttal TCL 

juyvvvTC? axrTrep KevTpov 
Be ?] /j,ev fffjivpvri 0p/JLr) Kal 



to make, since no others involve the mixture of so 
many and such costly ingredients. To make megaleion, 
they say, the oil is boiled for ten days and nights, 
and not till then do they put in the resin and the 
other things, since the oil is more receptive when it 
has been thoroughly boiled. The superior kind of 
sweet marjoram-perfume, 1 they say, is made of all 
the best spices except sweet marjoram : in fact this 
is the only spice which perfumers do not use for any 
perfume, and the name is a misnomer. 

Some perfumes are made up colourless, some are 
given a colour. They give a colour to s\veet mar- 
joram-perfume, rose-perfume, and megaleion, while 
among expensive kinds the Egyptian, quince-perfume 
and kypros are colourless, as well as all the cheaper 
kinds. The reason why these are made without 
colour is that it is desired that the Egyptian and 
kypros should look white and that quince-perfume 
should have the colour of quinces, while it is not 
worth while to add colour to the cheaper sorts. 
The dye used for colouring red perfumes is alkanet ; 
the sweet marjoram-perfume is dyed with the sub- 
stance called khroma (dye), which is a root imported 
from Syria. 

Of the properties of various spices. 

VII. It is thought that riot only the smells of 
perfumes contribute to a pleasant taste, but also the 
qualities of pungency and heat which are found in 
some of them : accordingly some of these perfumes 
are also mixed with certain wines to give, as it were, 
' point' to them. Thus myrrh is hot and has a 
biting quality as well as being astringent, and it also 

1 Clearly distinct from that mentioned in 28. 


A A '2 


<TTi/v|reo>9, e%et Be /cal TTi/cpiav. rb Be 

Tiva perpiav fjuera OepfMOTijTO^. Trapa- 
6ep^oT7]TL /cal BpifjiVTijTi /cal arv^rei. 
Be /cal arvTrriKr} /cal r) ipis, tcaO^ VTrepf3o\r)v 
Be /cal Tri/cpa vea ovaa /cal TOV %pwra T&V 
ojuievcov d<j)6\/col. BrjKTtfcbv Be /cal TO 
fjiov fiera OepfjLorrjro^. TOV Be (3a\ad[jiov o 
OTTO? /cal TO KapTTiov dvBpi/ccoTepa TT/JO? d/j,(f)6Tepa 
TavTa, TO Be %v\ov daOeveaTepov. 7rapa7r\r)aiav 
8' e%et TOVTM Bvvafjiiv /cal TO ajmcD^ov. 

33 'O Be o")(plvo < s Brj/CTi/co!)Tpov fiev TOV /ca\dfiov 
/cal OepfjiOTepov, aTVTTTiKa Be O/JLOLO)^ dfjL(f)w. 


Be /cal r) da-Trd\a6os rj evcoBrjs. rj Be 
Sr}KTi/cr) fjLeTa 6pfj-6Tr)TO<i. TO Be fjbdpov /cal TO 
TO et9 TO dfjiapaKivov e^fjuyvvfjuevov 6ep- 
[crvvepyel Be /cal T^? dy%ovcr7]s TO 
oav T v poBivov /cal TTJS ipiBos.] 

34 Nea fjiev ovv bvTa TWV apcofjiaTcov evia b 
fj.ev evOvs e^ei, ftapeias real Bpipeias, 

Be pexpi, T^? d/cfjbijs <y\VKaiveTai, etT 5 dva\veTai 
7rd\iv. olov i] ipi? et9 ^ev TTJV epyacriav d/c/j,dei 
yLteTa Trjv <ru\\o<yrjp Tpia eT?), /cal Siafjuevei Be 
7r\el(7TOV "fcpovov eg CTTJ. TO Be /jidpov err) Bvo. 
rj Be (Tfjivpva Be/ca errj Bia/j,evei (3e\Tiwv <yevojjievr). 

TOV Kiva/jico/Aov Kai TOV KOO~TOV /cat T/9 
0-^0^09 Be /cal /cd\a/jios Trapa/c/md^ei, 
B 1 dvd&v TCL mev ev6v<$ Xo)?a 6Wa 

1 c/. Plin 21. 42. 2 c/. Index, vxolvos (2). 

3 c/. Index, /caAayttos o tvwdrjs, 



has a bitter quality. Cinnamon again lias a fair 
amount of pungency as well as heat. So too is it 
with koston. Cassia exceeds both of these in heat 
pungency and astringency. Iris-perfume is hot and 
astringent, and excessively bitter when it is fresh, 
1 in which state it causes sores on the skin of those 
that work on it. Cardamom has also a biting quality 
as well as heat. The juice and the fruit of balsam 
of Mecca are more active in producing both these 
qualities, while the wood is less so. Nepaul cardamom 
has also a property similar to this. 

Ginger-grass 2 has a more biting quality than 
sweet-flag,, 3 and is hotter; but both are equally 
astringent. Kypeiron is however more astringent 
than either. The sweet-scented aspalathos also has 
this quality. Spikenard has a biting quality as well 
as heat. Maron and the khroma which is mixed with 
sweet marjoram-perfume are heating. 4 The root of 
alkanet also contributes to the colour of rose-perfume 
and iris-perfume. 

Now some spices when they are fresh have at first 
heavy and pungent qualities, but in course of time 
become sweet till they have reached their prime, 
and then lose their properties again. Thus the iris 
is at its prime for manufacturing the perfume for 
three years after it was gathered, and 5 lasts for six 
years at longest. 5 Maron lasts two years ; myrrh ten, 
and improves with time. Cinnamon koston and 
cassia keep at their best for about the same periods 
as these. Ginger-grass and sweet-flag soon get past 
their prime. Of flowers some, like the rose, possess 

4 This sentence seems irrelevant here. 

5 ~ 5 KO). errj. These words are omitted, apparently by 
accident, in both W.'s editions, though represented in his 
Latin translation. 



T&9 Bvvdjj,i<; e%i, KaOdirep TO poBov, ra Be rjpav- 
OevTa, /caOaTrep 6 tcpo/cos fcal 6 fM\t,\c0To<$' 
yap vypoTepa. 

35 T9 fjiev ovv (f)V(Tis Kal Bvvdfieis TWV d 
etc TOVTWV 6ewpr)Teov. 

VIII. Ao/cet Be TO /jLe<yd\eiov a<f)\e<y pavrov 


7T/909 ra WTO,. TavTa & OVK d\6y(D<?. TOV /J,ev 
yap rj avvOevis etc ptfrivifj^ Kefcav/jLevTjs, wa-Trep 
\%0i), /col icacrias KOI Kiva[J,(*>fJ,ov KOI o-/jLvpvrj<?, 
airavTa Se raOra GTVITTIKCL KOI ^pavTiicd. TO 
Be poBivov rot? ODO-LV dyaOov OTI ev a\arlv 17 
Troirjcrw dvafcrjpaivei yap KOL eicOepiJialvei Bia 
TOU9 aXa?* Bib /cal rj dXoo-d^vij dyaOov. d\\a 
TO TT}? OTTpayyovpias \6yov BelTar /cal yap TavTy 
\eyov<ri fJLa\i(7Ta fiorjOeiv. aiTiov 8' av eltrj BIOTI 
Trav TO VTre^dyeiv yueXXov dva\vcrai Bel irpoTepov 
TO v7rea / %07]O'6/iievov TOVTO Be ol a\69 
J] B* evwBia Trjv op/jirjv aTreBfo/ce. 

36 Ata TI Be TO Ipivov evo(T/j,ov fiev ov iroiel Be 
opjjiijv; r) BIOTI O-TVTTTLKOV /cal avvdyei roi;9 
7ro/30f9, wcrre crvy/cXeicrei /ca)\veiv TTJV BioBov; 
d\\a /cal /coiXias \VTixr] Bid re Trjv 9epp,OTr]Ta 
KOI Bid TO aTrodTix^eLV rou9 eirl TTJV KIXJTLV 
irbpovs' d7ro/c\io/jLeva)v yap TOVTWV 6i9 Tr)V 
Koi\iav r) avpporj. TO Be o\ov </>a/}yLta/ccoSe9 fcal 

J .c/. C. P. G. 14. Sand 11, 


their virtues from the first while they are still fresh, 
some only after they are dried, as crocus and meUlotos^- 
these having a certain amount of moisture while they 
are fresh. 

These examples may suffice for study of the 
characters and properties of spices. 

Of the medicinal properties of certain perfumes. 

VIII. Megaleion is believed to relieve the in- 
flammation caused by any wound, and rose-perfume 
to be excellent for the ears. And this is probable 
enough. For the former is composed, as was said, 
of burnt resin cassia cinnamon and myrrh, and all 
these have astringent and drying properties : 
while the reason why rose-perfume is good for the 
ears is that salt is used in the manufacture of it : for 
it is by reason of the salt that it dries and warms 
(which is why ' sea-foam 2 ' is also good for the ears). 
Its use against strangury however needs explanation : 
for it is said to be specially helpful against this. 
The explanation may be that anything which is to 
remove the difficulty must first dissolve that which 
is to be removed ; and this is the effect of the salt, 
while the fragrance supplies the necessary stimulus. 

Why however, it may be asked, though iris- 
perfume is fragrant, does it not give the stimulus ? 
Perhaps it is because it is astringent and closes the 
passages, so that by shutting them it prevents free 
course. On the other hand this perfume acts as a 
laxative on the bowels because of its heating 
quality and because it astringes the passages leading 
to the bladder : for, when these are closed, the 
liquid collects in the bowels. In general iris- 
? Said to be a zoophyte : cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 14. 2. 



TO ipivov fcal dX\a rwv /uvpcov. r) o alria 7rdvro)v 
0)9 /ca06\ov elrrelv ev rat? Bvvdueo-i rat? elpr]- 
, OTI crrvTrriKa Kal OepaavrtKa' ra dpa)- 
jap ra Toiavra (frap/jLaKGoSr). ravra fjuev 

ovv eo) T?9 
37 IX. K?acrt9 Be Kal t?t9 OVK 

TWV apWfJLaTdav, COCTT K Twv avT&v cuel 
/cal 6/JiOLa ryiveaOai, d\\oia Se a 
dvcojJLa\iav TOW Swdpewv rwv ev row 
al'fitU 7rXetou9. 
apTrois, r) rov ero 

avrr) yap iroKv^ovarepa^ ore 8' 
ra9 Bwdiiei? <iroiel>. erepa Be ev rfj crv\\oyf), 
TO Trporepfjarai, T7/9 aKfJirj^ rj vcTTeprfaai,' Kal yap 
rovro ov fALKpbv Siaffcepei. rpirrj ^' 77 fiera TJJV 
(7V\\oyr)v, oaa %povov SeiTat, 7T/?09 Trjv aK^i]v, 
wcnrep e\e%0r)' Kal yap evravOd ecm TO Trpore- 
pelv Kal varepeiv. 

To vrw v Be TO jjuev rwv erwv OVK ecjS rjfilv, 7r\rjv 
et9 TO elBevai ra irola crtfioBpoTepas Kal dcrOeve- 

rd Be Kara 

rj<> re o"voyr)s Ka p,era rrjv 
rj/jiLV ecrri, TO) elSori f^d\\ov TO e 

f H /nev ovv yeveais Kal crvvOeais r&v /jivpcov K 


perfume, as well as others, has medicinal properties. 
And the explanation in all cases, to put it generally, 
lies in the above-mentioned properties of astringency 
and heating; for it is spices possessing these pro- 
perties that are medicinal. However these matters 
lie outside our subject of study. 

Of rules for the mixture of spices, and of the storing of various 

IX. There is no fixed rule for the combination 
and mixture of spices in the sense that the same 
components will always produce a satisfactory and a 
uniform result : the result varies by reason of the 
varying quality of the virtues found in the spices. 
For this there are several reasons. One, which 
applies also to fruits, is the character of the season ; 
this causes the virtues to be sometimes much more 
than ordinarily powerful, sometimes less so. Another 
is to be found in the time of collection, according 
as it is made before or after the spices are in their 
prime. A third cause operates after the collection, 
that is, in the case of those spices which need time 
to come to their prime, as was said l : for here too 
it is possible to be too soon or too late. 

Of these causes that which depends on the seasons 
is not within our control, except so far as we can 
discover which spices in a particular season have 
powerful, and which weak virtues. 2 But we can 
control those which depend on collecting them 
when in their prime, or on keeping them after they 
are collected, that is, if we know pretty well how to 
hit the right moment. 

So much for the origin and composition of 

1 34. 2 i.e. and we can select accordingly. 



Tlo\w)(povia)TaTov 8' e<rTt TO r' AlyvTTTiov KOI 
TO "pivov KOI TO ap,apdtcivov teal TO vdpBivov, 
TfdvTtov be /JidXidTa r) crra/err;, Biapevei yap 
QTTOCTOVOVV %pbvov. yu-upOTTcoX??? Be Tt? efyr) Trap 1 
avTw /jLe/jLevrjKevai AlyvTTTiov fj,ev OKTO> eTrj, ipivov 
$k ei/coai, KCtl 6Ti &ia/j,veiv @e\Tiov bv TWV cucfjia^- 
6vra)V. r) jjiev ovv ^poviOT^ ev rourot?. 
39 Ta S' avOiva TCCLVTCL aaBevr]. crvjjiftaivet, Be 
rot? avQivois aKfid^eiv [lev &>? eVt TO nrav /JbTa 
Bifjirjvov, fjiTa/3d\\eiv 8* eVt TO ^elpov eviavTOV 
nrpoe\,9bvTO<s real TrepiicaTa\af3ovcr'r]s T% w/oa? 
eV r) Tr/v d/cfjurjv \afjbj3dvei TO avOos. dva \6yov 
Be Trj dcrOeveiq Kal TO evTreTravTO, elvai KOI 

TO, 8' 6/c TWV pi%a>v KOI TWV 
7r\LO)v yap rj OCT/JLTJ Kal lo"^vpoTepa 

40 &ia(f)0eipi, Be TO. jjivpa Kal &pa Oep/j,r) 
TOTTO? Kal 6 ^Xt09, civ TcOcocri,' Bio Kal ol 

Ta? ol/aa? virepcpovs Kal fir) 
OTL fjL,d\iaTa ira\icTKiov^' afyai- 
yap Ta? o<r//.a? o rjX/o? Kal TO Oep^ov Kal 

L<m)<Tl T^}? <^)VO-ft)? /JL(i\\OV TOV 

TO Be tyw^pov Kal 6 irdyos, el Kal 

Troiel Bia TO o-vo-TeXXeiv, aXX' OVK 

ye TTJV Bvva/jiiv TeXea)?. r) Trovrjpa yap 

KaOdjrep TWV oivcav Kal TWV a\\cov )(v\ow, TO> 

41 TO otKeiov dfyaipelvOai Oepfiov. Bib KOI et? dyyeia 
fjLO\v]3Ba ey%ovcri KOI TOI>? d\a^daTpov^ ^TJTOVCTI 
TOIOVTOV \iOov *fyw%pbv yap Kal TTVKVOV Kal Q 



Those which last longest are the Egyptian, the 
iris, the sweet marjoram and the spikenard perfumes : 
but myrrh-oil has the longest life of any ; for it will 
keep any time. A certain perfumer said that he 
had had Egyptian perfume in his shop for eight 
years, and iris-perfume for twenty, and that it was 
still in good case, in fact better than fresh perfume. 
These are instances of perfumes which will keep a 
long time. 

On the other hand all those made from flowers 
have little vigour. These are usually at their best 
after two months, but they deteriorate when a year 
has past and the season has come round again at 
which the flowers are at their best. Also, as these 
perfumes lack vigour, so also do they quickly mellow, 
and, in most cases, quickly evaporate. Those made 
from roots and the other parts of the plant last 
longer, their odour being fuller stronger and more 

Perfumes are ruined by a hot season or place or 
by being put in the sun. This is why perfumers 
seek upper rooms which do not face the sun but are 
shaded as much as possible. For the sun or a hot 
place deprives the perfumes of their odour, and in 
general makes them lose their character more than 
cold treatment : while cold and frost, even if they 
make them less odorous by congealing them, yet da 
not altogether deprive them of their virtue. For 
the most destructive thing that can happen to them, 
as to wines and other savours, is that they should be 
deprived of their proper heat. This is why men put 
them into vessels of lead and try to secure phials of 
alabaster a stone which has the required effect : 
for lead is cold and of close texture, and stone has 



yLtoXf/98o<? /cal 6 \iOos 6 TotovTov teal apiaros 

Kal TW 'tyv'XpW Kal TW 7TVKVW, 

%w Trjv oaarjV arfP 6'X&)? 

fcal yap f) avairvor) (f)0eipei /cal TO 
Kal a\\orpiov eVel Kal ra 
(f)0ipi Kal KaTava\i(TKi, 
oo" //-?, aXXct)? re Kal ra? JJLT] 

42 X. Kecf)a\a\>y7) &e TWV p.ev r Tro\v r re\wv TO 
a/JLapaKivov Kal TO vdp^wov Kal fjteyaXelov, TWV 
& evTe\wv oXco? jjilv TCL TrXetcrra /ud\iaTa Be TO 
Sd^vivov. \a^>poTaTa &e TO poSivov Kal rj 
KVTrpos, a Kal rot? av$pd(ri p,d\t<TTa apfjiOTTeiv 
SoKei, Kal ?r/)09 rovrot? TO Kpivov Tat9 Be <yvvai%lv 
r] crTaKTr) Kai TO jLL<ya\eiov Kal TO KlyviTTiov Kal 
TO ajjiapaKivov Kal TO vdpoivov Sia yap TIJV 

Kal TO Tra^o? OVK evairoTTVoa ouS' evacj)- 
' ^TITOVGL < r yap> TOL %povia. 

43 'E?ret Be TCL aev daOevr) TCL 8' lo-^vpd, Kal 
la^ypoTepa TCL CLTTO TWV pi^wv Kal TO, aXXa TCL 
Trpoeiprj/Jieva, Bia TOVTO TCL aev avOiva /j,rj Tpi- 
ftoLieva evoo-fjiOTepa, TCL B' CITTO TWV pi^wv Kal 
Ta \oLira Tpt/36/jiva' TCL jjiev yap BiaTrveiTai 
T6 Kal aua BcaQepuaivo/jLeva Bia TTJV 

Kal a\\OLOVTai, Ta Be Bia TTJV l 

1 e.g. alabaster, wliich here at least is spoken of as a kind 
of stone. 2 yap ins. Sch. 

3 6 4 


the same character, that being the best for keeping 
perfumes which has it in the highest degree. 1 So 
that vessels made of these materials keep the 
perfume well for both reasons, their coolness and 
their closeness of texture : they neither let the 
odour pass away through them, nor do they take 
in anything else. For evaporation destroys the 
perfume, and so also does any foreign substance 
which finds its way in : for even draughts of air 
destroy odours and cause them to waste, as was 
said, especially those odours which do not belong 
to a thing's essential nature. 

Of the properties of certain perfumes. 

X. Headache is caused by sweet marjoram spike- 
nard and megaleion among costly perfumes : most of 
the cheap ones have also this effect, notably that 
made from bay. The lightest are rose-perfume and 
kypros, which seem to be the best suited to men, 
as also is lily-perfume. The best for women are 
myrrh-oil, megaleion, the Egyptian, sweet marjoram, 
and spikenard : for these owing to their strength 
and substantial character do not easily evaporate 
and are not easily made to disperse, and 2 a lasting 
perfume is what women require. 

Inasmuch however as some perfumes are stronger 
than others, the stronger being those made from 
roots and the others already mentioned, for this 
reason those derived from flowers are more fragrant 
if they are not bruised, while bruising improves 
those made from roots and the others. For the 
former kind evaporate and pass off as they are 
warmed by the bruising, thus losing their character, 
while the latter owing to their strength have, as it 



avoiyo/jievcov nvwv Tropcov e/c T?79 
44 efji^avecrrepav iroiel rrjv CHT/JUJV. o KOI eV avr&v 
pi^wv /cal oA,o)9 rwv (rrepewv 
jrep \%0r). Kara, Be T&V dvOwv I 
wcrre r}rco\ovdr)Kv e/cdrepa rfj dp%fj. TCL 5' e/c 

' yap 


KOi <T)> ep/JiOTr)? T) 

OVK a\\OTpla, fjLokaKr) rt? ovaa' /cat yap <r)> 
o-fjLVpva ^rjrel TWO, Trvpwaw. avrXw? Se TTOLV TO 
7ro\voS/jiov avr evw&es avre /ca/cwSe? avre Spirit 
avr of v avr OTTOLOVOVV Tvy%dvrj, KivovfJLevov fJL- 
^avearepov Tore yap wGTrep evepyeia avapiyvvrai 
/jid\\ov TO) depi. 

Twz/ e /Jbvpwv TO AiyvTTTiov /cal rj ffTa/crrj /cal 
ei TI d\\o 7ro\voS/j,ov [/cal] fJuyvv/JLtva r& oivw rut 
evaiSei, rjBiO)' TrapaipeiTai yap rj jSapvrrjs avT&v 
7Tt KOI TI crjjLvpvr) avrr) TT/OO? rrjv dvadvjjiiao'iv 
/3p%0eicra ev rw y\v/ct, KaOdirep ev T0t9 TTporepov 

45 y909 6 T 

aroTTOv elvat TO avjjiftalvov eVl TOV poSivow KOV- 
(f)6rarov yap &v /cal d&OeveaTarov d^avi&i Ta9 
TWV aXkwv ocr/ia9 orav Trpo/jLvpio-flwo-i" Sib /cal 
ol fjivpoTTtoXai TOU9 7Ti8i,(rTdovTa<; /cal fJLrj ODVOV- 
yu.ei/oi'9 Trap 1 avrwv 7TlfjLVpiov(7l TOVTW 7rpb<; TO 
fir] alaOdveaOai Ta Trapd T&V aXXcov. aiTiov 
8' 6Vi XeTTTOTaTOzv ov /cal TrpocrfyiXes rfj aladrjaei 
Sia Trjv KovcfrorrjTa f^dXiara Su/cvelrai, /cal <7V/j,- 

1 ri ins. W. 2 rj ins. W. 

3 The words &vrc $pi/j.b are omitted in both W.'s editions, 
but represented in his Latin version. 



were, certain passages opened by the bruising, and 
so their fragrance is made more obvious. This, as 
was said, also takes place in the case of the roots 
themselves and of the solid things in general ; but 
the result in the case of flowers is just tJie opposite, 
so that both kinds behave according to their origin. 
That this should apply to the perfumes made from 
myrrh is quite natural for both reasons ; they mingle 
more than others with the air, and the heat 1 due to 
the bruising is not prejudicial, since it is gentle, and 
myrrh 2 in fact requires a certain amount of heating. 
And in general any strong odour, whether it be 
pleasing or the reverse, whether it be pungent 3 or 
sharp, or whatever its character, becomes more 
pronounced with movement ; for then it becomes, 
as it were, active and mingles more with the air. 

The Egyptian perfume, myrrh-oil, and any others 
that have a strong odour become 4 sweeter if they 
are mixed with fragrant wine ; for then their heavy 
quality is removed. In fact myrrh itself is made to 
exhale a more fragrant odour by being steeped in 
sweet wine, as was said 5 in a former treatise. 

If one has regard to the virtues of the perfumes 
in question, one may well be surprised at what 
happens in the case of rose-perfume : though it 
is lighter and less powerful than any other, if one 
has first been scented w r ith it, it destroys the odour 
of the others. And this is why perfumers, if a 
purchaser hesitates and is not inclined to buy this 
perfume, scent him with it so that he is not 
able to smell the others. The explanation is that, 
being very delicate and acceptable to the sense of 
smell, by reason of its lightness it penetrates as no 
4 I have bracketed xal s C.P. 6. 17. 2. 



46 fjLevr) real rr\r)pr)<$ ovcra Kpiveiv dBvvarel. Bvo 
yap elai rporroi, rd%a Be rpels, ol KwXvovres rrjv 
Kpiaiv. 69 fJiev o vvv elprj/j,evos' aXXo? 8' o CLTTO 
TWV la^vpMV waTrep fiedvorKwv rrjv ala-QrjGiv KOI 
KaprjjBapav TTOLWV rpiros 8' orav TrpoKaTaXij^Of) 
T& /3e\Tiovi,' TO yap eTreiadyeiv TO ^elpov ov 
paSiov ov $e%TCU yap rj aicrOrfa-i^, axnrep ov& 
7rl TWV %v\(ov KOI 0X0)9 T&V Kara rrjv rpocfrrjv. 

47 Kanaxvaiveiv Be So/eel TO pobov /cal rrjv vvv- 

6a/jLijv orav yap aK/Jid^rj TO civOos, poSiovo~i 
rvvOeGeis, dvoiyo/jievai, ' e^o^ovo-t rovrov 
KOI /jidXio-ra. Traverai Be ra%v /cal \rjyei 
Bia rr]V aaOeveiav /cal \e7rr6rr]Ta, Bi rjv /cal e^o- 
a\\a)V \7rrrj yap ovcra 77 avairvor) /cal 
rfj /caTaK\ei<T6i irporepel re rwv \ot- 
/cal BiaBiBoTai 7ravra%ov. Bt,a ravro Be 
TOVTO /cal a7ro\ijyei, ra%v /cal /caraKparelrai 
TiaKiv dcr6evel yap TO \TTTOV /cal /jLa\a/cov. 

48 Hoiovcn Be rives rovro /cal rwv olvwv, ware 
rrporroOevres dfyavi^eiv rrjv rwv d\\wv rjBovrjv. 
evioi, 8' cocrT6 yu-?; 7n,Be%o-@at, paBico? rovs a\\ovs, 

1 cf. 57, 58. avvQfros 60-^ or avvQeais seems to mean a 
kind of pot-pourri, which was from time to time renewed 
with fresh rose-petals. Sch. understands avv6e<ns to mean 
'clothes in a wardrobe' (cf. Lat. synthesis), but it must 
surely have the same meaning here as avvQe-ros oo>u) : Sch.'s 
citation from 57 does not seem to prove his point, and 
/jLfvovffi TTO\VV xpovov ot <rvv6fafi$ in 58 is conclusive against 
him. cf. also 69. 



other can and fills up the passages of the sense, so 
that being entirely taken up and filled with it, it is 
unable to judge of others. For the power of judging 
is inhibited in two, or possibly in three ways ; one is 
that which has just been mentioned ; another is that 
the sense of smell is, as it were, intoxicated with its 
powerful virtues and becomes stupefied : the third 
is that the sense may be preoccupied with the 
superior odour ; for then it is not easy to introduce 
after it what is inferior, since the sense of smell 
refuses this just as the sense of taste in like case 
refuses flavours and foods in general. 

It is also thought that the rose even weakens the 
effect of compound perfume l ; for, when the flower is 
at its best, they treat compound perfumes with it ; 
and, when these come to be opened, they smell only 
or chiefly of rose. However this effect is only 
temporary and transient because of the weakness 
and delicacy of the rose-scent, (the very quality 
which also causes it to assert 2 itself over the scent of 
the other ingredients). For, as it is so delicate and 
is compressed by confinement, it is exhaled before 
the others and disperses in all directions. It is also 
for this reason that the rose-scent only asserts itself 
for a short time and then is overpowered again ; for 
anything that is delicate and subtle must be lacking 
in vigour. 

Certain wines have also a similar effect : if they 
are first drunk, there is no satisfaction in others. 
Some again make it even difficult to take others 

2 i.e. when the pot-pourri is first opened: the 'delicacy' 


3 6 9 

of the rose-scent causes it to be given off quickly and so (1) 
to be the first scent perceived, (2) to be volatile. 
this passage is used with gen. in two distinct senses. 



wcnrep o ^^LpvOpatas oKvicos Tfc? cov teal 
TTJV alilav <Be> ireipareov IK T&V ofAoiwv \a/ji- 
ftdvew e^efc Se TOUT* iSiov TO poBivov, waTrep 
<T%eBov /cal /jLL/cpy Trporepov eiprjraf ra fJLev yap 
d\\a irdvr rj ra TrXetcrTa K<pa\a\yrj t rovro Be, 
axTTrep eKe^Or), \VTIKOV KOI jSdpovs teal d\j7jB6vo<i 
fcal T?)? tt7ro rwv /Jivpcov. 

49 f H 8' alria (fravepa Sea TWV Trpoeiprj/jieifwv, einrep 
e-jn/cparei KOI SiaSverai, Travra^ov. ra JJLGV yap 

oVa K(f)a\a\yr] ffapea Sia TO e/c TOIOVTWV 
ai ra fiev pi^wv ra S' OTTWV rovro Be /cal 
ry oo-fjif} e\a<f>pbv /cal rf) Oep/jborijTi o-v/JLfjLerpov et9 
TO crufjL7r"^rai teal Siavoi^ai TOU9 Tropovs. ol yap 
Sr} TTOVOL TT}? /C(f>a\f)S r) /caOvypawofjbevr)? rj irvev- 
fjLarovfj,evr]<; rw evairoKafJi^dvecrOai, warre TO fiev 
eKKplvai Bel TO $6 ire^rai, rj a<f)\eiv. 

50 11/909 ajravra Be 77 Qep/jborr)? ^ptja-i/jiov, /cal 649 
a(f)aipecriv /cal eTi fj,a\\ov 6/9 TO Trerreiv /cal Btav- 
olyew TOU9 ?royOou9, et'9 <TV/jL/3dXXeTa(, TO ev rw 
d\l TreTTOirjcrdai' /cal yap dvacrro/jiova'i /cal Bia- 
OepfjLalvova-iv ol a\es. r) B' evoajnia fcal opprjv 
Tiva iroLel 7T/?09 T7]V KivrfCTiv. dyaOov Be /cal 
Bo/cei 7T/009 Tot/9 KOTTOV? elvai rfj dep/jLorrjri CTV/JL- 
fjierpov bv /cal rf) Kov<porr)rt /cal TTJ BiaBvaei 737309 
Toi>9 eVT09 Tropovs" o>9 Be rives (f>a(Tiv, ov% rjrrov 
rj KVTrpos en TOVTOV fJba\afcr) yap rj oa^r) /cal 

1 c/. 52. 2 fc ingj W> 

3 i.e. the case is so far analogous to that of rose-perfume j 
but the comparison does not hold as to what follows. 



after them ; this is the effect for instance of wine 
of Erythrae, 1 which has a taste of brine and is 
subtle. The 2 explanation one must endeavour to 
find by comparing analogous cases. 3 However there 
is one peculiarity which as we have already more or 
less indicated, is possessed by rose-perfume only ; while 
all or most of the others are heady, this, as was said, 
gives actual relief from heaviness and discomfort, 
even from that caused by other perfumes. 

The reason for this is plain in view of what has 
been already said, seeing that this perfume over- 
powers others and penetrates everywhere. For the 
others that are heady are heavy because they are 
made of heavy substances, whether roots or juices ; 
while this perfume is both light as to its scent and 
also by its heat well adapted to bring the passages 
to a suitable temperature and to open them. For 
pains in the head are due to an excess of moisture in 
it, or of air which gets confined in it, so that it is 
necessary to get rid of the one, and to raise the 
temperature of the other or to remove it. 

And for all such purposes heat is useful, both for 
removing the moisture or air, and, still more, for 
raising the temperature of the passages and opening 
them : and to these ends it is helpful that the 
perfume should have been prepared with salt, since 
the effect of salt is to open the passages and to 
warm them thoroughly. Again the fragrance also 
supplies a stimulus to movement. This perfume is 
also considered to be good against lassitude, because 
its heat and its lightness make it suitable, and also 
because it penetrates to the inner passages. Some 
however say that kypros is quite as efficacious : for 
this too has a delicate scent which is grateful to the 


B B 2 


7rpO(T(f)i,\r)S TO) %/?ft)Tt /cal 77 raur?;?. /cal ravra 
JJLGV /cal TO, o/moia TOVTOLS wairep tBia av ely. 

51 XI. ToO poBivov Be at /uet9 /cal ev rat? ocr/zat? 
fcal ev ro?9 ^Vyiiofc, eaz> rfp/AOG/jLevai, Twy^avwaiv, 

l Tiva %peiav, at /JLCV afyaipovaai rrjv /3apv- 
ical T^V la^vv, at 8' evoS/*iav riva at Be 
<y\v/cvTr)Ta ejjLTroiovvai, KaOdirep /cal eVl rwv 
owwv. /cal yap 6 ev dcra) 6 ev TO) Trpvraveiw 
OavjjLaaTO^ Tt? w? eoi/ce rrjv rjBovrfv, 
ecrrtv efJipaXKovGi yap eh TO /cepd- 
<rrat9 yLteXtrt (frvpdaavTes, were rrjv fj^ev 
oorfjur)V d?r' avrov, TTJV Be fy\v/cvrijra UTTO TOV 
cTTatTo? \a/ji/3dviv TOV olvov. 

52 ^vfjbfiaiveiv Be TOVTO /cal Kaia r9 TWV ocvcov 
fjLi^ew olov edv rt? /cepda-y a/c^jpov /cal 
fjLa\a/cq> /cal aoa-^w, Kaddirep TOV ' 

/cal TOV 'RpvOpalov, TOV /j,ev TTJV paXa/coT^Ta TOV 
Be TTJV evoa-fiiav Trapexof^evov crv/j,7riTTTei yap 
afjia Ta ica/ca d\\rj\a)V a<pavi^etv TTJ /juaXa/coTijTi 
BaTepov </cal TT) euocryuta 0aTepov>. TroXXa? Be 
real aXXa? oi ejATreipot, \eyovai /cal laaai /jiigeis. 
o /cal eVt TWV oa^wv ev\oyov o-vfjiftaiveiv, /cal ejrl 
TWV xpw/JidTwv av Tt9 \afi/3dv7} ra9 dp/noTTOvaas 
jjii^ei^. TOVTO n>ev ovv UBiov TOV poBivov. 

53 To Be /coivov eirl TrdvTwv aTcopr\^a t TI Bij TTOT 

1 Quoted by Athen. 1. 58. 2 c/. 48. 

8 This sentence must be defective : as it stands, the effect 
of only one wine is given, though the effect is said to be 



skin. These and similar properties may be con- 
sidered peculiar to these particular perfumes. 

Of other properties and peculiarities of perfumes. 

XI. The admixture of rose-perfume, whether in 
scents or in flavours, if it be well blended, is bene- 
ficial, in the one case by removing the heaviness and 
strength of the scent, in the other by imparting a 
fragrant scent or a sweet taste to the flavour, as in 
the case of wines. 1 Thus the wine which is served 
in the town-hall of Thasos, which appears to be 
of wonderfully delightful quality, is thus flavoured. 
For they put into the jar a lump of dough which has 
been kneaded up with honey, so that the wine gets 
its fragrance from itself, but its sweet taste from the 
honeyed dough. 

This result also follows, it is said, from the mixture 
of different wines, for example, if a strong fragrant 
wine be mixed with one that is mild and without 
fragrance, (for instance, if wine of Heraclea be 
mixed with wine of Erythrae), 2 since the latter con- 
tributes its mildness and the former its fragrance : 
3 for the effect is that they simultaneously destroy 
one another's inferior qualities through the mildness 
of the one and the fragrance of the other. There 
are many other such blends mentioned by and known 
to experts. And it is quite to be expected that such 
a result should follow from blending odours, as it does 
from blending colours, if one discovers the suitable 
combinations. This then is peculiar to rose-perfume. 

However there is one question which applies to 
all perfumes, namely, why it is that they appear to 

mutual. I have added al TTJ evoff^la Oarepov after Sch. ; his 
text however is ffv/'nrrfi yap a/tta, nal ra KUKO. aAA.TjAwi' 
atyavifci, rf) yUaActfc^TTjTJ <KOJ TT) euo<r^fa> darfpov. 



airo TOV tcapirov T?}? %ei,pb<; tfBio-Ta (fraiveTai, Bio 
Kal ol ftvpoTTwXai TOVTO /ivpi^ova-i TO ^ 
8' aiTiav IK rov evavTiov XrjTrreov, on TO 
e^icrTrjori /cat d\\otol' Ta%e2a 8' ^Brj 77 alcr0Tj<ri<; 
Tot? /jivpois dvajjuyvvfievois TW 

64 'A7ro/)etTa< Be BLOTI ol /J 

fjLa\\ov efofouo-fc rcov o~vve%w$ fJLVpi^Ofievwv eirj 
pep yap av \eyLv KOI on, (pavraariai Kal OVK 
aKriOeidi Bia TO /jirj elw6b<$' el 8' ovv KOI a\r}@es, 
eoi/ce TO fiev olov o-vvavafiiyvv(T0ai 7r\eiocriv 6or- 
fjials eTepcus vfi wv a/j,avpovrcu, avyKarajjayvv- 
fievov /cal TOV xpwros, TO Be wairep d/cepaiov 
Be%(T@ai TO /jiavbv teal K(f>&iveiV Ty alcrOrjcrei, 
^povL^o/Jievov. elr) 8' av Kal evavTiws \a/3eiv co? 
r}TTov Be%ofj,evov Bia TO dcrvwtjOes, ftpaBvTepov 8' 
dva/jLiyvvfieva 7r\eico %pbvov e^b^ew. Kal TOVTO 
jjiev e\aTTOv Kal ov </>az>e/ow? o/ 

55 e 'A.7TTTai Be p,d\i(TTa TOV 

Kal T&V a\\(0v Kal TrKelaTov %pbvov ejA/jievei TO, 

1 So. a part of the body which, not being fleshy, does not 
spoil the scent by its warmth. So Plin. 13. 19. appears to 
give the point experimentum (unguentorum) inversa manu 
capitur, ne carnosae partis color vitiet, though it may be 
questioned whether inversa manu represents Kapirov. Pliny's 



be sweetest when the scent comes from the wrist l ; 
so that perfumers 2 apply the scent to this part. 
The explanation must be sought by observing what 
happens in the contrary case, inasmuch as heat 
changes or destroys the character of a scent,, and the 
effect on the sense of smell is immediately perceived 
when perfumes are brought into close contact with 
the skin. 

The question is also raised why those who do not 
habitually use perfumes smell of them more strongly, 
when they do so, than those who use them habitually. 
The suggestion might be made that this is an illusion 
due to the fact that the use is not habitual, and 
does not represent what really happens. If however 
it does, it would appear that in the one case the 
perfume becomes, as it were, confused with a number 
of other scents which weaken its force (the smell of 
the skin also becoming mixed with it), while in the 
other case the porous condition of the skin takes in 
the scent as it were uncontaminated, and so makes 
it perceptible by the sense of smell, because it 
lingers for some time. One might also make a 
suggestion of opposite character, that the skin takes 
in perfumes less readily because it is not used to 
them, and so, as the perfumes mingle with it more 
slowly, they preserve 3 their scent for a longer time. 
One may add that this is a small point and that all 
do not agree as to the fact. 

Those perfumes whose scent is strongest get the 
best hold on the skin head and other parts of the 
body, and last for the longest time : such are 

phrase presumably means the back of the hand, and suggests 
that atrb rov ttapTrov may be corrupt. 

2 Sc. in offering samples for choice. 

8 Sc. it is not absorbed by the skin. 



la^vporara rat? oay/m?, olov jjieyakelov, Alyv- 
TTTiOV, d/jLapdtcivov ra ' aaOovr] KOI <ov> TTO\V- 
oB/ma, Koixfirjv e^ovra rrjv dvaTrvoijv, Tayeiav iroiel 
/cal Trjv a7ro\ei'fyiv, wcnrep TO re po&ivov /cal rj 


56 "Rvia Se teal et? rrjv varepaiav ov ^elpov oei, 
SiaTretrvevKvias el rt? evrjv {3apvTV)$. ra Be /cal 
0X0)9 ejmjuLova /j,a\\ov, wairep rj vdpSo? Kal TO 
Ipwov, Trdvrayv Se /JLakiara <ra> lo-^vporara. 
teal ra pev ev re rot? \ovrpol? real rf] ave&ei 
BiaTrjpei TTft)? Ti)V o(r/jir)V rj ov (rwy/catcvvei' TO, Be 
tca/cvvo/Aeva 7T\eia) iroiel Bvcrw&lav avrwv rwv 
IBpcoroov, a>9 av cnjifrecos TWOS rj Bia<j)9opa<$ ywo- 

Kal ra pep Trepl TT}? TWV fjuvpcov Troirjo-ecos re 
teal Bvvd/AetoS eirl TOGOVTOV elprjcrda). 
57 XII. Ta Be Trepl Trjv TWV t]pwv /JLL^IV, e a)i> 
<TO> Biairdor/JLaTa teal al o-vvOecreis, ov/c Ti f^ret 
pitv TwvBe Tivwv a)piorfjLva)V, aXX' ocrco av Ti? 

7T\6L(0 Kal 7TOlKl\.(t)Tpa fJil^rjy TOCTOVTW Kal 1) 6(7/Jirj 

\afji7r pore pa teal rjBicov, (Lairep /cal ei; ai)Twv 
dpa)/jidT(0v TWV Trpo^eipcov et? rauro 7*^0 
airavra %p&vTai. ^rjTOvai B' ev TOV- 
/cal o-Trev&ovaiv wcrre Jbrj evos d\\d 

1 TO ins. Sch. 



megaleion, Egyptian perfume and sweet marjoram- 
perfume. Those on the other hand which are weak 
and have not a powerful scent, since they are volatile 
and evaporate, also quickly come to an end : for 
instance rose-perfume and kypros. 

There are some however whose scent is even 
better on the second day, when any heavy quality 
that they possessed has evaporated. Some again are 
altogether more permanent, as spikenard and iris- 
perfume, and the stronger 1 a perfume is, the longer 
it lasts. Again some perfumes for some reason keep 
their scent in the bath when the body is relaxed, 
or at least do not help to produce a disagreeable 
effect ; while others become disagreeable and cause 
an even more unpleasant odour than the sweat, as 
though some sort of decomposition or decay took 

Let this suffice for an account of the manufacture 
and properties of perfumes. 

Of the making of perfume-poivders and compound perfumes. 

XII. As to the mixing of solid substances to make 
powders l and compound perfumes, we do not find it 
here necessary to mix certain specified ingredients : 
the more numerous and the more various the per- 
fumes that are mixed, the more distinguished and 
the more grateful will be the scent just as though 
one were mixing whatever spices themselves 2 were 
procurable. As a matter of fact the custom is to use 
a mixture made of all kinds. Again in perfumes of 
this class the aim and object is not to make the 
mixture smell of some one particular thing, but to 

2 Sc. the natural products from which the manufactured 
perfumes are made. 



Tivct Trjv ocf^rjv zlvdi. Bib Kal 
Sid Tivtov ff/mepwv rb %6%ov e^aipovcnv del KOI 
T&V lo-%vpwv eXaTTco fuyvvova-iv, wcnrep . . . ra 
8' oXo)9 ov jjLiyvvovo~t,v, wairep TO epvcria'K'rjirTpov, 

VTTep OV KOI dpTLWS \6^0rj. 

58 Bpe'^ofcrt Be crvvTiQkvT<$ T& otvw TW 
601K6 8' ovv ^priaifjio^ elvai ?r/309 r 
ye teal ol /jivpe^fol %p)VTai. fjuevova Be TTO\VV 
%povov at crvvOea-eis. rj Be XP^ al ^ TOVTCOV fj,ev els 
TTfv TWV i/juaTLWv 6(7^7)^, T&v Be BiarracT/jLaTcop els 

TT)V GTpWllVrjV, 07Tft)9 7Tp09 TOV %pCt)Ta TrpOCrTriTTTr)' 

Kal yap airTe,Tai H,CL\\OV KOI e^jjuov^Tepov TOVTO, 
KOI &GTrep OVT e/celvov TOVTO TTOIOVVIV. ol Be 
rrpoTepov evefSakov oivq) KaTa/3pe%ovT<; evtoBei 
Trpbs TO TrapaipelaOai, TTJV oo-/j,rjv, evia Be Kal 
fjL6\ifcpdT(*) /cal o'lvw (JbiyvvvTes dveBevov, TO, Be 
Kal avT& TO* fjLe\LKpa.TW. TO yap o\ov dfjtcfra) 
TavTa o-vvepyei irpbs evoafjiiav. Biajmevovo-i, Be 
al o~vvdio~ei<;. fyavepov 8' CK TOVTWV oTrep Kal 
TrpoTepov \%0r), BioTt, TCL ^rjpd Kal evoa/JLOTepa 

59 EuXo7ft)9 Be TCL fjivpa (j>ap/jiaKa)Brj Bid Trjv T 
(61 ^ dptofiaTcov Bvvafjiiv Kal ydp TCL dpw^aTa ToiavTa. 
Bvj\oi Be Ta T KaTairXdcrfjiaTa Kal a BIJ 

1 The example is missing. Turn, supplies costum et amomum 
from Plin. 13. 16, which does not however certainly refer 
to this passage ; see 69, where this passage seems to be 

2 The reference of e/cetVov is obscure. 

3 /j.ixQfvra add. Turn. 



produce a general scent derived from them all. 
This is why every few days they open the vessel and 
remove each time that perfume whose scent is over- 
powering the others, adding at the same time smaller 
quantities of the less powerful scents, such as . . -, 1 
while some perfumes are never added, such as 
galingale, of which we spoke just now. 

When they make compound perfumes, they 
moisten the spices with fragrant wine : and this 
certainly seems to be useful for producing fragrance, 
seeing that perfumers also use it. These com- 
pound perfumes last a long time. They are used 
to impart a pleasant odour to clothes, while the 
powders are used for bedding, so that they may 
come in contact with the skin : for this kind of 
preparation gets a better hold and is more lasting, 
so that men use it thus instead of scenting their 
bodies directly. 2 Some, before putting the powder 
in the bedding, soak it in fragrant wine, so that it 
may acquire its scent : and some powders they 
moisten by mixing them with mead and wine, or 
again simply with mead. For in general both these 
things help to give them fragrance. Compound 
perfumes also last well. From which what was said 
above becomes manifest, inasmuch as solid perfumes, 
when mixed 3 with one another, acquire a greater 

4 It is to be expected that perfumes should have 
medicinal properties in view of the virtues of spices : 
for these too have such virtues. The effects of 

4 In W.'s text, which I have followed, there is some re- 
arrangement (after Furlanus) of the order of sentences in 
this chapter and the next : e.g. part of 61 is transferred to 
59. Both figures are retained for convenience of reference. 



aa\dyuara Ka\ovcriv ota? arro&eiKvvrai Svvdueis 
rd re (frvuara /rat ra arrocrri^ara Bia^eovra /cal 
a\\a rr\elw rwv Kara TO crw/za Sia\\oiovvra, 
fjiev a\\a Kal ra ev fiddei, olov, dv 
Kara7r\da-r) ra v7ro%6vSpia /cal ro orrrjQos, 
s ffi>v rot? evjiols aTroSiBcoa-iv evcoSeis ra? 

61 XIII. At e rwv %(i)a)v ocr/ial Kara ra<? Ibi 

u<Ji9* eKacrro) yap ecrri ris ol/ceia Kara 

rrjv Kpdcrtv. avrai B* rjBeiai uev Kal KaOapai 
\Kal~\ Kara ra? aKuas Kal orav ev eywaiv eavr&v, 
en Se rjBiovs d7ra\wv Kal vewv ovrwv. 
Se Kal KaKcoSeararai rrepl ra? o^eta? Kal 
avvrrjKOiJLevwv Kal KauvovrcDv o-coadrcov Sib Kal 
ol rpdyoi Kal ol e\a(f>oL Kal \ajol Kal ra\\a 
rore ud\icrra o%ei. 
62 Sav/jia&rbv Be Kal ibiov rb crvaTrdcr^etv Ta? 

(60) / tf r /) / * v 

rpayeas, orav r] wpa KaU^Krj rrjs op/Ar)S. ainov 
Be SyXovon rb vrro^irreadal riva ev r& Bepaari, 
Bvvauiv fj vyponjra roiavrrjv a^>' ^5 rj opar) 
yiverai Kal ^covrcav Kivov/j,evr)$ ovv Kal SiaOep- 
fiatvo/jLevrjs ravrrjs vrro rov aepos ei>\oyov Kal 
ra Bep/Jiara Ka0* oaov ercL^aKXei. Bib Kal &>? 

1 60 on some other medicinal effects of perfumes is 
omitted. 2 Kal bracketed by W. 



plasters and of what some call ' poultices ' prove 
what virtues they display, since they disperse 
tumours and abscesses and produce a distinct effect 
on various other parts of the body, on its surface, 
but also on the interior parts : for instance, if one 
lays a plaster on his abdomen and breast, the patient 
forthwith produces fragrant odours along with his 
eructations. 1 

Of the characteristic smells of animals, and of certain curious 
facts as to the smell of animal and vegetable products. 

XIII. The smells of animals correspond to their 
several characters : each has a smell of its own 
according to its particular composition. These 
smells are pleasant and pure when 2 the animal 
is in its prime and in good condition, and even 
pleasanter when they 3 are young and tender. 
But the smell is strongest and least pleasant at 
the breeding season, and generally when the body 
is wasting or out of condition : wherefore goats 
stags hares and other animals have most smell at 
such titties. 

It is a remarkable fact and peculiar to the goat 
that goat-skins 4 are sympathetically affected when 
the breeding season comes round. The reason plainly 
is that there remains somehow in the hide the sort 
of virtue or moisture from which arises the breeding 
impulse when the animal is alive. It is natural 
therefore that, when this is excited and warmed 
by the air, the skin also should be excited 5 
so far as it belongs to it to be so affected. 
Wherefore the original cause as it were of the 

3 tavr&v can hardly be sound : ? avra (so. T& a). 

4 i.e. the skin of a dead goat. 
6 W. adds Ktvtiff&ai after 



atrtov f) SidOeaiS' Tore yap KOI ol fjirj 
6%evovT<; Sfpwrt KOI ol dyovoi KOI al alyes oXa>9. 
r) 8' 6%eia Tore fj,ev fjieyd\r)v pepiBa cru/A/SaXXerat, 
/cad' avrrjv 8' aliia yiverai f) Bid@e(Ti,<;. 

63 2vfi,/3alvi Be rpoTTov iiva KOI ev aXXot? rj 
Toiavrr) crvfjiTrdOeia' /cal yap 6 dlvos afj,a rfj 

.f) So/eel GvvavOelv /cal ra (T/copoSa /cal ra 
Tore Bpi/jivrarov o^eiv, orav <ra> ev rfj 
yfj pKacndvr)' 7T\r)V TOVTOIS afia avfji/Saivei /cal 
aurot? P\ao-TdvLV. oX&)9 Be Trdvra /civeirat, 
rd <j)\oi6pt,%a /cal (rap/copi^a fjirj d7rej;r)pa/*fJLva 
/card ra? ySXacrr^T^/ca? wpa?- f] yap evvTrdp^ova-a 
BvvafjLis ev avTol? /ctvelrai. Oav/Jiacn^raTov Be 


(Tv/j,/3alvov, eiTrep d/jua rafc </)&)Xtat9 eiraiperai 
/cal e/cir'X.rjpOL rd dyyela. 

64 XIV. Tt Bij Trore Arj/jio/cpiTos rou? fjiev 
7T/005 rrjv yevaiv dTroBiBaxri, ra9 B' oo-yaa? /cal 

; eBei yap e/c rwv (j^^aTwv. r) TOVTO ye 

7T/?09 aTravra? KOLVOV; airavres ydp ol /JLCV 

1 i.e. to form a 'crust.' 2 T& ins. Sch. 

3 c/. .ff.P. 1. 6. 7. 

4 i.e. when the fat of the living bear becomes abnormally 
developed. Plin. 8. 128. expresses his surprise at T.'s credulity 



phenomenon is the special condition of the animal 
at such periods : for at these times even those 
males which are not breeding have the smell, and 
the sterile goats and the females in general. In- 
deed, though at that particular time the fact that 
animals are actually breeding is a powerful factor in 
producing the smell, yet their condition is in itself 
a cause. 

Similar sympathetic behaviour is found in a 
manner in other things also. Thus wine appears to 
' bloom ' l at the same time as the growing grape, and 
stored garlic and onions appear to have the most 
pungent smell at the season when those 2 in the 
ground are sprouting : however in this case sprouting 
takes place in the stored vegetables also. And in 
general any plant whose root is in layers 3 or fleshy 
becomes active at the season of sprouting, unless it 
has been completely dried : for it is the force latent 
in such plants which is stirred into activity. But 
the most remarkable phenomenon of the kind is 
what occurs with bears' grease : it makes active 
growth at the time of the bear's winter sleep 4 and 
completely fills the vessels in which it is kept. 

Of odours as compared with other sense-impressions. 

XIV. What can be the reason why Democritus, 
though he assigns various flavours to the sense of 
taste, yet does not in like manner assign various 
smells and colours to the senses to which they 
belong ? According to his system he should have 
done so. Perhaps the same criticism should apply 
to all who have dealt with the subject : for they all 

in this matter : his version (coctas uraorum carries) adds to 
the marvel. 



ol Be /jLakiffra TavTijs ra TrdOif \eyova~t, /cal ra? 
&t,a<f>opd<;, ft>9 ev xpw/JLaa-i \eu/cov /cal ^e\av, teal 
ev xv/jiols y\v/cv fcal irircpov, oi>% OVTCO 8 ev 
ovBev jap 7r\r)v TO T evoa-fjuov KOI TO 
ovS* ev aTrrot?' TrXeta) yap evOv ra 

65 'AXXa /jLa\\ov ev (fxdvais, ov /cal jBapv. ert 
8e Ta fjilv fj,L/CTa ra S' d/mi/cTa. djAi/CTot, ^y\o\ ol 
fjuev TW /JUT) KaTafJLepi^ecrdai &O-T e% d^olv, olov 
vScop e\aiov ^Xe^ycta at/ta, oXa>9 Trav TO emveov 
rj TO Biaipovv, wcnrep TO 0^09 KOI TO yd\a. TO 
yap Tfi Triecrei /cal Tptyei fjiiyvvfjievov eTepov elSos. 
d\\ov Be Tporrov ol fir) evfJUKTOi TT/OO? TTJV %peiav 
rj /cal \VfJLaiv6fJLevoi aXX^Xof?, olov TJ 6d\aTTa 
/cal TO, viTpooor) /cal m/cpd vSaTa TOU? olvovs /cal 
Ta TTOTi^a, edv prj evOvs %pijTai r^9. 

66 'OcryLtal Se at fj,ev OUTWS d/jii/CToi 7rXetof9 /cal 
wcrre /caQ6\ov \a/3etv al Ka/cwSeis Ta?9 K,aK,w&e<Ti. 
ft>9 Be /3e\TLov TI TO e d/j,(j)olv epyov evpelv el 

1 i.e. taste. 

2 There seems to be some confusion here, as in the first 
sentence of the section T. complained that colours are not 
classified. The following passage is unusually elliptical, and 
the text is probably defective. T.'s complaint seems to be 
that sense-experiences in general have been inadequately 
classified (cf. 2) ; and in 66 foil, he specially mentions smells. 



either give the various qualities and distinguish the 
experiences of this sense l alone or at least com- 
paratively neglect the others : thus with colours 2 
they distinguish white and black, and with flavours 
sweet and bitter, yet they make no corresponding 
classification of smells, but merely class them as 
'pleasant' or 'unpleasant.' So too they fail to 
distinguish different experiences of the sense of 
touch, whereas several belong immediately to this 
sense, as hardness, softness, roughness, smoothness. 

In sounds still more are there differences, as 
that between shrill and deep. Again some sense- 
experiences are simple, some compound. Flavours 
are simple first in the sense that they cannot be 
resolved into two components 8 : instances are water 
oil phlegm blood, 4 and in general anything which 
floats, like milk, 5 or which causes separation, like 
vinegar. (Where mixture can be produced by pres- 
sure or crushing, it is quite a different matter). 
Secondly there are flavours which do not readily 
combine in another sense, namely for human use, or 
which even spoil one another if they are mixed, as 
sea-water, or water with soda in it or which has a 
bitter taste : these spoil wines or other things that 
are good to drink, unless they are taken at once. 

Now the odours which in this sense do not com- 
bine are numerous, and, speaking generally, it is the 
pleasant odours which do not combine with the 
unpleasant ones. It would indeed be difficult, if not 
impossible, to find a case in which mixture is an 

3 Sch. and W. after Turn, add <ev ylveff0ai>- after au00<V, 
which seems unnecessary. 

4 i.e. a liquid which, in one way or another, refuses to mix 
with another liquid. 6 ? cream. 




firj dBvvarov, els rrjv roiavnjv Be Bvvafiiv <ov'\> 
dirav co? elirelv TTpbs irdv evotf/uov. aXX' evOa 
[lev I'cTft)? %et/oo) Troiel evOa Be /3e\Tt&>, /caOdtrep 
7rl TWV fivpcov rd fjuev jap a<f)aipeiTCU TO dicpa- 
TOV /col (TKKrfpov, TO, 8' aTTo6rf\,vvei> /cal oacnrep 
ra? ov^ds. ev Be rot? fypois airaaai 

67 Ta yap BiaTrdorpara OCTM av rj ir\eiovwv 
d/jiiV(t). Trotet Be /cal rj rov otvov Kardfji,i1~i<s /cal 
fjivpa evia /cal Ov/jLidfjuara evoo-fjuoTepa, KaOdjrep 
rrjv (7fj,vpvav. Bo/cel Be /cal TO fjuvpov qBvveiv TOU? 
otVof?, Bib real ol fjbev ev rfj olvoiroita /niyvvovcriv 
ol Be o#Tft>5 eTTi^eo/jievov TTIVOVGIV. ov/c dXoyov 
Be Gvveyyvs ra? alvOrjaeis oi/cra? KOL ev rot? 
aurot? V7ro/ceifjievoi<> e^eiv Tiva eTu/coivcoviav 009 
jap eVl TO irav ovBels ovre ^t>Xos aoo-yu-o? 
^uXo?' TOVTO Be on ovBe/jiia e/c JJL 

Be /cal /j,6Ta/3d\\eiv T<X? OCT/JLCL^ d/ma 
Tot? %fXot9, wcnrep eVt T6 ToO otVou /cal eVl 
fcapTrwv TIVWV eviwv Be /cal ev rS> dvdei Trporepov, 
wffTrep rwv /Borpvcov rj Be TWV fivpcov els d/c/jirjv 
IJLOVOV /cal olov $6iaiv. fjLeTaKivovvrai B* ev Tat? 
em'at? Spats TrdvO' &)? elirelv, ^d\Lcrra Be rd 

1 I have inserted oux, suggested by Sch. 

2 Like Sch. I fail to see the relevance of this remark. 
The sense required is 'while the fruit is still on the tree' : 



improvement to the odour: in fact one might say 
that not 1 every combination of one fragrant thing 
with another will produce such a quality, but though 
sometimes the effect of such mixture is an improve- 
ment, sometimes it may be the reverse, as in the case 
of perfumes : for while the effect of some admixtures 
is to remove excessive strength or harshness, in other 
cases the odour is enfeebled and made, as it were, 
insipid. With solids however all combinations are 

In fact powders are the better, the more in- 
gredients they have. Also the admixture of wine 
makes some perfumes and things used for incense 
more fragrant, for instance myrrh. It appears also 
that perfume sweetens wines, wherefore some add it 
in the manufacture, some put it in at the time of 
drinking. Nor is it unnatural that between "these 
senses, since they are akin and are affected by the 
same objects, there should be a sort of reciprocity : 
for, to speak generally, no taste is unaccompanied by 
smell and no smell is unaccompanied by taste, the 
reason being that a thing which has no taste pro- 
duces no smell. 

It is also the case that smells actually change 
along with tastes, for instance in wine and certain 
fruits. And in some cases, as with grapes, the 
change takes place earlier, during 2 the flowering 
period : while in perfumes it occurs only when they 
have reached their best and are about, as it were, to 
go off. Almost all perfumes undergo alteration at 
certain seasons of the year, and this applies specially 
to the weakest kinds : in the case of those made 

possibly avdfl has got in from below and we should read 

c c 2 


da-Oevearara, ra 8' avOiva K,a& r)v wpav dvOel TO 

69 [Ta9 crvvOecreLS TTOLOVGIV etc TWV d 

Opava-awres TTO\\CL teal /ufaz/re? eU ravro K\ei- 
ovcriv t9 /ci/3(*)ri,ov, etr' dvoiyovres Std TLVWV 
fjfj&pwv OTL av /jLaXiara o^eiv 8o/cfj rovr at 
real ird\i,v 8e KOI 7rd\iv SiaXeljro 
O7Tft)9 av firj^evos e^o^rj. Qav^ia<JTr]V 8' ocr/jirjv 
\a/ji/3dvi TO, ipdna els ravra iiOe/Jieva. 

To Be r^9 /3a\dvov TTJS AlyvTrrias f^vpov avrb 
fjiev OVK dyav dvairvei, ^lyvv^evov Be Troiei rd\\a 
iw fjudkicrra Be TTJV Ipw]. . . . 

1 c/. 63. 

2 c/. 57, of which this section seems to be a repetition. 

3 c/. 15. 



from flowers this period is that at which the plants 
from which they are made are in bloom. 1 

[Compound 2 perfumes are made from spices : 
they bruise and mix a variety of these and shut them 
up together in a box. Then after a few days they 
open the box and take out the spice which seems to 
have the strongest smell : this treatment is repeated 
at intervals., so that the smell of no one ingredient 
may overpower the others. And clothes put away 
with such perfumes acquire a marvellous fragrance. 

The perfume 3 made of the Egyptian balanos, 
though it has not much scent of its own, when 
mixed with others, especially iris-perfume, improves 
them]. . . .* 

4 The remaining sentences ( 70, 71) seem to be discon- 
nected scraps, which perhaps do not belong to this treatise 
at all. The text of them being defective, it seems not worth 
while to attempt translation. 


I. ^rjaela vBaTcov real TrvevudTcov /cal 
Kal evBiwv &)Be eypd^rajjiev /ca@* ocrov rjv e 
a uev avTol Trpocr/coTnja'avTes a Be trap 

OVK a^OKlfJLWV \a/3oVT<}. 

Ta fjiev ovv eVl rot? aarpois Svojjievoi? /cal 
dvar\\ov(7iv etc T&V darpovofjLiKMv Bel Xa/xySa- 
2 vew. elal Be Bixreis Birrai' o'i re yap d<f>avt,a-/j,ol 
8vcr6i<} elal' TOVTO Be eartv orav apa o-vvBvvrj TW 
rfKlw TO acrTpov, Kal orav ayareA-Xo^ro? Bvi>7]. 
o/xoto)9 Be ical dvaro\al Birral, at fiev ewoi orav 
7rpoavaTe\\r) rov r]\Lov TO aaTpov, at B* dfcpo- 
vvyoi OTav daa Bvo/^eva) dvaTe\\rj. 

At fJiev ovv TOV 'Ap/CTOvpov \eyouevat, dvaTo\al 
da(f)OTepa)<;av/jLf3aivov(Tiv' rj pevyap TOV ^e^wz/o? 
o<s ea-Tiv, rj Be peTCOTropivr) ecoa. TWV S' 
at TrXelcrTat, TWV ovo/jia^o/Aevatv ewai, olov 

/cal 'Qpiwvos Kal Ku^o?. 
Twv Be \oi,TC(av o-rf^eiwv evia ftev iBia 

ev at9 oprj 

Be ova Trpo$ 6d\aa(rav 
TWV v^rrf\wv TWV re yap TrvevudTwv 
TCL ve(f>r) TrpocnriTCTei TT/JO? TOU? TOL- 




Introductory : general principles. 

I. THE signs of rain wind storm and fair weather 
we have described so far as was attainable, partly 
from our own observation; partly from the informa- 
tion of persons of credit. 

Now those signs which belong to the setting or 
rising of the heavenly bodies must be learnt from 
astronomy. 1 Their settings are twofold, since they 
may be said to have set when they become invisible. 
And this occurs when the star sets along with the 
sun, and also when it sets at sunrise. In like 
manner their risings are twofold : there is the 
morning rising, when the star rises before the sun, 
and there is the rising at nightfall, when it rises at 

Now what are called the risings of Arcturus occur 
at both times, his winter rising being at nightfall 
and his autumn rising at dawn. But the rising of 
most of the familiar constellations is at dawn, for 
instance, the Pleiad Orion and the Dog. 

Of the remaining signs some belong specially to 
all such lands as contain high mountains and valleys, 
specially where such mountains extend down to the 
sea : for, when the winds begin to blow, the clouds 
are thrown against such places, and, when the winds 

1 Or, perhaps, ' from my astronomical works.' 



avrifjiediaravrai KOI vyporepa ryiv6fj,eva Bid (Sdpos 
t9 ra Kol\a (rvjKaOi^ei. Sib Set Trpoae^eiv ov 
dv Ti9 IBpv/jLevos y. ecrn 'yap del nva \a/3eiv 
roiovrov yvoa/jLova real ecrn o-a$eo~rara cnjjjLela ra 

4 A^o Kal ayaBol ryeyevfivrai Kara TOTTOV? 
darpovofjLOi evioi, olov MarpiKera? ev 
drro rov Ferrer VJJLVOV, /cal IKXeocrrparos ev 

arro TT}<? "I8?/9, Kal Qaeivos 'KOrjvycriv arro rov 

Avfca/3r]rrov ra rrepl ra? rporras crvveiBe, 'Trap' 

ov MeTft>z> d/covcras rov rov evbs Seovra elfcocnv 

eviavr&v <KVK\OV> avvera^ev. fjv Be 6 

vo<$ /jieroi/co? 'A.0 lawyer iv o $ Merw^ 

Kal aXXoi be rov rporrov rovrov rjcrrpo\6jtjo-av. 

5 "AXXa ^e ecrn a-ri^ela a \a/A/3dverai, drro re 
%ooa)v rwv Kar oiKiav tcai erepcov rivcov rorrtdv Kal 
TraOij/jidrcov, fjudkiara Se KVpiwrara <rd> drro 
rov ffXiov Kal rfjs cr6\,tjvr]<i' rj yap o-e\rjvij vv/crbs 
olov ^Xto? ecrri' Bib Kal at &vvo$oi rcov 
^ei/juepioL elviv, on drro'\eLrrei rb </>a>9 TTJ? 

drro rerpdoos <f>0ivovro<; ^XP L T^T/oaSo? Icrra- 
/jt,evov. ooarrep ovv ffXiov drro\ei^L^ yiverai Kara 
rov ofjioiov rpbrrov Kal T^? creX/;V^9 

6 Sel ovv rrpocre^eiv fJid\i(Tra rat? dvaro\ai<; 
rovrcov Kal rals ovaeo-iv brroias av rroiwvrai rov 


2 Plin. 5. 140. Of Matriketas nothing is known. 

3 Said (Plin. 2. 31) to have first recognised the Ram and 
the Archer. Athen. (7. 278 6) connects him with Tenedos. 



change, the clouds also change l and take a contrary 
direction, and, as they become laden with moisture, 
they settle down in the hollows because of their 
weight. Wherefore good heed must be taken to 
the local conditions of the region in which one is 
placed. It is indeed always possible to find such an 
observer, and the signs learnt from such persons are 
the most trustworthy. 

Thus in some parts have been found good astro- 
nomers : for instance, 2 Matriketas at Methymna 
observed the solstices from Mount Lepetymnos, 
Cleostratus 3 in Tenedos from Mount Ida, Phaeinos 
at Athens from Mount Lycabettus : Meton, who 
made the cycle 4 of nineteen years, was the pupil 
of the last-named. Phaeinos was a resident alien 
at Athens, while Meton was an Athenian. Others 
also have made astronomical observations in like 

Again there are other signs which are taken from 
domestic animals or from certain other quarters and 
happenings. Most important of all are the 5 signs 
taken from the sun and moon : for the moon is as 
it were a nocturnal sun. Wherefore also the 
meetings of the months are stormy, because the 
moon's light fails from the fourth day from the 
end of one month to the fourth day from the begin- 
ning of the next : there is therefore a failure of 
the moon corresponding to the failure of the sun. 
Wherefore anyone who desires to forecast the 
weather must pay especial heed to the character of 
the risings and settings of these luminaries. 

4 Called 'the great year': cf. Aelian. V. H. 10. 7. rbv 
TOV Irbs Seovra tlKOffiv suavruv <KVK\OV> conj. Sch. tvia.vr'bv 
conj. W. 

6 TO. seems necessary. ? Kvpia r$. 



fjieV OVV \7)7TreOV OTl ttl 

T9 wpas, coo-re eirl rovrcov Bel dOpelv 
/cal evtavrbv KOI /jirjva /cal r^^epav. Bixoro/jLel 
Be rbv fjiev eviavrbv IlXem? re BvojAevrj /ecu dva- 
re\\ov(Ta* OLTTO <yap Bvffea)^ pt'X.pi avaio\r\s TO 
rjfjuffv TOU eviavrov eo-riv. cocrre Bi^a repverai 6 

7 7T9 %pOVO<}. OyLtO/ft)? B KCtl dl TpOTTdl KOi l(T1J- 
fJLpiai TTOiOVCTLV. Ota Ti9 0,^ OVV y KaTdcTTCKTlS 

TOV depos IlXetaSo? Bvo yu,e^9,, ovrw e^ei a>5 eVt TO 
pexpi TpOTrwv, Kciv /jL6Ta/3d\\r), /jiera rpo- 
eav Be fir) /jiral3d\\r), Bie^ei ew? lo-rj/jiepias, 
KcuceWev eoo-auTO)? ^XP L riXeta8o9, /cal CLTTO rav- 
TpOTT&v Oepw&v, teal evreuOev 
/cal dirb icrtj/Jiepfals 

'fl? 3' ai/TO)9 ex^i teal Trepl rbv ^r\va 
&LX OT l JbO v (7t ' y^P a ^ re TCCiV(Te\r]voi KOI at oyBoai 
fcal at TerpdBes, ware CLTTO vov^vias &>9 aTr 
^ Bel (TKOTTciv. jjLeTajBd\\,ei yap &>9 ejrl TO 
u ev rfj rerpdBi, eav Be firj, ev rfj 078077, el Be 
dirb Be 7rav<je\r)vov et9 oyBoijv 
, teal aTro Taur^9 et9 rerpdBa, diro Be 
rerpdBos eh rrjv vov^vLav. 

f fl9 8' ai/T&)9 xal ejrl rfjs r)fjipa<t e'xovo-iv at 
009 errl TO TTO\V. dvaro\r) yap KOI 
/cal fjieo-rmftpta /cal BeuXr) ical Bixris, /cal ra 
T?}9 VVKTOS /J<epr) ra dva\oya ravro iroiei To?9 
6ipr)fj,evois Trepl Trvev/JLarcov /cal %et//,coz>o9 /cal 
evBias. /jt,d\to-ra yap eav /*e\\r) n,erajBd\\ei,v, ev 



Now the first point to be seized is that the various 
periods are all divided in half, so that one's study of 
the year the month or the day should take account 
of these divisions. The year is divided in half by 
the setting and rising of the Pleiad x : for from the 
setting to the rising is a half year. So that to begin 
with the whole period is divided into halves : and a 
like division is effected by the solstices and equinoxes. 
From which it follows that, whatever is the condition 
of the atmosphere when the Pleiad sets, that it con- 
tinues in general to be till the winter solstice, and, 
if it does change, the change only takes place after 
the solstice : while, if it does not change, it continues 
the same till the spring equinox : the same principle 
holds good from that time to the rising of the Pleiad, 
from that again to the summer solstice, from that 
again to the autumnal equinox, and from that to the 
setting of the Pleiad. 

So too is it with each month ; the full moon and 
the eighth 2 and the fourth days make divisions into 
halves, so that one should make the new moon the 
starting-point of one's survey. A change most often 
takes place on the fourth day, or, failing that, on the 
eighth, or, failing that, at the full moon ; after that the 
periods are from the full moon to the eighth day 
from the end of the month, from that to the fourth 
day from the end, and from that to the new moon. 

The divisions of the day follow in general the 
same principle : there is the sunrise, the mid-morning, 
noon, mid-afternoon, and sunset; and the corres- 
ponding divisions of the night have like effects in 
the matter of winds storms and fair weather ; that 
is to say, if there is to be a change, it will generally 

1 Plin. 18. 280. 2 cf. Arat. 73 f. 



rat? Bi%OTOfJiiai<} /ji6ra/3d\\i. Ka66\ov JJLCV ovv 
ra? wpa<$ OVTO) Bel TrapaTrjpelv, Ka& e/cao-Ta Be 
TWV atj/jieicov Kara TOV vTrojeypa^evov TpoTrov. 
10 f/ T6\XTO? uev ovv &r) field ra roiavra So/eel elvai. 
evapyea-TaTOv JJLGV ovv TO ecoOivov, orav irpo r]\iov 
avaro\fj$ (paivyrai ZTrifyoivicrGOv ct^elov rj yap 
avOrjfjiepLvov eiriaqjAaiyei ^ rpi&v v/jLepwv co? eVt 
TO TTO\V. Brj\ol Be Kal ra aXXa o-yfjiela' eav 
yap y^ TTporepov, rpirala /jLaXicrra (Tij/jiaivei, 
TO eTTi^Oiviaaov /cat BUVOVTOS, rJTTOv Be r) TO 

11 Kat eav Bvvy %ei/Jiwvo<; rj ea/>o? et? vefy 

Tpiwv rj/Jiepwv &>9 TCL 7ro\\a ein(Trj[jLaivei. Kal 
eav pdftBoi voToOev, Tavra Be raOra (Boppa9ev 
yivofjieva aadeve(7Tepa. /cal eav dvi 
(Ttj/jielov t0"%?7 Kal eav etc ve(f>e\S>v 
vBaTi/cov, Kal eav d/cTlves dvicr^ 
TTplv dvarelXai, KQIVOV i/aro? a^/juelov /cal dve^ov. 
Kal eav KaTa^epo^evov TOV r)\iov v(f>icrTr)Tai, 
vecfros, v<f) ov eav a^L^wvTai at ctKTlves, j(eLp,epivov 
TO arj/jielov. /cal OTav KavpaTias BvrjTai, /cal 
eXXy, eav fjirj ave^o? ryevrjTai, i/Saro? TO 

12 Ta avTa Be orrj/jLaivet, /cal &e\r)vrj 

, aaOeveaTepa Be 6 yitet?. eav /juev y 
, 7rvevjjiaTG!)Br) crrujbaivei TOV /jir/va, eav Be 
, vBaTcoBr)' atj/^aivei, Be OTI, av o~rj/LLaivrj 
ojv o 

1 rbv viroy. Tpfaov seems to mean the same as the Aristote- 
lian rbj> v^-nyrj^i'ov rpoirov, Eth. Nic. 2. 7. 9. The 
rendering ' the following method ' would however suit the 



occur at one of these divisions. In general there- 
fore one should observe the periods in the way 
indicated, though as to particular signs we must 
follow the accepted method. 1 

The signs of rain. 

Now the signs of rain appear to be as follows: 
most unmistakable is that which occurs at dawn, 
when the sky has a reddish appearance before sun- 
rise ; for this usually indicates rain within three 
days, if not on that very day. Other signs point 
the same way : thus a red sky at sunset indicates 
rain within three days, if not before, though less 
certainly than a red sky at dawn. 

Again, if the sun sets in a cloud in winter or 
spring, this generally indicates rain within three 
days. So too, if there are streaks of light from the 
south, while, if these are seen in the north, it is a 
less certain sign. Again, if the sun when it rises 
has a black mark, or if it rises 2 out of clouds, it is a 
sign of rain ; while, if at sunrise there are rays 3 
shooting out before the actual rising, it is a sign of 
rain and also of wind. Again if, as the sun sinks, a 
cloud forms below it and this breaks up its rays, it is 
a sign of stormy weather. Again, if it sets or rises 
with a burning heat, and there is no wind, it is a sign 
of rain. 

Moonrise gives similar indications, at the time of 
full moon : they are less certain when the moon is 
not full. If the moon looks fiery, it indicates breezy 
weather for that month, if dusky, wet weather ; and, 
whatever indications the crescent moon gives, are 
given when it is three days old. 

2 cu/e'xfl conj. Soh. 3 Flin. 18. 344. 



13 'A<rre/?9 TroXXot BiaTTOvres v&aros 77 TTVCV- 
fjuaros, /cal o6ev av BiarTcoatv evrevdev TO rrvev^a 
77 TO vBo)p. real eav d/crlves dOpoai dvio")(wo-iv 
dvibvros TJ BVVOVTOS, arj/jielov <vBaro$>. /cal orav 
dvio-^ovros rov r)\iov al avyal olov / K\i7rovTO$ 
Xpto/Jia la^waiv, vSaros (njfjuelov. KOL orav ve$e\cu 

TTOATOi? eplWV OfJiOiCLl W(TIV, v8d)p (Tr){J,aiV6l. [vTOV 

Be o-rjfjLela] 7rofA<f)6\vyes aviardfjievai TrXe/ou? eVt 

TMV TTOTa/JLWV vSwp CTrj^aLVOVCTi 7TO\V. ft)? S' 7Tt 

TO TroXu Ipw Trepl \v%vov T) Sia \v%vov ia<f>ai,vo- 
fievrj voria Gi~nialvei vSara. 

u Kat ol fjLVKijTe<i eav voria rj y v&cap ff^fjiaivova-i, 
e /cal av/j,ov Kara \6jov ft>9 av 
fcal jueyeOovs, (T/jH/cpol Se /cal 
/cal \afA7rpol vSwp /cal av/j,ov. /cal 
orav %et^twvo9 rrjv (f>\6ya <6 Xu%z>o?> airwQri 
Sia'X.iTTMj? olov TTO/jL^oXvyas, voaros a-fj^elov, /cal 
eav Trrjowo-iv al d/crtves eV avrov, real eav cnriv- 

15 "QpviOes \ovo/jievoi fir] ev vSan ffiovvres vowp 
rj xei/jicovas a-^/jiaivovo-t. fcal </>pvvr) \ovofjievij 
teal ftdrpa^oi /jid\\ov aBovres crrj/Miivovcriv vBcop. 
/cal r) a-avpa (paivofjievrj, r)v /caXovai <ra\a/j,dv8pav, 
en Be /cal ^Xa)/309 ;SaT/oa^o9 errl BevBpov aBcov 
vBwp arjfMaivei. ^eXiBoves rrj yacTrpl 
Ta9 \ijAvas vBcop <jr]^aivovai. 
Oiav O7r\,rjv Xetfa9 r \eL^wva rj vBcop 


1 c/. 37. 2 vSoros ins. Furl. 3 Plin. 18. 3-14. 

4 Plin. 18. 356. 5 verov 5e ff-n^a Bracketed by Sch. 

6 c/. Arist. Meteor. 3. 4 ; Plut. Quaest. Nat. 1. 2. 

' c/. 42. 

8 i t, breaks up into small ' grains ' (?). c/. 25, 42, 54. 



Many shooting : stars are a sign of rain or wind, 
and the wind or rain will come from that quarter 
from which they appear. Again, if at sunrise or 
sunset the sun's rays appear massed together, it is a 
sign of rain. 2 Also it is a sign of rain when at sun- 
rise the rays 3 are coloured as in an eclipse ; and also 
when there are clouds 4 like a fleece of wool. The 
rising of bubbles 5 in large numbers on the surface of 
rivers is a sign of abundant rain. And in general, 
when a rainbow 6 is seen round or through a lamp, it 
signifies rain from the south. 

Again, if the wind is from the south, the snuff 7 
of the lamp-wick indicates rain ; it also indicates 
wind in proportion to its bulk and size : while if 
the snuff is small, like millet-seed, 8 and of bright 
colour, it indicates rain as well as wind. Again, 
when in winter the lamp rejects 9 the flame but 
catches, as it were, here and there in spurts, it is 
a sign of rain : so also is it, if the rays of light leap 
up on the lamp, or if there are sparks. 

It is a sign of rain or storm when birds which are 
not aquatic take a bath. It is a sign of rain when a 
toad takes a bath, and still more so when frogs are 
vocal. So too is the appearance of the lizard known 
as ( salamander,' 10 and still more the chirruping of 
the green frog in a tree. It is a sign of rain when 
swallows n hit the water of the lakes with their 
belly. It is a sign of storm or rain when the ox 

9 i.e. refuses to light properly. The appearance seems to 
be that described Verg. Geory. 1. 391 (scintillare oleum). In 
the same passage putres concrescere fungos perhaps illustrates 
the comparison of the snuff to millet-seed above. 

10 cf. de ifjne 60, where it is explained why the salamander 
puts fire out. 

11 Plin. 18. 363 ; Verg. Georg. 1. 377. 



Be et9 rbv ovpavbv dva/cvrrrcov oo-^paivrjrai,, vBcop 

16 K.opct)vrj eVfc Trerpas itopvffffop&vr) T)V icv/ma 
/cara/c\v^ei vBwp o-rj/jiaivei' KOI /coXfyit/3aiera TroX- 
Xa/a9 /cal TrepiTrerojuLevrj vBwp ari^alvei. /copa% 
7roXXa9 jJieraftdXkeiv elwQw (fcwvds, TOVTCOV eav 
Ta%v Sis (^Oey^rjrai, /cal &irtppoi%ij<Tr] KOI fivafg 
ra irrepa, vScop arj/jLaivei. real eav verwv ovrwv 
TroXXa? fjLerapdXXr) (fxovas /cal eav $0ipCijTCU 
eV e'Xata?. /cal edv re euS/a? edv re vSaros 

rfj (fxovfj olov o-Ta\ayfJ,ov<;, vSwp 
edv re /copa/ces edv re /coXotol avco 
Trerwvrai /cal Lepa/ci^cocriv, vBwp (j^alvovai. /cal 
edv Kopa% ev$ia$ /j,rj rrjv elwOvlav fywvrjv ly teal 
eTTippoiftSf], vS(op o-y/jLaivei. 

17 'Eav tepa eVt BevSpov /caOe^o/jievos /cal ei'crw 
eiGTrero/jievos (frOeipifyrai, v$a)p (TTj/jiaivei. /cal 
Oepovs orav TroXXol dOpooi <f>avw(Tiv opviQes 01 
Piorevov&iv ev vtj(T(p, vScop atj/jiaivovo-iv edv $e 
/jierpioi, dyaObv al%l /cal ftorofc, edv Be TroXXot 
v7Tpl3o\ij, av%/j,bv lo-^vpov. oXa>9 ^e opviOes /cal 
d\etcrpv6ve<; <^9eipi^ofjievoi vBarircbv o-rj^eiov, /cal 
orav /jLi/jiwvrai vBcop a>9 vov. 

18 Kat rj vrjrra ijfjiepos <edv> vmovaa vrrb rd 
yelaa dTrorrrepvyi^rjrat,, vBwp arj^aivei, O/JLOLOX; Be 
/cal /co\OLol /cal d\e/crpv6ves, edv re ejrl \i/jivrj rj 
0a\drry aTTOTrrepvyifavrai, ft>9 vfjrra vBcop <rij- 

1 Plin. 18. 364; Verg. Georg. 1. 375. 

2 eirippoitfffr). Sc. with his wings probably ; not, as LS. 
'croaks.' Plin. (18. 362) seems to have had a fuller text, or 
to have drawn alsp on some other authority. 

3 VZTWV oj'Twv can hardly mean ' while it is raining.' 



licks his fore-hoof; if he puts 1 his head up towards 
the sky and snuffs the air, it is a sign of rain. 

It is a sign of rain when a crow puts back its head 
on a rock which is washed by waves, or when it often 
dives or hovers over the water. It is a sign of rain 
if the raven, who is accustomed to make many 
different sounds, repeats one of these twice quickly 
and makes a whirring 2 sound and shakes his wings. 
So too if, during a rainy season, 8 he utters many 
different sounds, or if he searches for lice perched on 
an olive-tree. And if, whether in fair or wet weather, 
he imitates, as it were, with his voice falling drops, 
it is a sign of rain. So too is it if ravens or jack- 
daws fly high and scream 4 like hawks. And, if a 
raven in fair weather does not utter his accustomed 
note and makes a whirring with his wings, 5 it is a 
sign of rain. 

It is a sign of rain if a hawk perches on a tree, flies 
right into it and proceeds to search for lice : also, 
when in summer a number of birds living on an 
island pack together : if a moderate number collect, 
it is a good sign for goats and flocks, while if the 
number is exceedingly large, it portends a severe 
drought. And in general it is a sign of rain when 
cocks and hens search for lice ; as also when they 
make a noise like that of falling rain. 

Again it is a sign of rain when a tame 6 duck gets 
under the eaves and flaps its wings. Also it is a sign 
of rain when jackdaws and fowls flap their wings 
whether on a lake or on the sea like the duck. It 

4 UpaKifafftv. ? 'hover like hawks.' However, Arat. 231 
understood it to refer to the voice : so LS. 

5 firippoi&Sri. Exact sense uncertain, cf. Soph. Ant. 1004. 

6 ri/j.pos. 1 



fiaivei. teal epwBibs opOpiov ffrfleyyoaevos vScop 
r) TTvevfia arj/jiaivei,' teal eav eVt 0d\arrav Trero- 
aevos ftoa, jjLa\\ov v&aros arjfjielov r) 
KOI 6'A,&>9 ftowv dve/j,w>e<;. 

19 Kal o (nrivos ev OLKLO, oi/covfjievy eav 
ewdev, vScop cnj/jiaivei, r) %6i/JLa>va. real 
(nrivOrjpi^ovora 7rd(ra TrepiTrXews vSaTos 

KOi IOV\01 TToXXot 7T/009 TofyoV GpTTOVTeS 

SeX^l? Trapa <yrjv /coXvjjifBwv /cal dva&v6/JLvo<> 
TTVtcva vBcop rj xeijuwva a^jjiaivei. 

20 r "Tfjir)TTO<; e\aTTCi)v, avvSpos fcaXov/jievos, eav T&> 

ve<f)e\iov e^y, vSaro? cnjfieiov Kal eav o 
/ Tyu.77TT09 TO) Oepovs e^rj ve(f)e\a<$ avwdev 
l etc 7r\a<yiov, #Saro9 arj/melov. /cal eav 6 avv- 
8/309 f/ T^TT09 \evrcds e%Y) avaOev Kal e/c 7r\a<yiov. 
Kal eav Trepl layfJiepiav \l^r Trvevarj, vScop cri;- 

21 A/ Be ftpovral al pev ^ei/jieptval Kal ew6wal 
fjia\\ov <ave/jiov rj> vScop ari^aivovcnv al Be 
depival jueo-rj/jippias Kal ea-Trepival fipovral vSari- 
KOV o-rj/jieiov. dcrrpaTral Se eav j TravTayjoQev 
yevtovrai, vSaros av TJ dvefiov o-rjjmeiov, Kal 
ecnrepival wGavTws. Kal eav aKpwplas vorov 
TTveovTO? voroOev d<7Tpd\jfr), v8o)p crrjfjiaivei rj dve- 
fjiov. Kal %e(f)vpo<; do-rpaTrrcov 77/009 /Bopeiov rj 
XeijAWva TI v8a)p a-rjaaivei. Kal Oepovs al ecr- 
Trepiai darpaTral vScop avrcKa crrj^aivova'tv rj 

1 Sch. cites Plin. 18. 364, vermes terreni erumpentes, as 
representing this, which seems doubtful. 

2 c/. Plin. 18. 361 ; Cic. Div. 2. 70. 

3 eav rif. ? eaj/ iv T$. 



is a sign of wind or rain when a heron utters his note 
at early morning : if, as he flies towards the sea, he 
utters his cry, it is a sign of rain rather than of wind, 
and in general, if he makes a loud cry, it portends 

It is a sign of rain or storm if a chaffinch kept in 
the house utters its note at dawn. It is also a sign 
if any pot filled with water causes sparks to fly when 
it is put on the fire. It is also a sign of rain when a 
number of millepedes * are seen crawling up a wall. 
A dolphin 2 diving near land and frequently re- 
appearing indicates rain or storm. 

If the lesser Mount Hymettus, which is called the 
Dry Hill, has cloud in 3 its hollows, it is a sign of 
rain : so also is it, if the greater Hymettus has 
clouds in summer on the top and on the sides : or if 
the Dry Hymettus has white clouds on the top and 
on the sides ; also if the south-west wind 4 blows at 
the equinox. 

Thunder in winter and at dawn indicates wind 5 
rather than rain ; thunder in summer at midday or 
in the evening is a sign of rain. If lightning is seen 
from all sides, it will be a sign of rain or wind, and 
also if it occurs in the evening. Again, if when 
the south wind 6 is blowing at early dawn, 7 there is 
lightning from the same quarter, it indicates rain or 
wind. When the west wind is accompanied by 
lightning from the north, it indicates either storm 
or rain. Lightning in the evening in summer time 
indicates rain within three days, if not immediately. 

4 cf. Arist. Probt. 26. 26. 

6 6v6/xoj/ *) add. Furl, from Plin. 18. 354. 

(i cf. Soph. Aj. 257 ; Arist. Probt . 26. 20. 

7 aKpwpias. cf. 42. So Arat. 216 renders. 

D O 2 


rpiwv r)/j,epwv. teal OTrco/ja? jBoppdOev darpajral 
vBantcbv arj^elov. 

'H Eu/3ota 07 av Biafaa-Of) fleet], vBatp Bid 
Ta^eajv. /cal edv ejrl TO T\.I^\LOV ve(f>e\t] 
oOev av Trpocri^r), evrevOev vBwp r) avejJLOv 
orav Ipis <yevr)rai, 67rio">]/jiaivei,' edv re TroXXai 
<yeva)VTai,, o-rjjjiaivei vBcop eVt TTO\V. d\\d 
teal ol ofet? tf\ioi, orav etc 
ev KOI\W ^wpiu* edv TU cod e 
e/c r^? fjLVp/jir)Kid<> eTrl TO v^rj\bv %wpiov, v&wp 
<Ti)[jbaivov(nv, edv Be Kara(f)ep(i)<riv, evSiav. edv 
7raprf\ioi Svo yevwvrai fcal 6 /J,ev voro6ev 6 Be 
ftoppdOev, KOI aXo)? a/xa vScop Bid ra^ewv 
vovo-i. teal a\o)9 at fjuekaivai vBariKov /cat 
\ov al Bei\r)$. 

23 'El/ TO) ^.apKlVW BvO ttO"T6/36? i(TiV, 01 KCL\OV- 

fjievoi "Ovoi, MV TO fjLeragv TO ve$e\iov 77 Qdrvrj 
Ka\ovfjievr). rovro edv ^otyayBes yevrjrai, vBaritcov. 
edv fir) eVl Kvvl 1/0-77 17 eirl 'ApfcrovpM, w? eVl 
TO TroXu 7T/J09 la^jjiepiav vBwp TJ dvep,os. real TO 
Br)/ji6(Tiov TO irepl T9 /J-Via^ Xeyo/juevov d\r)0es' 
orav ydp Bd/cvcocrt (rcfroBpa, vBaros crrj^etov. 
arrives (frfleyyoiLLevos ecoOev /JLCV vBayp (T^^aivei 
T) %eifji(*)va, oWX?;? ^e vBcop. 

24 TT)? Be VVKTOS orav rbv "T/jiijrTov KarwOev rwv 
aKpwv ve(j)e\rj Bia^axrrj XCUA^ KOI /jLa/cpd, vBcop 

a>9 TO. TroXXa f^erpicov rj/Aepwv. /cal edv 

1 Evidently an Attic saying, of days when only the upper 
part of the Euboean mountains was visible. 



Lightning from the north in late summer is a sign ot 

1 When Euboea has a girdle about it up to the 
waist, there will be rain in a short space. If cloud 
clings about Mount Pel ion, it is an indication of rain 
or wind from the quarter to which it clings. When 
a rainbow appears, it is an indication of rain ; if 
many rainbows appear, it is an indication of long- 
continued rain. So too is it often when the sun 
appears 2 suddenly out of cloud. It is a sign of 
rain if ants 3 in a hollow place carry their eggs up 
from the ant-hill to the high ground, a sign of fair 
weather if they carry them down. If two mock- 
suns 4 appear, one to the south, the other to the 
north, and there is at the same time a halo, these 
indicate that it will shortly rain. A dark halo round 
the sun indicates rain, especially if it occurs in the 

In the Crab are two stars called the Asses, and 
the nebulous space between them is called the 
Manger 5 ; if this appears dark, it is a sign of rain. 
If there is no rain at the rising of the Dog or of 
Arcturus, there will generally be rain or wind to- 
wards the equinox. Also the popular saying about 
flies is true ; when they bite excessively, it is a sign 
of rain. If a chaffinch 6 utters its note at dawn, it 
is a sign of rain or storm, if in the afternoon, of 

When at night a long stretch of white cloud en- 
compasses Hymettus below the peaks, there will 
generally be rain in a few days. If cloud settles on 

2 cf. B.P. 8. 10. 3. 

3 Plin. IS. 364 ; Verg. Georg. 1. 379. 

4 cf. 29. 5 cf. 43, 51. 

6 cf. 19, of which this seems to be in part a repetition. 



ev Klryivr) [/cal] eirl TOV Ato? TOV 
ve(f>e\t] /caQifyrat,, of>9 ra TroXXa vBwp <yiverai. 
edv vbara TroXXa ryivrjrai yj-ipzpivd, TO cap a>9 
ra TToXXa ylveTai avx/j,r)p6v eav B' 
6 x ei ^ v > T a P ^SarcoSe?. orav 
ryivwrai, a>9 ra ?roXXa everrjpia yiverai. 
25 <I>a<7! Se r^z^e? Acal el ev avOpafy \afjLirpa yjjC 
e7ri<f)aivrfTai, yaXa^av Trpoar)^aiveiv &)? ra 
eav Be wcrirep /ceyxpoi /jut/cpol \a/u,7rpol TroXXot, 
avefjiov fjiev ovros evBuav, yu,^ ave^ov Be vBcop ?] 
dve/jiov. ean S' a^eivov Trpwrov ^iveaOai (Sopetov 
vBcop voriov /cal rot? (frvo/jievois /cal rot? fcoot?- Bel 
Be ry\vKi> elvai /cal fir) dXfivpbv rot? yevojAevois. 
Kal 0X0)9 ero? /3e\rLOv voriov ffopeiov Kal vyiei- 
vorepov. /cal orav <TTO\IV> o^vwvrai 7rp6/3ara 

26 II. r/ TSaro9 i^ev ovv ravra \ejerat 

dve/jiov Be /cal 7TV6V/j,dro)v rdBe. dvare\\a)v 6 

^Xi09 KavjJiaTias, /eav /JUT) d7ro<TTi\/3y, 

TO a^jjielov Kal eav /coi\os tfraivrjrai 6 r/ 

rj vBaros TO crrj/Aeiov. /cal edv 7rl ?roXXa9 
Kav^aTia^, a^/iOiW /cal dve/Aovs TroXf- 

crrj/jLaivei. edv at a/cTives at /jiev 
floppav at Be 777)09 VOTOV ayi^toVTai TOVTOV 

1 So called also by Find. Nem. 5. 19. Pans. 2. 30. 3 calls 
it the temple of ZeGs Tlat>e\\-fii>ios. Kal bracketed by Sch. 
a c/. C. P. 2. 2. 



the temple of Zeus Hellanios 1 in Aegina, usually 
rain follows. If a great deal of rain falls in winter, 
the spring is usually dry ; if the winter has been 
dry, the spring is usually wet. When there is 
much 2 snow in winter, a good season generally 

Some say that, if in the embers 3 there is an ap- 
pearance as of shining hail-stones, it generally 
prognosticates hail ; while, if the appearance is like 
a number of small shining millet-seeds, 4 it portends 
fair weather, if there is wind at the time, but, if 
there is no wind, rain or wind. It is better both for 
plants and for animals that rain should come from 
the north before it comes from the south ; it must 
however be fresh and not briny to the taste. And 
in general a season 5 in which a north wind prevails 
is better and healthier than one in which southerly 
winds prevail. It is a sign of a long winter when 
sheep or goats have a second 6 breeding season. 

The signs of wind. 

II. Such then are said to be the signs of rain. The 
following are signs of wind and breezes. 7 If the sun 
rises with a burning heat but does not shine bril- 
liantly, it is a sign of wind. If the sun has a hollow 
appearance, it is a sign of wind or rain. If it blazes 
with a burning heat for several days, it portends 
long-continued drought or wind. If at dawn its 
rays are parted, some pointing to the north and some 

3 &j/6>pa|t conj. Sch., supported by Plin. 18. 358 ; Arat. 309. 
ampdai MSS. 

4 cf. 14, 42, 54, 5 cf. C.P. 2. 2. 

6 TTO.XIV ins. Sch.; text probably defective. 

7 Plin. 18. 342. 



tear opOpov, KOLVOV t/Saro? /cal dve/jiov 

27 "E(7T Be o-yfiela ev r)\lq> KOI crekrjvr), ra ^ev 
fjiekava vSaros ra & epvOpa Trvev/JLaros. eav Be 
/cal 6 yu-et? ftopeiov 6Vro? opOos elcrrtj/crj, %e(j)vpoi 
eltoOaaiv eTmrvelv KOI o fjirjv %ei,fjLpivbs Biarekel. 
orav jJiev r) Kepaia <r) ava rov fjLyvos 7riKVTTTy, 
ftopeios 6 /ACL?' orav 8' rj KarwOev, VOTIOS' eav 8' 
opOos KOI /jur] /caXco? yKerc\ijji6i>os ^XP 1 TTpa-%o<$ 
KOI ei>fcvfc\o<;, eiwde i^d%iv fi\pi Si%ofjLi]V 

cbv vBcop TrvpcoSrjs 

28 AWviai /cal vr)rrai [Trrepvyi^ovo-ai] teal ciypicu 
KOI rtOaaaal vBwp /JLCV crrjfAalvovo-i, 
Trrepvyi^ovorai, Be dve/jiov. ol /cen 
ovo-rjs OTTOI av TreTwvrai av6/j,ov 
<TTpov6ol %ei,/jL(*)vos a<' eaTrepas Oopvpovvres rj 
fj,ra/3o\r)V (T^^alvovaiv rj v8a)p veriov. 
CLTTO 6a\d(T(jr]^ TreToyu-e^o? /cal 
arj/jieiov earr /cal 6'Xa>9 ftowv 

29 Kuwz/ KV\iv$ov/jivo<; xa/Jial fjueyeflos dve/jiov 
dpd-^via TroXXa ^epo^eva Trvevfjia r) 
crrj/juaivei. rj afJLTrwn^ fibpeiov Trvev/jia 
, TT\rjf.ifjivpa Be vbriov. eav jj^ev yap etc 
ftopeiwv 7r\7]jjL/Avpa tf/cr), et? VOTIOV fJLeTa(3d\\ei, 
eav S' e/c voriwv d^Trcoris yivijTai, et? /Bopeiov 

1 Plin. 18. 343 suggests that this is the meaning : text 
perhaps defective, cf. Verg. Georg. 1. 445. 

2 cf. 38. 

3 Lit. 'the crescent moon has a northerly character.' i/ 
&i>a> add. Furl. 


to the south, while the orb itself is 1 clearly seen 
between, it is a sign of rain and wind. 

Also black spots on the sun or moon indicate rain, 
red spots wind. Again, if, while a north wind blows, 
the horns 2 of the crescent moon stand out straight, 
westerly winds will generally succeed, and the rest 
of the month will be stormy. When the upper horn 
of the crescent moon is bent, northerly winds 3 will 
prevail for that part of the month : when the lower 
horn is bent, southerly winds will prevail. 4 If 
however the horns up to the fourth day point 
straight and have not a graceful bend inwards but 
round to a circle, it will generally be stormy till the 
middle of the month. If the moon is dusky, it 
indicates rain, if fiery, it indicates wind. 

It is a sign of rain when gulls and ducks, 
whether wild or tame, plunge under water, a sign of 
wind when they flap their wings. Wherever the 
bird called kepphos flies during a calm, it is a sign of 
coming wind. If sparrows in winter begin to be 
clamorous at evening, it is a sign of a coming change 
or of a fall of rain. A heron flying from the sea and 
screaming is a sign that a breeze is coming : so is it 
in general a sign of wind when he screams loudly. 

A dog rolling on the ground is a sign of violent 
wind. A number of cobwebs 5 in motion portends 
wind or storm. The ebb-tide indicates a north 
wind, the flowing tide a wind from the south. For, 
if the flowing tide sets from the north, there is a 
change to the south, and if an ebb-tide comes from 
the south, there is a change to the north. It is 

* cf. 38 ; Plin. 18. 347 ; Verg. Georg. i. 428 ; the English 
sign, ' the young moon with the old moon in her arm.' 
6 Plin. 11. 84 ; Arist. Probl. 26. 61. 



fjiraftd\\ei. QaXacrcra olBovaa real d/cral fiowcrai, 
/cal alyia\b<; ^%wi^ dvejjiwBr)?. fcal 6 pev ftopeas 
\r)<ya)v e\drro)v 6 Be voro? dp%6uevos. 
orcoOev civ y vBcop 77 dveaov <Ti)/j,aivei,. 
30 H rrefiTrrr) /cal Be/cdrij drro rporrwv rwv 
Xeifjiepivtov a)? ra 7ro\\a vonos. ftopeicov $e 
rytvoju,eva)v ^tjpaivei, iravra, voriwv Be vypaivei. 
eav Be VOTLWV OVTWV ^ro(f)fj <.n> TMV KKO\\rj- 
/jLevwv, et9 TO, voTia o"yj /active i rrjv /jLTa/3o\tjv eav 
Be TroSe? olBwcri, VOTICL tj /A6ray5oX^. TO Be avro 
teal e/cvetyiov. /cal oBa^ayv rov Be^iov. 
o xepcralos a-rjfjLavriKov Troielrai Be Bvo 
OTra? OTTOV av olfcfj, rrjv fj,ev 777)09 ftoppav TIJV Be 
voroOev OTTorepav S' av a,7ro(f) parry, evrevOev 
7rvevfj,a (TTjfjiaiveL, eav 8' d{j,<f)orepa$, ave^ov 

31 'Rav opos . . ., 7T/30? ffoppa ave^ov 
eav ev Oa\drrrj ej;ai<j)vr)s rrvevfju 
yivrjrai, fJberafto\,r)V irvev[j,aro^ r) eiriBoo-iv. eav 
a/cpat aerecopot, (fraivcovrai rj Kal vrjo-oi etc /Mas 
TrXe^ou?, voriav fj,era/3o\rjv arjfjiaiver 777 re /-te- 
\atva V7ro(f)aivo/jivr) </36peiov>, \evfcrj Be voriov. 
al a\a)ve<; rrepl rrjv ae\rjvr]v Trvev/JiarwBeis jjiaXKov 
rj rrepl jj\iov o-rj/j,aivov(Ti Be rrvev/jia payeia-ai 
rrepl d^co, /cal y av payy ravrrj rrvevfAa. ejrt- 

1 c/. 40 ; Plin. 18. 359 ; Verg. Georg. 1. 356. 

2 c/. Arist. Probl. 26. 12 ad fin. 

3 fypaivei, vypatvei seem to be used quasi- impersonally ; but 
the text is perhaps defective. 

4 vormMSS. ; ptpeia conj. Furl., surely with good reason, 
c/. Arist. Probl. 1. 24. 

5 After 56i&? Sch. and W. mark a lacuna, which does not 
seem necessary. 6 c/. Arist. H.A. 9. 6 ad fin. 



a sign of wind when the sea 1 has a swell or promon- 
tories moan or there is loud noise on the beach. 
Now the north wind has less force as it ceases to 
blow, the south wind as it begins. A mock sun, in 
whatever quarter it appears, indicates rain or wind. 

The fifteenth 2 day after the winter solstice is 
generally marked by southerly winds. If there is a 
northerly wind, everything gets dried 3 up, if a 
southerly, there is abundant moisture. If, while a 
south wind is blowing, glued articles make a cracking 
sound, it indicates a change to a south 4 wind. If 
the feet swell, there will be a change to a south 
wind. This also sometimes indicates a hurricane. So 
too does it, if a man has a shooting pain in the right 
foot. 5 The behaviour 6 of the hedgehog is also 
significant : this animal makes two holes wherever 
he lives, one towards the north, the other towards 
the south : now whichever hole he blocks up, it 
indicates wind from that quarter, and, if he closes 
both, it indicates violent wind. 

If a mountain ... , 7 it indicates wind from the 
north. If at sea during a wind there is a sudden 
calm, it indicates a change or an increase of wind. 
If promontories 8 seem to stand high out of the sea, 
or a single island looks like several, it indicates a 
change to south wind. If the land looks black from 
the sea, it indicates a north wind, 9 if white, a south 
wind. A halo 10 about the moon signifies wind more 
certainly than a halo about the sun : but in either 
case, if there is a break in the halo, it indicates 
wind, which will come from the quarter in which the 
break is. If the sky is overcast in whatever quarter 

7 I have marked a lacuna after opos. Furl, renders si mons 
versus aquilonem extenditur, venti signum est, with what 
meaning I cannot see. 8 cf. Arist. Meteor. 3. 4 ad inif. 

9 fitpeiov add. Furl. ie cf. 51. 



v oOev dv dvaTe\\r)rai, evrevOev aveuo?. 
al KrfKd^es ve(f)\ai Oepovs dvefjiov at] fjiaiv overt. 
32 'Ea^ do"r pairr] TravTa%b9ev yivijrai, vBcop O-TJ- 
{taivei, Kal 60ev av al dcrrpairal TTVKval yivcov- 
rai, evrevOev Trvevfiara jiverai. Oepovs oOev 
av aa-rpairal Kal ffpovral yivcovrai, evrevOev 
Trvev/jLara yiverai la^vpd' eav /*ev a(f)6Spa Kal 
laxypov do-TpaTTTrj, OaTrov Kal o-^oBporepov irvev- 
GOVCTLV, eav S* rjpefia Kal /Jbavws, /car' o\iyov. 
TOV e CIAWVOS Kal OivoTrwov rovvavriov 

iravovGt, yap ra Trvev/^ara a arpaira' Ka ocrw 
av la-^vporepat ^ivwvrai da-rpaTral Kal ftpovrai, 
TOO-OVTW fjia\\ov Travovrar TOV 8' e'apo? fjrrov 
av ravra (jr^Lela \ejd), cocnrep Kal ^ei^wvo^. 

'Eaz/ VOTOV TTveovro? ftoppaOev darpdTnr), irav- 
erai' eav ecodev darpaTrrrj eiwOe TraveaQai rpt- 
rato?, ol Be a\\oi ire/jLTrraloi efiBo/Aaioi evvaTaloi, 
ol Be Bei\ivol ra%v iravovrai. ol ffopeat, Travovrai 
a)? eVl TO TroXu ev Trepirrai^ ol Be VOTOL e 
ave/j,oi aipovrai d/ju 7]\iw dvare\\ovTi 
eav dvare\\u>v o rj\io<$ Kal o-e\rfvrj 
eTTiTeivei rd TTvevjuiara' xpovitorepa Be Kal l 
porepa rd TrvevfAara ylverai ra r)/j,epas f) vvKrcop 

34 'Eidv errjaiai TTO\VV ^povov irveva-wai Kal 
evrjTai dve/juwBes, 6 xei/Awv vr)ve^o^ 
, ev S' evavria)?, Kal 6 ^eifjicbv evavrios. 

1 Ki)\d8es, i.e. a 'mackerel sky'(?) The word seems to 
occur nowhere else except in Hesych., who renders frvvtipos : 
derivation obscure. It should probably be read in 51 for 
Koi\d5es. 2 Plin. 18. 351. 

3 &t>. Sc. elvai, which perhaps should be added. 



the sun is first seen, there will be wind from that 
quarter. Light 1 clouds in summer-time indicate wind. 

If lightning comes from all sides, it indicates rain, 
and from any quarter from which the flashes come 
in quick succession there will be wind. In summer 2 
from whatever quarter lightning and thunder come, 
there will be violent winds : if the flashes are brilliant 
and startling, the wind will come sooner and be more 
violent ; if they are of gentler character and come at 
longer intervals, the wind will get up gradually. In 
winter and autumn however the reverse happens, for 
the lightning causes the wind, to cease : and, the 
more violent the lightning and thunder are, the 
more will the wind be reduced. In spring I consider 
that the indications would 3 not so invariably have 
the same meaning, and this is also true of winter. 

If, while a south wind is blowing, there comes 
lightning from the north, the wind ceases. If 
there is lightning at dawn, the wind generally 
ceases on the third day : other winds than a south 
wind however do not cease till the fifth seventh or 
ninth day, though a wind which got up in the after- 
noon will cease sooner. A north 4 wind generally 
ceases in an odd, a south wind in an even number of 
days. Winds get up at sunrise or moonrise. If the 
rising sun or moon have caused the wind to cease, 
presently 5 it gets up again with more force, and 
winds which begin to blow in the day-time last longer 
and are stronger than those which begin at night. 

If periodic winds have been blowing for a long 
time, and a windy autumn follows, the winter is wind- 
less : if however the contrary happens, the character 

4 Plin. 2. 129. 

8 80 Furl, renders : W. inserts ^rj after <re\i]vi). 




av V(f>e\rj 

ave/jios Trvevaeirai. al ve$e\ai ere 
v TTpoa-'i^ovGai /cat OTTiaOev Trvevo-ovvrai,. 
"A#o>9 /ie<709 Sie&wy/jLevos VOTIOS, /cal oXw? ra 
oprj Siefacr jJLeva voTia 0)9 TO, TroXXa. ol KojjL7JraL 
a<TTe/369 &)9 TO, TroXXa irveufjiaTa (Tr)/jLaivov(riv, lav 
be TroXXot, ^at av%uov. uera yjiova VOTOS, aera 
Trd^vrjv /Bopeas eicoOe irvetv. {jLit/crjTes e/rl \v^yov 
VQTIQV TrvevjJia 77 vScop arjaaivovo'iv. 

35 At Be (TTGLffeiS TWV TTVeVfJia'TWV Oi;TW9 %OV(TIV 

009 ev rq> rypd/jbaaTi SitopKrrai. TWV 8' avepwv 
en TTveovai rofc aXXoi9 eTriTriTrrova-i /jLaXia-ra 
aTrapfcrias Opatcias dpye(TTrj$. orav be urj VTT 
d\\r)\wv &ta\va)VTat, ra Trvev/mara, aXX' avra 

t9 TOU9 

i c/. 22. 2 c ^ 57< 

3 c/. dt Ventis 50 ; Arist. ProU. 26. 3. 4 c/. 14, 25, 42, 54. 
6 The ' figure ' (giving points of the compass) has not been 
preserved. Arist. Meteor. 2. 6. describes such a figure (viro- 
), which may be reconstructed thus : 



of winter is also reversed. From whatever quarter 
cloud streams out from a mountain peak, wind will 
blow in the direction thus indicated. Clouds which 
cling to the back of the mountain will also produce 
wind from the back of it. If there is a girdle * of 
cloud half way up Mount Athos, and if mountains 
in general wear such a girdle, there will generally 
follow a southerly wind. Comets 2 usually indicate 
wind, arid, if there are many of them, drought is 
also indicated. After snow 3 a south wind, after 
hoar-frost a north wind generally blows. Snuff 4 in 
a lamp indicates wind or rain from the south. 

The points from which the winds come are as 
they are given in the figure. 5 The winds which 
most often come on the top of other winds while 
these are still blowing are the north wind (aparktias)? 
the north-north-east and the north-west. When 
however the winds are not dispersed by one another 
but die down of their own accord, they change 7 to 
the next winds on the figure, reckoning from left 

Arist. does not seem to distinguish #opeos and airapKrias : his 
OpaffKlas is T.'s Opavias : his eight principal winds (underlined 
in diagram) correspond to those represented on the famous 
Tower of the Winds at Athens, built about two hundred 
years later. 

6 cf. Arist. I.e. 7 Plin. 2. 128. 



vovs eVl Be%id, wcnrep f] TOV fj\iov e^ei <f>opd. 6 
voros dp-^ofjievo^ f^po? re\evrS)v Be 1/7/30?. KOI 
o evpos. 6 B* a7rr]\icJt)T'r)s CLTTO dvaro\fj<> l<jr\- 
fjiepivrjs vBartoBiys' Bid XCTTTWV Be djei ra vSara. 

36 "Typol Be fJbd\ivTa o re KaiKias KOL \fy' 

8r}<; 8* (nrapKrias /cat Opatcias /cal dp- 
vi<j>T(0$r)$ Be o re /j,e(Trj<; [rj ffopeas] /cal 

Kav/jLartoBr)? Be voros /cal 
/cal L>po?* ol fjuev ols dv e/c 7re\dyov<> 
a-iv, ol Be 0^9 dv Bid 7779. Ba<rvvov(Ti S* ovpavov 
vefafTi, teal Ka\v7rTOVcri KaiKias ^dkicrra elra 
X(/^. KOI 01 fiev d\\oi dvefjioi d<j) eavrcov ra 
vefyr) a)0ovo-i, /cai/cia$ Be JJLQVOS Trvewv efc eavrov. 
aWpioi Be fJLd\L<rra Opatclas fcal dpyecrrrj^ /cal 
TWV \OITTWV dTrap/crias' e/cvefaai Be fj,d\io~Ta o 
re dirapKria^ /cal 6 0pa/cia<s /cal 6 dpyeart^. 

37 Yivovrai Be e/cvetfriai orav t9 d\\r}\ov$ /JL- 
TrtTTTaxjt Trveovres /j,d\io"ra fjiev /jLeroTroopov rwv 
Be \OITTWV e'a/309. d<rr paTraios Be Opafcias /cal 

teal dirapKria^ /cal //,6crr;9. edv ev rfj 
rj iraTTTroi fyepwvrai iro\\ol ol 
diro TWV d/cai'Qwv, dvefJiov (rrj/uLaivovaiv e 
fieyav. oOev dv dcrrepe^ Biarrcocri 7ro\\oi, 

1 I have bracketed 4) /Jope'as as probably a gloss on airapxrias ; 
^ is difficult to account for otherwise, See diagram. 

2 Plin. 18. 360. 



to right according to the course of the sun. When 
the south wind begins to blow, it is dry, but it 
becomes wet before it ceases : so too does the south- 
east wind. The east wind, coming from the quarter 
where the sun rises at the equinox, is wet : but it 
brings the rain in light showers. 

The north-east and south-west are the wettest 
winds ; the north the north-north-east and the north- 
east bring hail ; snow comes with the north-north- 
east 1 and north. The south, the west, and the 
south-east winds bring heat. Some of these have 
their effect on places which they strike as they 
come from the sea, others on places which they visit 
as they come over land. The winds which more 
than any others make the sky thick with cloud and 
completely cover it are the north-east and the south- 
west, especially the former. While the other winds 
repel the clouds from themselves, the north-east 
alone attracts them as it blows. Those winds which 
chiefly bring a clear sky are the north-north- west 
and the north-west, and next after them the north. 
Those which most have the character of a hurricane 
are the north the north-north-west and the north- 

They acquire this character when they fall upon 
one another as they blow, especially in autumn, but to 
some extent in spring. Those which are accompanied 
by lightning are the north-north-west the north- 
west the north and the north-north-east. If at 
sea 2 a quantity of down is seen blown along, which 
has come from thistles, it indicates that there will 
be a great wind. Wind 3 may be expected from 
any quarter in which a number of shooting stars are 

3 cf. 13 ; Plin. 18. 352 ; Verg. Georg. 1. 365. 




evTevOev eav Be 7ravTa%66ev o/<iotft>9, TroAAa Trveu- 

fjuev ovv (Tij/Aeia ravra. 

38 III. X6/-ia>i/o9 Be TaBe. r/At09 Bvopevos et? /JLTJ 
KaOapov. Kal co? av uepKrOfj Bvouevos, OUTO)? at 
rjfjLepai 7rire\ovvrai. olov el TO rpirov yLte^oo? 
aTro\ei,<t)6eir} rj TO tffj,i(rv. TO cre\rjviov eav opOov 

s /cal el evfcv/c\op, %ei/jido-ei f^e^pt 
yepavoi eav irpwl TreTcovTai, /cal aOpooi, 
Trpon' ftei/jidcrei, eav Be otye /cal iro\vv %povov, otye 
'XeifidaeL. /cal eav vTroo-Tpa^w&i TreTo/ievai, %ei- 
fiwva (rrj/jiaivov(Ti. 

39 X?}z>65 /3oc5^T69 fJid\\OV T) 7Tpl (TITOV 

'Xeipepiov* O-TTIVOS crTpovOos aTrl^wv ewOev 
fjuepiov. opxiXos [&>?] elaioov /cal elcrBvo/jievos 
o?ra9 'XeijJi&va ari^aivovai /cal epi6ev<$ 
fcopwvr) eav Tayv Bl$ /cpa>r) /cal Tpirov, 
/cal Kopcovrj /cal /copa /cal /co\oio<> otye 
^eifiepioi. GTpovOos eav \evtco<$ rj %e\iBcov i] 
a\\o TL T&V pr) elwOoTwv \v/c)v, xei/A&va fteyav 
crrj/jiaivovcnv, axrTrep tcai, /JieXaves eav 7ro\\ol 
(fravwcnv, vBcop. 

40 Kal eav e/c 7re\dyov<i opviOes (fievycocri, %ei/j,a)va 

/cal CTTTLVOS ev ol/cia ol/covfjievrj 
^eLfJuepiov. ocra vBwp cni/jiaivet, %ei- 
dyei, eav fjt,rj vBcop, ^Lova Kal 

1 i.e. and the succeeding day will be more or less stormy in 
proportion. airo\el(t>6flri. ? a.tro\r](f)deii] = ' may be obscured.' 

2 cf. 27. i.e. it is possible, more or less, to see the whole 



seen. If these appear in every quarter alike, it in- 
dicates many winds. 

Such then are the signs of winds. 

III. The following are signs of storm. The sun 
becoming obscured as it sinks indicates storm. And, 
according as its orb is divided as it sets, so the 
succeeding days turn out ; for instance, a third or a 
half of the orb may remain visible. 1 If the horns 2 of 
the moon point straight up till the fourth day, and if 
it rounds to a circle, it will be stormy till the middle 
of the month. If cranes fly early and in flocks, it 
will be an early winter ' 6 ; if they fly late and for a 
long time, it will be a late winter ; and, if they 
wheel as they fly, it indicates stormy weather. 

4 It is a sign of storm when geese make more 
clamour than usual or fight for their food ; so too is 
it when a sparrow or chaffinch twitters at dawn. It 
indicates a storm when the goldcrest 5 goes into 
holes and hides itself; so also when the redbreast 
does the same. It is a sign of storm when the crow 
caws twice in quick succession and then a third time ; 
also when the crow or raven or jackdaw makes its 
call late. It is a sign of a great storm when a white 
sparrow or swallow is seen, or a white specimen of 
any other bird which is not usually white, even as 
the appearance of a large number of such birds of a 
dark colour signifies rain. 

It is also an indication of storm when birds flee 
from the sea. A chaffinch uttering its note in an 
inhabited house is a sign of storm. All the signs 
which indicate rain bring stormy weather, that is to 
say, snow and storm, if not rain. If the raven utters 

3 So Arat. 343 f. interprets. 4 Plin. 18. 363. 

5 d>s bracketed by Sch. 

E E 2 


%ei/jiepiov. Ko\oiol IK TOV VOTOV Trero/jievoi KOI 
TevQi&es 'xeijj.epiai. (jxovrj ev \ifJLevi airo^o^ovcra 
KOI Tro\vTr\OKOv fyovaa ^ei/^eptov. Kal ol rrvev- 
fjuoves ol Oa\aTTioi eav TroXXot fyaivwwrai ev r& 
7T\djt., 'xeijjiepivov 6TOV9 <J7] fj,elov '. Trpopara eav 
Trpco'l o%evr)Tai, Trpwlov xei/jiwva o-rjfAaivova-i. 
41 MeroTTCo/jft) eav 7rp6/3ara T) /3o69 opvrrcoo-i KOI 
KOifAWVTai a6p6oi rcpos a\\ij\ov<; e%oz/re? r9 
Ace^aXa?, TOV %ifjiwva xeipepiov arf/^aivei. ev 
Se TO) HOVTW (paaiv, orav 'Ap/crovpos avareiKr) 
Qarrov, evavriovs rw floppa ve/JLecrdai. /Soe 
fjiaXkov eaQiovres TOV elwOoTOS teal eVl TO Segib 


/ca cra /cpovcov 

Kal f^a^o/jieva Trpoffara KOI opvi0es 
Trepl GITQV IT a pa TO eOos* irpoTrapacrfcevd^ovTai, 
yap' teal fives rpi^ovres Kal op^ovfievoi %ei[Jiepi,ov. 
42 Kal KVCOV Tot9 TTOcrlv opvrrovo-a Kal o\o\vya)v 
aSov&a /JLOVIJ aKpwpias ^eifiepiov. 7779 evrepa 
TroXXa <f>aiv6/j,va ^ei/JLMva o-rjfjiaivei. Kal eav 
7rvp jmr) 0e\rj ajrreaOai, ^eifjiipiov Kal eav Xv^vos 
urj eOekrj, ^eifiMva <Tr}fULLVf Kal re(f)pa 
vifyerov. Xu^o9 evbias ^crv^alo^ 
^eifiwva o-rj/Aaivei,' Kal eav %e/yu,a>^o9 
OI/T09 fiVKai fjue\aivai eTTiyivcovrai, ^eifiwva crrj- 
Kal eav wcrTrep Key%poi,<> 7roXXot9 Kard- 

The word is perhaps corrupt and conceals the 
name of a bird. 
2 c/. 21, 29. iroXv-nKoKov is Furlanus' conj. for Vulg. 

z iTVfvfj.ovfs. Pliu. 18. 359. pulmones : c/. 9. 154. 


a great variety of sounds in winter, it is a sign of 
storm. Jackdaws flying from the south are a sign 
of storm, and so are cuttle-fish. 1 It is a sign of storm 
when a loud 2 voice is heard in harbour, which is re- 
echoed many times. It is a sign of a stormy season 
when a number of jelly-fish 3 appear in the sea. It 
indicates an early winter when the breeding season 
of sheep begins early. 

If in autumn sheep or oxen dig holes and lie 
keeping their heads close to one another, it indicates 
a severe winter. They say that in Pontus when 
Arcturus rises, (the cattle 4 ) face northwards as they 
graze. It is a sign of storm when cattle eat more 
than usual and lie down on their right sides. 5 So is 
it when the ass shakes 6 his ears, or when sheep or 
birds fight for their food more than usual, since they 
are then trying to secure a store against bad weather : 
also when mice squeak and dance. 

A bitch digging holes with her paws and a tree- 
frog croaking alone at early dawn 7 are signs of 
storm : it indicates storm when a number of the 
worms 8 called 'the earth's entrails' appear. It is a 
sign of storm if the fire refuses to catch, or if a lamp 
refuses to light : while, if much ash is formed, it is a 
sign of snow. If a lamp burns steadily in fine 
weather, it is a sign of storm : so is it if in winter- 
time dark snuff 9 forms : if it is, as it were, full of 
numerous millet-seeds, there will be stormy weather ; 

4 QUTTOV is clearly corrupt, and words indicating what the 
sign portends are missing. 5 cf. 54. 

6 &ra Kpovwv doubtful. Sch. suggests ovSas for 2>ra. 

7 ojepapfey, cf. 21. 

8 7775 evrepa. So Arat. 225 explains. One might guess 
' worm-casts.' 

9 cf. 14, 25, 34, 54. 



7rXeo>9 77, %eifJLepi(Tr ical edv KVK\W nrepl TO 
\afjLTTpov wcriv evBias ovo"r]<s, yioviKQV. 

43 'H ToO ovov <&drvrj el avvio-rarai ical 
yiverai, %ei/j,a>va o-yfMaivei. KOI edv 

\afJb7Tpd /JLT) 6V Tft> ttUTOJ fACVrj, X6l/ijL6plOV. eVl 

Svofjievy eav \djjL^r) /card Hdpv^Qa /cal 
/cal r "T/j,rjTTOV, edv fiev airawra fcara- 
fAeyav %eiyu-o>va cTTjjAaivei,, edv Be rd Svo, 
edv Be TLdpvr)6a /JLOVOV, evBieivov /cal edv 
ovros vefyeKr) /j,aKpd eVt rbv f/ T/jir]rTov y, 
eTTiracnv arjiJLaivet,. "A^cw? /cal "OXu//,- 
Kai 6Xft>9 opecov /copv(f>ai /care^o/jievai VTTO 
ve(f>e\(Jt)v 'xeifiepiov. edv evSlas ryivo/jbevrj^ ve- 
<j)e\iov <f>aivr)Tai ev T> depi Traparerafjievov /cal 
ri\\ofjievov, ovTTQ) TTaverai 6 'xeiiiutv. 

44 'Rdv TO /jLCToircopov evBieivbv irapd TO etVo? 
yevrjrai,, TO eap ryiverai ^rv^pov o>9 rd TroXXa. 
edv Trpcot ^eifjid^eiv dpgrjrai, Trpw'l jraverai ical 
eap /ca\6v, edv Be rovvavriov, /cal eap otyiov ea-rai. 
edv %ei/jiOt)V veTios, TO eap avx/nijpov, edv 8' 

o? o xeifitov, TO eap /ca\6v. edv f) oTrcopa 
eiriei/crjs, rd 7ro\\d jiverat, TO?? 
^yU-09. edv TO eap /cal TO Oe 
, ij re oirwpa yuverai, /cal <TO> 
Trvtyrjpbv /cal ov/c dve/jicoBes. 

45 Ol TTplvoL edv evKapirwai, ^ei^wve^ TroXXol 
G(f)6Bpa yivovrai. edv eirl /copvcfrrjs opovs vefas 
oObv GTr)> %ei,[jLwva crrmaivet, oOev /cal 'A/ 

" T\av% opa' (SaOvs ydp ijBrj 

1 ovov <f>a.Tvr). cf. 23, 51. See LS, *.v. ovos ; Theocr. 22. 
21. Plin. 18. 353, sunt in signo Cancri duae stellae parvae 



and if these in fine weather appear in a circle round 
the flame, it is a sign of snow. 

If the ' Ass's Manger l ' shrinks in size and becomes 
dark, it is a sign of storm ; also if there is vivid 
lightning which does not remain in the same quarter. 
If at the setting of the Pleiad there is lightning 
over Parnes Brilessus and Hymettus when it 
appears over all three mountains, it indicates a great 
storm; when over the two lesser heights, a less 
violent storm ; when over Parnes alone, fine weather. 
Again, if during a storm a long cloud stretches over 
Hymettus, it signifies that the storm will increase in 
force. It is a sign of storm when Athos Olympus 
and mountain-peaks in general are covered with 
clouds. If during fine weather a cloud appears in 
the sky stretching a long way and torn to shreds, 
stormy weather will continue. 

If the autumn is unusually fine, the succeeding 
spring is generally cold. If winter begins early, it 
ends early and there is a fair spring ; if the reverse, 
spring will also be late. If the winter is wet, the 
spring will be dry, if the winter is dry, the spring 
will be fair. If the late summer is satisfactory, the 
sheep will generally suffer from hunger. If the 
spring and summer are cold, the late summer and 
autumn 2 will be stifling hot and windless. 

If the kermes-oak 3 fruits well, there follows a 
long succession of storms. If a cloud stands up- 
right on a mountain-peak, it indicates storm ; whence 
Archilochus' lines " Mark you, 4 Glaucus ; deep ocean 

aselli appellatae, exiguum inter illas spatium obtincnte nnle- 
cnla, quam praesepia appellant. 2 rb add. Sch. 3 cf. 49. 
4 A comparison of war to storm}' weather. Quoted also 
by Pint, de Superstitione, 72, and by Heraclides, Allegoriae 
Homer icae, 4. In both citations the Greek is corrupt. 



rapdffderai ITo^ro? dfju^n &' d/cpa <T ( vpwv> opdbv 
"ararat, vefyos ^rj/^a xeifjiwvos" eav & opo^pcov 
77 vfjievi \evK&, %eifjLpioi'. orav ecrrcorcov veipwv 
erepa eTri^eprjrai, ra 8' rjpepf), 
46 <'O r/X09> eav %ei/Acovo? 

a7TOKpV(f)6fj KOl TOVTO TTOir)(Tr) ^l? T) 

Sieicriv. 6 rov 'Epfjiov darrjp 

orav /AetTTa/- /Jtrj aTTOTrerwvrai paKpav 
avrov ev rfj evSia Trerwvrai, 
\VKOS topvbfJievos 

rpi&v rjfjiepcov. Xu/to? orav 7r/oo9 ra epja 
d TI el'cra> ^eiyawvo? wpa, ^eifjiwva crij/jiaivei 

47 "EcrTf 6e arjfjueiov ^ei/jicovcov f^eyaXcov /cal o/j,- 
fipcov KOI orav <yva)vrai V TO) //-eroTrcoyOft) TroXXot 
o"<j)r]K6$, Kal orav opviOes \evtcol irpbs ra epydcri/jia 
7r\r)(Tida)O'i,, /cal 0X009 ra ciypia Or^pia eav rrpos 
ra epydcri/jia, jSopeiov /cal ^eufjLMVO^ p,eye0os ffij- 
fj.aivei. T^9 TldpvrjOos eav ra irpbs ^e^vpov 
ave/jiov /cal ra 7T/)09 0^X779 <f)pdrr^rai vefyevi 
ffopeiwv ovrwv, %ei^epiov rb o-rj/ueiov. 

48 "Qrav Trviyrj jiVTjrat Iv^ypd, 009 ra rro\\a 
dvraTroSiSwGi /cal yiverai ^ei^wv la-%vpos. eav 
vBara eapiva TroXXa yevrjrai, /caviar a la^vpa 
ev rot9 TreSivols Kal icoiXois jiverai. Bel ovv rrjv 

opav. eav rb fJLerorrwpov evBietvbv 

yvpovv W. Heraclides gives yvpebv, Pint, 
but one MS. of Pint, gives yvpuv with a marginal gloss * sc. 
irerp&vS which suggests that the word is a proper name. Od. 
4. 500 mentions the Tvpai (i.e. the 'round-backed rocks') 



is now stirred up with waves, and about the heights 
of the Gyrae 1 there rises a cloud erect, the sign of 
storm." If the clouds are of uniform colour, like 2 
a white membrane, it is a sign of storm. When, as 
some clouds are motionless, others move towards 
them while they remain at rest, it is a sign of storm. 

If the sun in winter after gleaming out is again 
obscured, and this is repeated two or three times, it 
will be stormy all day. If the star Hermes appears 
in winter, it indicates cold, if in summer, heat. 
When in fine weather bees do not fly 3 long distances, 
but fly about where they are, it indicates that there 
will be a storm. The howling of a wolf indicates a 
storm within three days. When a wolf approaches 
or enters cultivated ground in the season of winter, 
it indicates that a storm will come immediately. 

It is also a sign of great storms and heavy rain 
when many wasps appear in autumn, or when white 
birds 4 approach cultivated lands ; and in general 
when wild creatures approach such lands, it indicates 
a north wind and a severe storm. If the western 
side of Fames and the side towards Fhyle are 
blocked with clouds during a north wind, it is a sign 
of storm. 

When there is severe heat, generally there is 
compensation and a severe winter follows. If there 
is much rain in spring, it is followed by severe heat 
in low-lying districts and valleys ; so that one should 
mark how the season begins. If the autumn is 

where Aias Oileus perished. The word is missing in the MSS. 

2 o/xotov has perhaps dropped out after d/j.6xpuv $ ; the 
adjective seems to agree with vctyos. 

cf. Arist. H.A. 9. 40 ad fin. 

4 FUn, 18. 363 : presumably gulls, etc. 



o-<f)6Bpa, TO cap &>9 ra TroXXa yuveTai 

eav Be TO eap ofaov <yevrjTai /cal ^jrv^pov, ?; OTrcopa 

o^ria yiverai /cal <ro> /jueroTrcopov &>9 ra TroXXa 

49 Ol Trplvoi, OTav ev/capTraxn, ccpoBpa, eo? /i-ev ra 
7ro\\.a 'xeijjiwva la^vpov GTq^alvovcriv, evLore 8e 
Kal au^yitou? </>acr ^iv^dQai. /cal edv rt? cnrd- 
\a/ca \a/3(*)V UTTOTracra? apyiXov t9 TriOd/wrjv 
Off, crrjfjLaivei rat? fywvals at? d^i^aiv avepov Kal 
evBiav. /cal TO 'jravTa^ov Be Xeyo/jievov crr)jj,6Lov 

'xeifjuepiov, OTCLV //,0e? irepl <f>opvTov 
/cal (frepaxriv. 

50 IV. EuSta? Be arj^ela TtiBe. ^Xto? fJ<ev aviav 
Xayu-TT/909 /cal /jirj fcavfiaTia? /cal /JLTJ e%a)V arj/jieiov 

ev ev eavTw evBiav (rrj/Jiaivei. 009 8' ai/ra)9 

TravcreX.ijvq). /cal 
t9 Ka9apov evBiewos, eav 

t? yLt^/ /caOapbv BeBv/cobs y e'f e 
ovro) Be aBr)~\,ov. /cal eav %et/i.afoi/T09 ^ 

6t9 /caOapov, evBieivov /cal eav BVVCDV 
/oo9 ?7, evSiav cr^^aivei. 

51 Kat o yitet9 eaz^ rpnalos wv Xayu/7r/)09 ?7, evSt- 
eivov. Kal r) TOV ovov <&drvr) ore av Kadapa Kal 
\afjL7Tpa (fraivrjTai, evBietvov. aX&>9 Be edv o / aaX&)9 

1 T& add. Sch. 2 cf. 45. 

3 (TTraAaKo Vulg. ; ffiroLKa Bas.Ald.; <r/coAo7ra/fa (woodcock?) 
conj. Furl. 

* i.e. (reading ffKo\6irai(a.) for the bird to find worms in 
with its long beak (Sch.). It is hard to say, without illus- 



exceedingly fine, generally the spring is cold : if the 
spring is late and cold, the summer goes on late and 
the l autumn is usually scorching hot. 

When the kermes-oak 2 fruits exceedingly well, it 
generally indicates a severe winter, and sometimes 
they say that this sign is followed by droughts. If 
one takes a mole 3 and puts it in a tub, the bottom 4 
of which has been covered with clay, it indicates 
by the sounds which it utters wind or fine weather. 
There is also the sign of storm which is popularly 
recognized everywhere, namely when mice fight for 
the possession of chaff and carry it about. 

The siym of fair weather. 

IV. The following are signs of fair weather. 5 If 
the sun rises brilliant but without scorching heat 
and without showing any special sign in his orb, it 
indicates fair weather. The same may be said of 
the moon when it is full. If in winter that part of 
the sky into which the sun goes down is clear, it is a 
sign of fair weather, unless on the preceding days 
that part has not been clear, though it was clear 
above the horizon : in that case the prospect is 
uncertain. It is also a sign of fair weather, if during 
stormy conditions that part of the sky into which 
the sun sets is clear ; and also if, in winter at the 
time of setting, the sun has a pale colour. 

Again, it indicates fair weather if the outline of 
the moon on the third day is bright ; also if the 
' Ass's 6 Manger ' is clear and bright. If the halo 7 
forms and disappears evenly, it is a sign of fair 

tration, which is the more convincing of the creatures 
suggested. 5 Plin. 18. 342. 6 cf. 23, 43. 

cf. 22, 31 ; Plin. 18. 345 ; Arist. Meteor. 3. 3. 



Trayf) real /jiapavOfj, evSiav arjfjLaivei. at 
ve(f)6\ai xeifjiwvos evBieivai. "OXfynTro? 8e fcal 

Kdl 6'XO)9 TO, Oprj TCL (TrjfjLaVTlKa OTaV TCiS 

s Ka9apa<$ e^cofflv, evBiav (rrj^aiveL. teal 
orav TO, ve^rf 737)09 rrjv dakaavav avrrjv Trapa- 

fal'VVrj, evSieiVOV. KOI QTCLV VGCLVTOS 7T/J09 SvorfJiCL^ 

^aX/cwSe? ra ve^rj xptofta e^y evbia jap a>? ra 
TroXXa rfj vcrrepaia. 

62 "Qrav 8e 6/jii')(\r) yevrjTai, vScop ov yivercu rj 
e\arrov. orav yepavoi Trercovrai, KCLI /j,rj ava- 
fcdfjLTTTwcriv, evBiav ayfLoive*' ov jap irerovrai irplv 
rj av 7Tr6/jiPOL icaOapa iSacri,. >y\avg ^av^alov 
<j)0y<yoju.6vr) ev ^eijjiMVL ev^Lav Trpoa-rj/jLaivet,' teal 
vvfcrcop %etyuw^o? T)<rvyaiov a&ovaa. 6a\arrLa be 
ry\avj; a&ovcra r \eifJLwvo^ /J,ev ev&iav cnriiJLaivet,, ev- 
5ta9 & ^eifjiMva. KOI /copaj; Be /JLOVO? fiev ^vvycfiov 
icpd^wv, real eav T/ot9 Kpd^y fiera TOVTO 

63 Kat /copcoprj ew6ev evOvs eav fcpdgrj rpis, evbiav 
<Ti)IJLaivei, Kal ecnrepas 'xeijJLWvos r^av^alov aS 
KOI op%i\o<$ e 07r?}9 eKTrerbfjievos KOI e e 
Kal % oiKias e^ayOev v$iav crrj^aivei. Kal eav 
%tynco^09 ftopevovros /SoppaOev VTr6\a^^rL 
iai \ev/cr), voroOev Se evdvrla reray/jLev^ p 
oyfcwBrjs, a>9 eVl TO troXv et9 evBiav a^^aivei yuera- 
/3o\rjv. Kal orav /3o/)ea9 vefyeKas 7ro\\d<; 
/Jieyas, evBiav ar)/j,aivei. 

I conj. cf. 31, to which this statement answers. 


2 Plin. 18. 356. 3 Plin. 18. 357. cf. Verg. Oeorg. 1. 401. 

4 Plin. 18. 362. 

5 &/ x^'M^ 1 "- ' in winter.' The same ambiguity occurs in 
many places : the sense seems fixed here by the next sentence. 



weather. Light l clouds in winter are a sign of fine 
weather. It is a sign of fine weather when Olympus 
Athos and in general the mountains which give signs 
have their tops 2 clear : so too is it, when clouds 
encompass them at the sea-level. 3 Also when after 
rain the clouds have a bronze colour towards sun- 
down : in that case there will generally be fine 
weather the next day. 

When there is mist, little or no rain follows. 
When cranes 4 take flight and do not come back, it 
is a sign of fair weather : for they do not do so till 
they see a clear sky before them as they fly. It is a 
sign of fair weather when during a storm 5 an owl 
makes a low hoot, or at night during a storm it 
utters a low sound. If the sea-owl utters its note 
during a storm, it indicates fair weather, if during 
fair weather, it indicates a storm. It is a sign ot 
fair weather if a solitary raven makes a low croak, 
and, after croaking three times, repeats the sound 
again and again. . . . 6 

If the crow caws thrice directly the dawn appears, 
it indicates fair weather, as also if it makes a low 
note in the evening during a storm. It is a sign of 
fair weather if a goldcrest flies out abroad from a 
hole or from a hedge or from its nest. Again, if 
during a storm from the north there is a white 
gleam from that quarter, while in the south a solid 
mass of cloud has formed, it generally signifies a 
change to fair weather. Again when the north 
wind (Boreas) as it begins to blow violently stirs up 
a number of clouds, it indicates fair weather. 

6 I have marked a lacuna : the answer to fj.'kv is missing, 
presumably a statement about the significance of more than 
one raven, cf. \ r erg. Geory. 1. 410. 



64 Tlp6/3ara o^jre o^evo^eva evBieivbv aiTOT\ov(Ti 
TO o"rjfjLtov. /cal /Sou? ejrl TO apicTepov la")(iov 
KaTa/c\iv6/jivos ev&iav (rrjfiaivei* /cal KVGOV cbcrav- 

TO eo9 

Kaio/uevo? ^o-u^ato? ev&iav 
Kal eav eV aicpw olov Key%povs e^y \a/JLTrpd<>' 
/cal eav ev KVK\W rrjv fjivgav 7Tpiypd<pp \a/jt,7rpa 

55 r O T^9 o")(ivov /capTrbs aij/jLaivet Toi/9 aporov?' 
e^et, Se rpia f^eprj /cal eomv 6 TT^WTO? ToO Trpwrov 
aporov vrmelov, o Sevrepos rov Sevrepov, 6 rpiros 
TOV rpirov /cal ct>9 av TOVTWV e/cfiaivrj /ca\\i(ira 
/cal yeviyrat, aSpoTaros, OVTWS e^ei /cal 6 Kara 
TOVTOV aporos. 

56 AeyeTat Be /cal roidBe o"rjfjt,ela o\wv re TMV 
eviawrwv ryLve<r6ai Kal TMV /jLopicov. lav a 
fjbivov TOV xifjLcovos fo</)09 $ Kal /cav/j 

/cal TavTa avev vSaTO? VTT* ave/ncov 8ia\v0f), irpbs 
TO cap cnj/Aaivei %d\a%av eao/Jievriv. real eav 
Trjv eapivrjv Injflepiav 6/zt^X 

/cal dve/jiovs aij/jLalvovo-iv t9 
d/ji<f)OTepci)v dpt,0/jiov/jLeva)V. ovai fiev 

y aeXrjvrj TTLTTTOVCTIV, avTai jjbev Trvev- 
crriiJLaivovaiv et9 e/ceivov TOV ^povov, ocrai & 
01/0-979 T7}9 (T\rfvrj<; vSaTa. /cal ocrco 

1 c/. 41. 2 c/. 14, 25, 42. 

3 H.P. 7. 13. 6 the same is said of <ri<i\\a. 



When sheep begin to breed late, it is a sign which 
fulfils itself in fair weather. So is it when an ox 
lies x on his left side, and also when a dog does the 
same : if they lie on the right side, it indicates 
storm. The appearance of a number of cicadas in- 
dicates that the season will be unhealthy. If a lamp 
burns quietly during a storm, it indicates fair weather. 
So also if it has on the surface an appearance like 
shining millet-seeds : 2 also if a bright line surrounds 
the lamp -nozzle. 

The fruiting of the mastich 3 gives signs as to the 
seasons of sowing : 4 it takes place at three several 
periods, which indicate respectively the time for the 
first the second and the third sowing : and according 
as one or other of these fruiting-times turns out 5 
best and produces the most abundant fruit, so too 
will be the success of the corresponding time of 

Miscellaneous signs. 

The following signs are said to affect either the 
whole year or whole periods 6 of it. If at the be- 
ginning of winter there is dull weather followed by 
heat, and these conditions are dispersed by wind 
without rain, it indicates that towards the spring 
there will be hail. Again, if after the spring equinox 
mists come down, it is an indication of breezes and 
winds by the seventh month, reckoning inclusively. 
Those mists which come down when the moon is in 
its first quarter indicate breezes for that period, 
those which come down when the^ moon is in its 
third quarter indicate rain. And the more mists 

4 cf. H.P. 7. 1. 1 foil. 

5 l K paivv I conj.: cf, H.P. 7. 13. 6; K\lvy MSS. 

6 cf. 6. ' 



av fjia\\ov e'(/>' etcaTepw TO* 
TTLTTTaxTi, [AoXkov TO, elpijfjieva ar) /naive i. 
57 ^fjiauvet Be teal ra Trvev^aTa afia rat? O/JLI- 
%Xat? eViTrtTTTOua-at? ^ivo^tva' KOI eav fjiev air' 
teal fjue&rj /z/3 'pias f yivr)Tai ra Trvev/jLara, vSara 
eav $ a$ ecrTreyoa? KOI CLTTO 77)9 aprcrov 
/cal tyv%r). 0^9 Be /co^L7jra<; 
\eyovcriv ov povov ra Trpoeiprj/jieva 
OTCLV (j)aivcovTai a\\a /cal 'tyv'xy eirl Se 
elaiOev a>9 eVl TO TTO\V (rrjfjtaiveiv KOI 

Kal rpOTral?, OVK eV aurat9 aXX' rj trpb 
avrwv TI vcrrepov 

1 c/. 34 ; Arist. Meteor. 1. 6. 

2 Text seems doubtful, as cold weather was included above. 



come down when the moon is assuming either shape, 
the more certainly is the result just mentioned 

Also the winds which accompany the falling of 
the mists are significant : if the breezes come from 
the east or south, rain is indicated ; if from the west 
or north, breezes and cold weather. And the stars 
which the Egyptians 1 call ' comets ' indicate not 
only the conditions just mentioned but also cold 2 
weather. 3 In the case of the rising of the stars the 
indication, as in the case also of the equinoxes and 
solstices, is given not at the actual time but a little 
earlier or later. 

3 The text of this sentence can hardly be sound. <rr)/j.atvtv 
has no subject and TCUS /trTjjuepfais Kal rpoirais no construction. 




F F 2 


SPRENGEL made the first comprehensive attempt to determine 
in modern nomenclature the plants mentioned by Theophrastus : 
Wimmer gives the result in the Introduction to his 1842 edition. 
Sprengel adopted the most probable identifications of earlier 
botanists, supplemented by his own conjectures and Sibthorp's 
exploration of the Greek flora. The ambitious but uncritical 
Conspectus Florae, Classicae of Fraas did not add much to our 
knowledge, which throughout had been vitiated by failure to 
recognise the fact that the Mediterranean flora differed from 
that of Western and Central Europe. Halacsy's Conspectus 
Florae Graecae now gives us a scientific enumeration of the 
native plants of Greece ; a Greek plant-name can be wedded to a 
plant which at any rate is Greek. Incidentally much has been 
cleared up by special research at the hands of De Candolle, 
Hanbury, Yule, Schweinfurth, Bretzl, and others. 

The identifications in the following Index are drawn from 
various sources ; for their selection in view of the botanical 
data available I am indebted to Sir William Thiselton-Dyer. A 
considerable number may be accepted as certain, many are 
probable, some no more than possible. 



in. = compared. 
There a reference is 


denotes a synonym. Where a reference is added (see e.g. 

paKTuAi?), it indicates that Theophrastus himself states that 

the names are synonymous. 

v, southernwood, Artemisia 

I. 9. 4. evergreen ; 6. 1. 1. in list 
of under-shrubs ; 6. 3. 6. an un- 
named plant comp. : see App. 
(23): 6. 7. 3. propagation; 

6. 7. 4. much seed : roots 

-y^os ( = oto-os), chaste-tree, Viiex 

1. 3. 2. a shrub which becomes 
tree-like; 1. 14. 2. bears fruit 
at the top; 3. 12. 1. growth 
of (cpaveia comp. ; 3. 12. 2. 
roots of &T)\vKpav<na. comp. ; 
4. 10. 2. eAaiayt/os comp. ; 9. 5. 1. 

size of Kivatitovov and xacria 


ypie'Aaio? (? = KOTIW), Wild olive, 

Olea Oleaster 

2. 2. 5. comes from seed of eAaa. 
ypwoTts, clog's tooth grass, Cynodon 


1. 6. 7. root jointed; 1. 6. 10. 
roots large and numerous; 
2. 2. 1. propagation; 4. 6. 6. 
4>vcos (6) comp. ; 4. 10. 5-6 root 
described ; 4.11.13. an unnamed 
form of /caAajuos comp.: root of 
K. 6'I^iK09Comp.;9. 13. 6. habit 

Of epev9e8ai>ov COmp. 
yxovo-a, alkanet, Anchusa tinctoria 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground ' : 

7. 9. 3. roots red. 

SiavTov, maiden-hair, Adiantum 

Capilhis-Veneris, etc. 
7. 10. 5. evergreen ; 7. 14. 1. leaf 
cannot be wetted : two kinds 


(see below) : medicinal use : 
grows in damp places. 

SCavrov TO \evKOv ( = rpixo/uai/e'? 

7. 14. 1), English maiden-hair, 
Asplenium Trichomanes 
7. 14. 1. described by comparison 
with i. TO fj.f\av : medicinal use : 
likes shady places. 

SiavTov TO fj.e\av, maiden-hair, Adi- 
antum Capillus Veneris 
7. 14. 1. comp. with <i. TO kevnov. 

6pa<|)ofus, orach. Atriplex rosea 
1. 14. 2. bears fruit both on top 
and at sides ; 3. 10. 5. seeds of 
<J>i'A.vpa coinp. ; 7. 1. 2-3. time 
of sowing and of germination; 
7. 2. 6. root described ; 7. 2. 7-8. 
root of P\ITOV comp. ; 7. 2. 8. 
root : 7.3. 2. seeds; 7. 3. 4. seed 
borne both at top and at side ; 
7. 4. 1. only one kind; 7.5.5. 
seed does not keep well. 

ei^'cooi', house-leek, Sempervivum 


1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 7. 15. 2. 
always moist and green: habitat. 

flpayeVr?, traveller's joy, Clematis 


5. 9. 6. wood makes good fire- 
sticks: described; 5. 9. 7. the 
stationary piece should be made 
of this or KITTOS. 

iyeipo?, black poplar, Populus nigra 
1. 2. 7. bark; 1. 5. 2. bark fleshy; 
2 2.10. Cretan form bears fruit; 
3. 1. 1. propagation ; 3. 3. l.tree 
of mountain and plain; 3. 3. 4. a 
question if it bears fruit; etc.; 



3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 6. 1. 
quick growing; 3.14.2. described; 
4. 1. 1. likes wet ground; 4. 7.4. 
size of unnamed Arabian tree, 
seeApp. (12fl),comp.; 4.13.2. 
shorter-lived by water; 5. 9. 4. 
wood makes an evil smoke when 
burnt for charcoal 
ai-yt'Awv// (1) ( = aoypis), Turkey oak, 
Quercus Cerris 

3. 8. 2. one of the five (Idaean) 
kinds of oak: fruit; 3. 8. 4. 
habit and timber ; 3. 8. 6. 
galls : <<XO-KOS (q.v.). 

oty&ttilr (2) (grass), Aegilops ovata 
7. 13. 5. seed sometimes takes two 
years to germinate; 8. 7. 1. 
comp. with atpa ; 8. 8. 3. grows 
specially among KpiOai ; 8. 9. 2. 
like a wild plant; 8.9. 3. greatly 
exhausts the soil; 8. 11. 8-9. 
peculiarities about seed. 

aijuoSwpoi', broom-rape, Orobanche 


8.8.5. parasitic on /SoWpas (only) : 

atpa, darnel, Lolium temulentum 
1.5.2. ' bark ' in one layer ; 2.4.1. 
Trvpos turns into a. ; 4. 4. 10. 
opv&v comp. ; 8. 4. 6. does not 
infest certain kinds of Trvpo?: 
contrasted with jueAajaTrvpov ; 
8. 7. 1. Kpi0>'i and especially 
7rup6s said to change into a. 
under certain conditions : de- 
scribed: AiVov also said to 
change into a. : comp. with 
ai*yiAaA (2); 8. 8. 3. produced 
possibly by degeneration of 
/eptfoj and rrvpos, or else specially 
affects such crops ; 8. 9. 3. alto- 
gether a wild plant. 

aKaAv<J>rj, nettle, Urtica urens 
1. 7. 2. a kaxo.vov\ needs cooking. 

anavBa. (I) r/ \iyvirria, acacia, Aca- 

cia arabica (and albida) 

4. 2. 1. peculiar to Egypt; 4. 2. 8. 
described : two kinds (17 Aevioj 
and -ft /xeAatva) distinguished 
(see below) ; 9. 1. 2. sap 

aKO-vOa. (r] AiyvTTTta) r) Aev*cj, acacia, 

Acacia albida 
4. 2. 3. distinguished from <i. y 


aKavOa. (rj Aiyvjrrta) 17 /AcXatva, acacia, 

Acacia arabica 
4. 2. 8. distinguished from a. y 

aKavOa (2) T) aKavu>8rf; (see 4.10.6. n.), 

corn -thistle, Carduus arvensis 
4. 10. 6. root etc. described. 
a/cav0a (3) rj 5n//< s , Acacia tortilis 
4. 7. 1. the only tree which grows 
on part of the ' Red Sea ' coast. 
a.Kav6a (4) TJ 'Ii/St*/; (see App. (9)), 

Balsamodendron Mukul 
9. 1. 2. sap gummy: gum like 


aKOLvOa (5) f'i ACVKTJ 'Hpa/cAeous ( = 
aKavOa. (6)), Euphorbia anti- 

4. 4. 12. described : uses of wood 
aicoivOa. (6) (peculiar to Gedrosia), 

anavOa. (5), Euphorbia anti- 

4. 4. 13. described : has a blinding 

aKavea (7) TIS, gum arabic, Acantha 

9. 18. 1. said to have the property 

of thickening water. 

a/cai/6)a ( (?) (8) (= <Icavos = Jfi'a (2) 

ifiv>j = ^a/aaiA.etoi' 6 XCVKOS 

9. 12. 1), pine-thistle, Atractylis 

aKavo<> ( = (iKavOa.(S) = igia (2) i^tVrj = 
Xa/aatA.ecov 6 ACVKOS), pine-thistle, 

Atractylis gummifera 
I. 10. 6. spinous-leaved ; 1. 13. 3. 
flower attached above each 
seed ; 6. 1. 3. has spines on the 
leaves: a wild under-shrub; 
6. 4. 4. many stalks and side- 
growths ; 6. 4. 5. one form only ; 
6. 4. 8. root of (Toy/cos contrasted: 
XajaaiAeW Comp.; 6. 4. 11. fruit- 
case of Ka/cro? (1) comp.; 6. 6. 6. 
seed of poSoi^ comp.; 9. 12. 1. 
' head ' of x a t j - ai ^ iav Xeuc6? 
comp.: another name for xajuai- 
Aewi/(?); 9. 12. 2. leaf of x^""- 

Ae'wv 6 )u,e'A<xs comp. 
O.KOVITOV ( &ri\vt$>ovov nvotyovov = 

o-KopTrto? (3)), wolf's bane, Aconi- 
tum Anthora 

9. 16. 4. localities : described : 
habitat: eaten by no animal; 
9. 16. 5. difficulty of compound- 
ing drug : effects : has no anti- 



dote; 9. 16. 7. use requires ex- 

8ert knowledge : legal restric- 
ons : proportion between times 
of gathering and of administer- 

aKopva, Cnicus Acarna 
1. 10. 6. spinous-leaved ; 7. 4. 3. a 
' thistle-like ' plant ; 6. 4. 6. de- 

aKre'os(?) (= a/cTTJ), elder, Sambucus 

3. 4. 2. time of budding. 

UKTTJ ( = aKTe'os), elder. Sambucus nigra 
1. 5. 4. wood without knots ; 
1. 6. 4. core fleshy : has no core, 
according to some; 1. 8. 1. few 
knots ; 4. 13. 2. shorter-lived by 
water; 5. 3. 3. character of 

aAfou'a (=*) TJ a-ypta 9. 15. 5.), 

marsh-mallow, Althaea oflicin- 

9. 15. 5. a drug, called in Arcadia 
/aoAaxrj -h uypi'a ; 9.18.1. root said 
to thicken water : described : 
medicinal use. 
aAi/utov, Atriplex Halimus 

4. 16. 5. very dangerous to trees. 
aA<.'</>A(Hos (SpOs), see Spi)s (3). 
aAa-iVrj, Parietaria cretica 

9. 13. 3. leaf of apiaroAoxia. comp. 
aAwn-e'/coypos, Polypogon monspelien- 

7. 11. 2. flowers in a spike : de- 
scribed. (ajaapaKo?), sweet marjor- 
am, Origanum Majorana 

1. 9. 4, evergreen; 6. 1. 1. in list 
of under -shr ubs ; 6. 7. 4. propa- 
gation : roots described ; 6. 8. 3. 
flowering time; 9. 7. 3. in list 

of apoj/aara. 
a/aireAo? (1) (leaf oivapov 9, 13. 5.), 

vine, Vitis vinifera 
1. 2. 1. has tendrils ; 1.2. 7. bark ; 
1. 3. 1. a typical ' tree ' ; 1.3. 5. 
evergreen at Elephantine ; 1.5.2. 
bark cracked and fibrous : bark 
in layers; 1.6. 1. core fleshy; 
1. 6. 3. roots thin ; 1.6. 5. roots 
branching upwards; 1. 8. 5. 
highest shoots ' roughest ' : 'eye' 
analogous to knot in other 
trees ; 1.9.1. effect of pruning ; 
1. 10. 4. leaves broad; 1. 10. 5. 

leaf divided ; 1. 10. 7. long leaf 
stalk : attachment of leaf -stalk ; 

1. 10. 8. leaves made of ' bark' 
and flesh; 1. n. 4. seeds all 
together in a single case ; 1.11 .5. 
each grape separately attached ; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 1. 13. 1. flower 

downy'; 1. 13. 3. flower sur- 
rounds fruit; 1. 13. 4. some 
kinds sterile; 1. 14. 1. bears on 
new shoots; 1. 14. 4. many cul- 
tivated forms; 2. 1. 3. propa- 
gation ; 2. 2. 4. degenerates from 
seed; 2. 3. 1. sometimes spon- 
taneously changes character ; 

2. 3. 2. a. 6 KdVoeios varies in 
colour of grapes on same bunch ; 
2. 3. 3. sometimes bears fruit 
on the stem ; etc.; 2. 5. 3. propa- 
gation : cannot be grafted ; 
2. 5. 4. propagation; 2, 5. 7. 
low ground suitable : great 
variety of kinds according to 
soil; 2. 6. 12. cuttings set up- 
side down; 2.7.1. water -loving; 
2. 7. 2. needs much pruning; 
2. 7. 5. use of dust ; 2. 7. 6. root- 
pruning ; 3. 5. 4. autumn bud- 
ding ; 3. 17. 3. bark of KoAoi 
rta (2) comp.; 3.18.5. flower and 
fruit of p'ous comp.; 3. 18. 12. 
cluster of berries of o>uAa (2) 
comp.; 4. 4. 8. unnamed Indian 
tree (cotton-plant) planted in 
rows like <i.; 4. 4. 11. in India 
confined to hill-country ; 4. 5. 4. 
grows on Mount Tmolus and 
Mysian Olympus ; 4. 7. 7. leaf 
of SeVfipov TO Ipiofopov comp.; 
4. 7. 8. occurs on island of 
Tylos; 4. 13. 2. some kinds 
short-lived; 4. 13. 4-6. said to 
be longest-lived of trees : rea- 
son : method of prolonging life 
artificially; 4. 14. 2. young 
plants liable to ' sun-scorch ' ; 
4. 14. 6. other diseases ; 4. 14. 7. 
effects of injury to roots; 
4. 14. 8. effect of rain on fruit- 
ing; 4. 14. 9. a special pest at 
Miletus; 4. 14. 10. effect of hot 
winds ; 4. 14. 13. effects of frost ; 
4. 15. 1. outer bark can be 
stripped; 4. 16. 1. survives 



splitting of stem ; 4. 16. 6. natu- 
ral antipathy of a. to pa$<wo?; 
5. 3. 4. character of wood; 

5. 4. 1. the less fruitful trees 
produce more solid wood ; 5.9.4. 
wood, if damp, makes an evil 
smell when burnt for charcoal ; 

6. 9. 6. aOpayevr) comp.; 8. 2. 8. 
a. in Melos; 9. 1. 6. time of tap- 
ping; 9. 13. 5. leaf and time of 

growth of nevraireTes COmp. ; 

9. 18. 11. peculiar properties of 
certain local kinds. 
a/oi7reAos (2) (Mt. Ida), currant grape, 
Vitis vinifera, var. corinthiaca 

3. 17. 4. a local Idaean kind; 

3. 17. 6. do. described. 

ajuTreXos (3) r) Trovria, FucuS Spiralis 

4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 

4. 6. 9. described. 

a/xireXos (4), j] aypia (= M?A.w0pov), 

bryony, Bryonia cretica 
3. 18. 12. fruit of o>iiAa (2) comp. 
9. 14,1. how long drug prepared 
from it will keep ; 9. 20. 3. pro- 
perties of root : medicinal use. 
a/xvySaA/rj, almond, Primus Amyg- 


1. 6. 3. large central root ; 1. 9. 6. 
leaves produced early, but not 
shed early; 1. 11. 1. seed imme- 
diately within envelope ; 1. 11. 3. 
seed in a woody shell; 1. 12. 1. 
taste of fruit; 1. 13. 1. flower 
' leafy ' : flower of some kinds 
reddish ; 1. 14. 1. bears on last 
year's wood; 2. 2. 5. degen- 
erates from seed; etc.; 2. 2. 9. 
effects of cultivation ; 2. 2. 11. 
do. : effect of tapping gum ; 
2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
far apart; 2. 7. 6. 'punishing' 
the tree; 2. 7. 7. tapping the 
gum; 2/8. 1. apt to shed im- 
mature fruit; 3. 11. 4. fruit of 
pe\ia comp.; 3. 12. 1. leaf of 
Kpaveia comp.; 4. 4. 7. fruit of 

rep^u/eos r] 'IvSi/o? COmp. J 4.7.5. 

fruit of unnamed Persian tree 
(see App. (13)), comp.; 4.14.12. 
uninjured by special winds; 
5.9.5. wood-ashes make pungent 
smoke; 7. 13. 6. flower appears 
before leaves and (new growth 
of) stem ; 8. 2. 2. germination de- 


scribed; 9. 1. 2. sap gummy; 
9. 1. 3. gum scentless; 9. 1. 5. 
gum useless; 9. 19. 1. leaf of 

bvoOrjpa^ COmp. 

epaul cardamom, Amo* 
mum subulatum 

9. 7. 2. an apw/xa, Median or In- 

/SpaxArj, andrachne, Arbutus An- 

1. 5. 2. bark readily drops off; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 1. a 
mountain tree; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding : 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 3. 4. 6. 
do.; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) ; 

3. 16. 5. described ; 3. 16. 6. leaf 
of KOKKvyta comp.; 4. 4. 2. leaf 
Of /u.>jA.ea 19 ITepcri/oj pomp.; 4.7.5. 

an unnamed Persian tree (see 
App. (14)), comp.; 4. 15. 1. does 
not perish if bark is stripped; 

4. 15. 2, bark cracks ; 5. 7. 6. 
wood used for parts of loom; 
9. 4. 3. bark of oyxvp^a comp. 

Spdxvri, purslane, Portulaca ole- 

7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and ger- 

mination ; 7.2.9. root described. 
/e/u.iwj'Tj, anemone, Anemone spp. 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground. ' 
efjuavri, anemone, Anemone coron- 

7. 7. 3. puts forth flower soon 

after season of growth begins ; 

7. 10. 2. flowers in winter. 
e/xwi'i) 17 Aetju.wi'ta, Anemone pavo- 


6. 8. 1. flowering-time. 
ejuaJi/T) T; opeta, Anemone blanda 
6. 8. 1. flowering-time. 
YjOov (= a^Tj-ros), dill, Anethum 

1.11.2. seeds naked; 1.12.2. 

taste of sap; 6. 2. 8. fruit of 

v6.p6^ and vap6r]Kia. comp.; also 

setting of flowers and fruit; 

7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and 

germination; 7. 2. 8. root de- 

scribed ; 7.32. seeds described; 

7. 4. 1. only one kind; 7. 6. 4. 

fruit Of opeioa-e'Au'Ov COmp. 

, Anthemis chia, etc. (see 

1. 13. 3. flower attached above 


each seed; 7. 14. 2. flowering 
begins at top : "flower and fruit : 
several kinds (see below).> TO d<u'AA.av0es, wild chamo- 

mile, Matricaria Chamomilla 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground.' 
ai/06/u.oi/ TO <vAAa>Se?, Anthemis chia 

7. 8. 3. leaves on the stem. 
avOepiKOs, see dox^oSeAo?. 
awifo-ov, anise, Pimpinella Anisum 

1. 12. 1. scent. 
avvyTos (= avyOov.) dill, Anethum 


9. 7. 3. in list of apto^aTa. 
dvTtppivov, snapdragon, Antirrhinum 

9. 19. 2. alleged magic properties : 


andtrrj, dandelion, Taraxacum offici- 

6. 4. 8. (?) flower Of xajuaiXeW 

comp. ; 7. 7. 1. a* \dxavov: 
classed as ' chicory-like ' from 
its leaves; 7. 7. 3. season of 
growing; 7. 7. 4. prolonged 
flowering- time ; 7.8.3. leaves 
'on the ground'; 7. 10. 2. (?) 
flowers in winter, earliest of all ; 
7. 10. 3. flowers borne in succes- 
sion; 7. 11. 3. flowering- time; 
7. 11. 4. inedible: growth de- 

aTrapyt'a, hawk's beard, Crepis Colum- 

7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground.' 
airap''vri, bedstraw, Qalium Aparine 

7. 8. 1. stem ' clasping,' but, for 
want of support, 'on the 
ground ' ; 7. 14. 3. clings to 
clothes: peculiar setting of 
flower described ; 8. 8. 4. grows 
specially among 4x1*01': growth 
described; 9. 19. 2. avrippwov 

an-io (1), pear, Pyrus communis, 
var. saliva 

1. 2. 7. bark ; 1. 3. 3. a tree whose 
stem is not single; 1. 8. 2. 
lias less knots than dxpa? ; 
1. 10. 5. leaves round; 1. 11. 4. 
seeds all together in a single 
case ; 1. 11. 5. seeds in a mem- 
brane; 1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 
1. 13. 1. flower ' leafy ' ; 1. 13. 3. 
flower above fruit-case ; 1. 14. 1 

bears on last year's wood; 

1. 14. 4. a cultivated form of 
dxpds; many cultivated forms; 

2. 1. 2. propagation ; 2. 2. 4. de- 
generates from seed; 2. 2. 5. 
seed produces wild form ; 2.2.12. 
cannot be made out of dxpd? by 
cultivation; 2. 5. 3. grafting; 

2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
rather far apart; 2. 7. 7. 'pun- 
ishing ' the tree ; 2. 8. 1. apt to 
shed immature fruit; 3. 2. 1. 
produces less fruit than axpas, 
but ripens more; 3. 3. 2. has 
better fruit and timber in low- 
lands ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 

3. 6. 2. formation of buds ; 

3. 11. 5. mountain and lowland 
forms comp.; 3. 12. 8. fruit of 
OTJ comp. as to keeping ; 3. 14. 1. 
leaf of TTTeAe'a comp.; 3. 14. 3. 
leaf of KAijtfpa comp.; 3. 18. 7. 
does not differ in kind from 

dxpds; 4. 2. 5. wepa-ea COmp.; 

4. 3. 1. size of AWTO? (4) comp.; 
4.4.2. thorns of /oirjAea 17 TlepcriKT/ 
comp.; 4. 5. 3. abundant in Pon- 
tus; 4. 13. 1. shorter-lived than 
dxpd? ; 4. 14. 2. apt to get worm- 
eaten ; 4. 14. 10. fruit gets worm- 
eaten ; 4. 14. 12. uninjured by 
special winds: 5. 3. 2. leaf of an 
unnamed tree comp. (see App. 
(20)) ; 9. 4. 2. leaf of Ai/SavtoTos 

aTTtos (2) (= icrxa? 9. 9. 5. = i>d(f>a- 

vo? 17 opei'a), spurge, Euphorbia 

9. 9. 5. medicinal use; 9. 9. 6. de- 

apaKo?, Vicia Sibthorpii 
1. 6. 12. an unnamed plant (see 
App. (1)) comp.; 8. 8. 3. (' the 
rough hard kind ') grows speci- 
ally among fyaxoi. 
apdx<.Sva, Lathyrus amphicarpus 
1. 1. 7. fruit underground; 1.6.12. 

root like a second fruit, 
api'a (= ii//o? = 4>eAA,.Spvs 3. 16. 3.), 
holm-oak, Qucrcus Ilex var. 

.3. 3. 8. doubt whether it has a 
flower ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 3. 16. 3. 
Dorian name for (|>e AAdSpv? ; 



3. 17. 1. acorn of <f>eAAo? comp.; 

4. 7. 2. (?) leaf of fia<M (6) 
comp. ; 5. 1. 1. time of cutting 
timber; 5. 3. 3. character of 
wood; 5. 4. 2. wood proof against 
decay; 5. 5. 1. wood* hard to 
work ; 5. 9. 1. wood makes good 

ia, birthwort, Aristolochia 

9. 13. 2. described : medicinal use ; 
9. 14. 1. how long drug will 
keep ; 9.15.5. grows in Arcadia ; 
9. 20. 4. ef. 9. 13. 2. 
apKevOo<; ( = /ce'6pas (3)), Phoenician 
cedar, Juniperus phoenicea 

1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 1. a 
mountain tree ; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green ; 3. 3. 8. .doubt whether it 
has a flower; 3. 4. 1. takes a 
year to ripen fruit; 3. 4. 5. time 
of fruiting; etc.; 3. 4. 6. do.; 

3. 6. 1. slow-growing (?) ; 3. 6. 5. 
shallow-rooting according to 
Arcadians ; 3.12.3-4. described: 
distinguished from Ke'Spos (1): 

4. 1.3. grows high on moun- 
tains, but not tall; 5. 7. 4. 
use of wood in house-building ; 

5. 7. 6. other uses of wood : 
does not decay; 9. 1. 2. sap 

dpj/6yAw(rcroj'( = crreAe<ovpos 7. 11.2., 
according to some, = 6p-rv 
7. 11. 2., according to some), 
plantain , Plantago maior 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground ' ; 
7. 10. 3. flowers borne in succes- 
sion ; 7.11.2. flowers in a spike : 
described by comparison with 

apov, cuckoo-pint, Arum italicum 
I. 6. 7. root fleshy ; 1. 6. 8. has a 
stout root and also fibrous 
roots : roots not tapering ; 
1. 6. 10. cultivation ; 1. 16. 1 0.(?) 
flower made of flesh; 7. 2. 1. 
propagation ; 7. 9. 4. root de- 
scribed ; 7. 12. 2. root and leaves 
edible : use in surgery : special 
treatment to promote growth 
of root : one kind inedible (see 
SpaKovTLov); 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed ; 7. 13. 2. no stem or 


appevoyovov (= Ot\\vyovov) , dog, mer- 

cury, Mercurialis perennis 
9. 19. 5. properties : described. 
do-TraAaflos, Calycotome villosa 

9. 7. 3. in list Of apw/aara. 

ao-7rpi<r( = ai-yi'Aa>^(l)), Turkey oak, 

Quercus Cerris 

3. 8. 2. one of the four Macedonian 
kinds of oak: acorns and 

dcrrepi<r/>?, Michaelmas daisy, Aster 


4. 12. 2. seed Of /AeAayKpaWs 

dcrra^i?, Delphinium Staphisagria 
9. 12. 1. medicinal use. 

do-^apa-yo?, asparagus, Asparagus 


1. 10. 6. spines for leaves; 6. 1. 3. 
do.; a wild under-shrub ; 6. 4. 1. 
one of very few plants which 
are altogether spinous ; 6. 4. 2. 

Ao-^oSeXos (stem di>0e'pi/co?), ( = 77660? 
(2)), asphodel, Asphodelus ramo- 

1. 4. 3. belongs to 'ferula-like' 
plants; 1. 10. 7. attachment of 
leaves; 6. 6. 9. leaves of vdp- 
/acro-os (1) comp.; 7. 9. 4. root 
acorn-shaped; 7 12. 1. root 
edible ; 7.13.1. leaves described; 
7. 13. 2-3. stem of Ipt? comp.: 
largest stem of herbaceous 
plants : fruit inflorescence etc. 
described; worm which infests 
it: uses for food of stem and 
roots ; 7. 13. 4. grown from seed ; 
9. 9. 6. leaf of ia-xs comp.; 
9.10.1. stem of eAAe/Jopos comp. 
by some. 

a<rxi-ov, puff-ball, Lycoperdon gigan- 


1. 6. 9. not a root, though under- 

aTpaKTvAt's ( = <f>6vos 6. 4. 6.), distaff- 
thistle, Carthamus lanatus 
6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant; 
6. 4. 6. described: also called 
$0^0?: reason; 9. 1. 1. juice 

d^dicr), tare, Vicia saliva var. angits- 


8. 1. 4. (a pulse) sown late ; 8. 5. 3. 
shape of pod; 8. 8. 3. TreA.e/cu'os 


grows specially among a.; 8.11.1. 
seed does not keep. 

a<f>dpK-ri (a natural hybrid between 
avSpdx^-n and Ko/u,apos), hybrid 
arbutus, Arbutus hybrida 
1. 9. 3. evergreen ; 3. 3. 1. a moun- 
tain tree; 3. 3. 3. evergreen; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting ; 5. 7. 7. uses of 

i(f>ia, lesser celandine, Ranunculus 


7. 7. 3. puts forth flowers at season 
of growth. 

axpa?, wild pear, Pyrus amygdali- 


1. 4. 1. more fruitful than culti- 
vated kind; 1. 8. 2. has more 
knots than an-tos ; 1. 9. 7. time 
of shedding leaves ; 1. 14. 4. a 
wild form of cnno?; 2. 2. 5. pro- 
duced from seed of amos; 2.2.12. 
cannot be made into an-io? by 
cultivation; 3. 2 1. produces 
more fruit than an-tos, but ripens 
less ; 3. 3. 1. a tree of mountain 
and plain; 3. 3. 2. has better 
fruit and timber in lowlands; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting; 3. 6. 1. slow 
growing (?) ; 3. 11. 5. moun- 
tain and lowland forms comp.; 
3. 12. 8. fruit of 017 comp. as to 
keeping ; 3. 14. 2. bark of Aevio) 
comp.; 3. 18. 7. does not differ 
in kind from amo?: 4. 13. 1. 
longer lived than an-io?; 5. 5. 1. 
cobblers' strops made of the 

atyLvOiov, wormwood, Artemisia Ab- 

1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 4. 5. 1. 
seeks cold regions ; 7. 9. 5. leaves 
and stem bitter, yet wholesome ; 
9. 17. 4. said to become by use 
non-poisonous_to sheep. 

/SaXavos, Balanites aegyptiaca 
4. 2. 1. peculiar to Egypt ; 4. 2. 6. 

/3aA<ra/xoi' (gum oTro/SaAo'aju.oi'), balsam 

of Mecca, Balsamodendron Opo- 

9. 1. 2. sap gummy; 9. 1. 7. time 
of tapping; 9. 4. 1. collection of 

gum ; 9. 6. 1-4. described : habi- 
tat : method of collection : no- 
where found wild ; 9. 7. 3. in 

list of aptojoiara. 

0a-ro?, bramble, Rubus ulmifolius 
1. 3. 1. a typical ' shrub ' ; 1. 5 3. 
thorns on wood; 1. 9. 4. ever- 
green ; 1. 10. 6. leaf with spinous 
projections ; 1. 10. 7. stem pres- 
ently spinous; 3. 18. 3. grows 
in wet and dry places alike; 
3. 18. 4. kinds distinguished; 
3. 18. 12. cluster of berries of 
<r/AiA.a (2) comp ; 4. 8. 1. to 
some extent grows in marshes ; 
4. 12. 4. to some extent aquatic ; 

6. 1. 3. has spines on the shoots. 
/SArjxw, pennyroyal, Mentha Puleg- 

9. 16. 1. leaf etc. of SCKTa^ro- 


/3A.iToi>, blite, Amaranthus Blitum 
1. 14. 2. bears fruit both on top 
and at sides; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and of germination ; 

7. 2. 7-8. root described ; 7. 3. 2. 
seeds described; 7. 3. 4. seed 
borne both on top and at side ; 
7. 4. 1. only one kind. 

po\pivri, star-flower, Ornithogahim 

7. 13. 9. belongs to TO. poAjSoiSr). 

/3oA/3o5, purse-tassels, Muscari como- 

sum etc. (see below). 
1. 6. 7. root in scales ; 1. 6. 8. root 
not tapering; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots : (part of) stem under- 
ground ; 1. 10. 7. no leaf-stalk : 
attachment of leaves; 6. 8. 1. 
flowering time : used as a coron- 
ary plant; 7. 2. 1. propagation ; 
7. 2. 2. root makes offsets; 
7. 2. 3. offsets specially numer- 
ous ; 7. 4. 12. formation of roots 
of Kponvov comp.; 7. 9. 4., cf. 
1. 6. 7.; 7. 12. 1. example of an 
edible root; 7. 12. 2. special 
treatment to promote growth 
of root; 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed ; 7. 13. 2. flower-stem 
not the only stem; 7. 13. 4-5. 
grown from seed: seed some- 
times takes two years to ger- 
minate ; 7. 13. 7. root of vap- 
Kto-o-os (1) comp. ; 7. 13. 8. 



several kinds ; 7. 13. 9. roots of 
various plants comp.; 8. 8. 3. 
grows specially among ip6?. 

SoAjSbs o epi6</>opo?, Pancratium 


7. 13. 8. grows on beach: de- 
scribed : uses for food and cloth- 

jSovxepas, ( = T7)Ats), fenugreek. Tri- 

gonella Foenum-Oraecum 
4. 4. 10. an Indian plant (see 
App. (8)), comp. 8. 8. 5. aiju.6- 
Supov parasitic on ft. 

/Sow/ae'Aios, ash, Fraxinus excelsior 

3. 11. 4-5. described; 4. 8. 2. 
common in Egypt. 

/SouirprjerTts, ? 

7. 7. 3. season of growing. 
j8ouTO(u.o?, sedge, Carex riparia 

1. 5. 3. stem very smooth ; 1. 10. 5. 
leaves end in a point : further 
described; 4. 8. 1. in list of TO. 
AOXM^STJ; 4. 10. 4. described; 
4. 10. 6. grows both on land 
and in water: grows on the 
floating islands of Lake Copais ; 
4. 10. 7. part used for food; 
4. 11. 12. foliage of some /caAajuioi 
po/u.o?, oats, Avena saliva 

8. 4. 1. seed has more coats than 
other cereals ; 8. 9. 2. exhausts 
the soil: reason: like a wild 

/3pvof, oyster-green, Viva Lactuca 

4. 6. 2. occurs generally in Greek 
waters; 4. 6. 6. described. 

vov, long onion, Allium Cepa var. 
1.6.9. part of stem underground ; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 1. 6. germina- 
tion; 7. 1. 7. bears fruit in 
second year : has single stem ; 
7. 2. 2-3. root makes offsets ; 
7. 5. 1. likes water ; 7. 5. 3. bears 
transplanting; 7.5.5 seed does 
not keep well; 7. 9. 4. root in 
scales; 7. 12. 3. root of <ba<ryo,vov 
comp.; 9. 11. 6. ' head ' of 

crTpvxvos 6'tKOs COmp. 

yrjTtiov (Attic for yrj6voi>), horn- 
onion, Allium Cepa var. 
1. 10. 8. leaves hollow; 7. 4. 10. 


described : cultivation (classed 

as a form of /ep6ju.voi>). 
yAeivo?, Acer creticum 
3. 3. 1. name for lowland form of 

o^ei/Sa/xpo? ; 3. 11. 2. timber 
yXv/ceta (sc. puja) ( = p'uja 2cu0uo/ q.V.), 

9. 13. 2., liquorice, Olycyrrhiza 

yAvKuo-tS->} ( = Traiwi/ia q.v.), 9.8.6., 
peony, Paeonia officinalis. 

yoyyuAt's, turnip, Brassica Rapa 
1. 6. 6. root fleshy ; 1. 6. 7. root of 
bark and flesh; 7. 1. 2. time of 
sowing; 7, 1. 7. germination; 
7. 2. 5. survives and increases 
in size under a heap of soil: 
root described ; 7. 2. 8. do.; 
7. 3. 2. seeds described ; 7. 3. 4. 
seed borne at side; 7. 4. 3. 
doubtful if more than one kind : 
seed, method of sowing, effect 
of weather; 7. 5. 3. bears trans- 
planting; 7. 6. 2. wild form 
distinguished; 7. 9. 4. root has 
'bark. ' 

SO.VKOV (1), carrot, Dauciis Carota 
9. 15. 5. Arcadian drug : described 

(see note). 

SOLVKOV (2), Malabaila aurea 
9. 15. 8. grows about Patrai: 
properties : root black ; 9. 20. 2. 
cf. 9. 15. 8. 

Scu^v? (1) (TJ ry/oiepos), (berry SaQvis, 

1. 11. 3.), sweet bay, Laurus 

1. 5. 2. bark thin ; 1. 6. 2. roots 
both stout and fine ; 1.6.4. roots 
crooked ; etc.; 1.8.1. few knots ; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen (cultivated 
and wild forms, see below); 

1. 11. 3. fleshy seed in a shell 
(Scui/is) ; 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 14. 4. many cultivated forms; 

2. 1. 3. propagation; 2. 2. 6. 
sometimes improves from seed ; 

2, 5. 6. trees should be planted 
close together; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 

3. 7. 3. (one kind) produces a 
cluster; 3. 11. 3. leaves of jaeAux 
comp. ; 3. 11. 4. winter-buds of 
jueAt'a comp.; 3. 12. 7. leaf of or? 

COmp. to that of 8. rj AeTrroAuAAo?; 

3. 13. 5. leaflet of aKrfj comp. to 


leaf Of 5. rj 7rAa'(uAAos ; 3. 14. 3. 

flower (?) of KArj0pa comp.; 
3. 15. 4. leaf of rtpfjuvOos comp'; 

3. 16. 4. leaf of Ko^apo? comp.; 
3.17.3. leaf of /coAoma(2) comp. 
to 5. 17 7rAaTv</>vAAos ; 4. 4. 12. leaf 
of an unnamed Arian shrub 
comp. (see App. (10)); 4. 4. 13. 
leaf of an unnamed Gedrosian 
tree comp. (sec App. (11)); 4.5.3. 
does not thrive in cold regions ; 

4. 5. 4. grows in Propontis ; 
4.7.1. a class of marine Atlantic 
plants comp.; 4. 7. 4. leaf of 
an unnamed Arabian tree (see 
App. (126)) comp.; 4.13.3. after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock; 4. 16. 6. spoils 
flavour of grape; 5. 3. 3-4. 
character of wood ; 5. 7. 7. wood 
used for walking-stkks ; 5. 8. 3. 
grows in lowland parts of 
Latium: abundant on Circeian 
promontory; 5. 9. 7. fire-drills 
made of the wood, because it 
does not wear away; 9. 4. 2. 
bark of AI^CU/WTOS comp.; 9. 4. 3. 
leaf of At/SavwTos comp. (by 
some) ; 9. 4. 9. do.; 9. 10. 1. leaf 

Of eAAf/3opos o joie'Aas COmp. (by 

some) ; 9.15.5. SO.VKOV (1) comp.; 
9.20.1. one kind of rreVepi (fruit 

(2) r/ aypia. (= ovo^rypas), ole- 
ander, Nerium Oleander 
1. 9. 3. distinguished from 8. r) 

JU/^TJ (3) ^ 'AAe&ii'Speia, Alexan- 

drian laurel, Ruscus Hypophyl- 

1. 10. 8. bears fruit on leaves; 

3. 17. 4. do. 
x<vT) (4) T| Ae7rr6</>vAAos, sweet bay, 

Laurus nobilis 
3. 12. 7. (see under Sa^Tj). 

tyvY) (5) rt TrAarv^vAAos, Sweet bay, 

Laurus nobilis 
3. 11. 3., 3. 13. 5., 3. 17. 3. (see 

under Scujnoj). 
<j>vr, (6) ( = eAaa(3) = App. (14)), 

white mangrove, Avicennia 

4.7.1. grows in 'Red Sea'; 4.7.2. 

described : produces a drug for 

stanching blood., dittany, Origanum Die- 


9. 16. 1-2. described: medicinal 
use: popular belief about its 
use to goats : comp. with >//evfo- 
SiKTafjivov ; 9. 16. 3. habitat. 

SiKTafj-vov (erepoi/), Ballota Pseudo- 


9. 16. 3. Cretan : has nothing in 
common with true 5. except the 
name : described : properties 

Sioo-ai'flo?, carnation, Dianthus in- 


6. 1. 1. in list of under-shrubs ; 
6.6. 2. a cultivated under-shrub : 
a coronary plant : scentless ; 
6. 6. 11. grown from seed: 
woody ; 6. 8. 3. flowering time. 

5iocrj3aAai/os (fruit Kapvov /eacrraj/ai- 

KOf), 4.8.11., chestnut, Castanea 

1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 3. 2. 3. 
evidence that it is really wild ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 3. 8. 
doubt whether it has a flower ; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting ; 3. 5. 5. winter- 
buds ; 4. 5. 1. in list of northern 
trees; 4. 5. 4. abundant on 
Mount Tmolus and Mysian 
Olympus ; 4. 8. 11. bark of root 
of AWTO? (2) comp. to shell of 

Sioo-TTvpos, Diospyros Lotus 
3. 13. 3. fruit of xepao-o? comp. 

SoAixos, calavance, Vigna sinensis 
8. 3. 2. stem; 8. 11. 1. seed does 
not keep. 

Sovai- ( = KaAa/xos 6 AaKamKos = AC. 6 
avArjriKOS = K. 6 aupiyyids = K. o 

4. 11. 11. a kind of /caAa^os : habit 

and habitat. 
SpaKovTiov, edderwort, Dracunculus 


7. 12. 2. an inedible and poisonous 
kind of apov ; 9. 20. 3. medicinal 
use: described. 
SpvnCs, Drypis spinosa 

1. 10. 6. spinous-leaved. 
6pvs (1), oak, Quercus Robur 
1. 2. 1. has galls (/cTj/a's) ; 1. 2. 7. 
bark; 1. 5. 2. bark thick: bark 
fleshy; 1.5.3. wood fleshy; 1.5.5. 



wood heavy because it contains 
mineral matter ; 1.6.1. core hard 
and close ; 1. 6. 2. core called 
' oak- black' : core large and con- 
spicuous; 1. 6. 3. roots many 
and long ; 1. 6. 4. roots fleshy : 
deep-rooting; 1. 8. 5. diseased 
formation (*paS7j); 1. 9. 5. an 
evergreen specimen ; 1. 10. 6. 
leaves notched : leaves with 
spinous projections; 1. 10. 7. 
attachment of leaves; 1. 11. 3. 
seed in a leathery shell ; 2. 2. 3. 
propagation ; 2. 2. 6. deterior- 
ates from seed ; 3. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen in some places ; 3.3.8. 
doubt whether it has a flower 
(/Spvoi/) ; 3.4.2. time of budding ; 
3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 3. 5. 1. 
periods of budding ; etc.; 3.5.2. 
galls ; 3. 5. 5. winter-buds ; 
3. 6. 1. quick growing; 3. 6. 5. 
instance of a deep-rooting tree ; 
3. 1. 4-6. various galls ; etc. ; 

3. 8. 2. four or live kinds, viz. 

rj/iepi's Or fcTV/uofipv?, aiyiAcot/f, 
7rAa.Tv</>vAAos, </>r}y6s, aAi<f>A<xo? or 

ev0v$Aoio? (five recognised by 
inhabitants of Mt. Ida) ; 3.16.1. 
leaf growth and bark of 
Trpu/o? comp.; 3. 16. 3. <eAA6- 
Spv? fipvs and n-pivos comp. ; 

4. 2. 8. common in Thebaid ; 

4. 5. 1. in list of northern trees ; 
4.5.3. grows in Pontus; 4.14.10. 
infested by knips; 4. 15. 2. 
survives stripping of bark for 
some time ; 4. 15. 3. effect of 
stripping bark in winter ; 5.1.2. 
time of cutting timber : reasons ; 

5. 1. 4. do. ; 5. 3. 1. core very 
close and heavy ; 5. 3. 3. char- 
acter of wood; 5. 4. 1. wood 
hard and heavy; 5. 4. 2. wood 
proof against decay; 5. 4. 3. 
wood does not decay if buried 
or soaked in water : rots in sea- 
water : 5. 4. 8. effect of salt 
water on different parts ; 5. 5. 1. 
wood hard to work ; 5.6.1. wood 
contains mineral matter and so 
gives under weight : apt to split ; 
5. 7. 2. used for keel of triremes 
and for merchantmen to make 

extra keel for hauling : does not 
glue well on to eAdxT) or nevKij ; 
5. 7. 4. use of wood in house- 
building: 5. 8. 3. grows in La- 
tium on Circeian promontory 
5. 9. 1. wood makes good char- 
coal, but inferior to apia and 
Ko/^apo?; 5. 9. 2. charcoal of 
this wood less esteemed by 
smiths than that of irevioj; 
8. 2. 2. germination from acorn 
described ; 9. 9. 5. leaf of x ^a-i- 
8pus comp. 

Spv? (2) \ aypia ( = <rjy6s 3.8.2.), 

Valonia oak, Quercus Aegilops 
1. 5. 2. rough bark ; 3. 8. 2. ses 
under Spvs; 

Spv? (3) '; aAi'<Aoios (=8. t, eiiOv- 
4>Aotos 3. 8. 2.), sea-bark oak, 
Quercus Pseudo-Robur 
3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida) : =8. ^ ev0v$Ao<.o?; 
3. 8. 874. acorns ; 3. 8. 5. habit 
and timber; 3. 8. 6. (do-K(K 
(q.v.) grows on it ; 3.8.7. timber; 
5. 1. 2. time of cutting timber. 

6pvs(4) 17 ev0v(|>Aoios ( = 8. 17 aAi'^Aoios 

3. 8. 2.), sea-bark oak, Quercus 

3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida). 

8pvs (5) 19 rj/nepos (= eruju-oSpv? q.V. = 
7/u.epi's (2)), true oak, Quercus 

3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 

oak (Mt. Ida). 

Spvs (6) 17 7rAo.TV(J>vAAos, broad-leaved 
oak (scrub oak), Quercus lanu- 

3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida) : fruit ; 3. 8. 5. 
habit and timber ; 3. 8. 6. galls : 
one of the four Macedonian 
oaks : has bitter acorns. 

8pi)s (7) ((jtvKos), Cystoseira ericoides 

4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 
4. 6. 7-8. described. 

SpCs (8) (TTOVTICI), Sargassum vulgare 
4. 6. 9. distinguished from Spus (7) ; 
has a useful /ScLWos. 

e/3eVr? (e/3evos) (1), ebony, Diospyros 


1. 5. 4. wood heavy; 1. 5. 5. do. 
because of close grain ; 1. 6. 1. 



core hard and close ; 4. 4. 6. de- 
scribed : two kinds distinguished 
(see below) ; 5. 0. 1. wood very 
close and heavy, especially the 
core ; 5. 3. 2. colour of wood of 
Te'pfxn/00? comp. : wood of an 
unnamed tree (see App. (20)) 
comp. to a variegated e. ; 5.4.2. 
wood proof against decay; 
9. 20. 4. colour and medicinal 
use of wood. 

ej8eV>j (2), Diospyros melanoxylon 
t 4. 4. 6. a kind with inferior wood. 

eiAerias, 866 KaAa/uio? 6 eiAeria? 
eKTOjuof TO ju.eXa^.TroSiof see eAAe/Sopos 6 

eAaa, olive, Olea Europea 
1.3.1. a typical 'tree'; 1.5.4. 
wood easily broken, not split: 
wood has many knots ; 1. 5. 5. 
wood easily broken, because 
tough and not of straight grain ; 
1. 6. 2. core not conspicuous; 

1. 6. 3. roots both stout and 
thin; 1. 6. 4. roots branching; 
etc. : shallow rooting ; roots 
crooked; etc.; 1. 8. 2. has less 
knots than KOTU/OS ; 1.8. 6. liable 
to excrescences; etc.; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 1. leaves in- 
verted in summer ; 1.10.2. colour 
of leaves; 1. 10. 4. leaves nar- 
row; 1. 10. 7. leaf-stalk short; 
etc.; 1. 11. 1. seed enveloped in 
flesh and stone; 1. 11. 3. fleshy 
seed in a stone; 1. 11. 4. effect 
on fruit of rich feeding; 1. 12. 1. 
taste of fruit; 1. 13. 2. flower 
consists of one ' leaf ' only partly 
divided; 1. 13. 3. flower sur- 
rounds fruit; etc; 1.14. 1. bears 
on last year's wood; 1. 14. 2. 
bears fruit both on top and at 
side ; 1. 14. 4. a cultivated form 
of KOTIVOS; 2. 1. 2. propagation ; 
2. 1. 4. do.; 2. 2. 5. seed produces 
wild form; 2. 2. 12. cannot be 
made out of KOTIVOS by cultiva- 
tion ; 2. 3. 1. sometimes changes 
to KOTii/os spontaneously ; etc.; 

2. 5. 3. grafting ; 2. 5. 4. propa- 
gation ; 2. 5. 6. do.: trees should 
be planted far apart; 2. 5. 7. 
low ground suitable; 2. 7. 2. 
peeds much pruning : 2. 7. 3. 

requires pungent manure and 
much water; 3. 2. 1. produces 
less fruit than KOTIVOS but ripens 
more ; 3. 12. 2. flower and fruit 

Of 0T)Av*paveia COmp.; 3. 17. 5. 

size of fruit of O-VKTJ 17 'iSaia comp.; 
4. 2. 8. common in Thebaid; 
4. 2. 9. character in Thebaid; 
4. 3. 1. grows and bears well in 
Cyrenaica; 4. 4. 1. (?) distribu- 
tion in Asia; 4. 7. 2. leaf and 
fruit of eAaa (3) comp.; 4. 7. 4. 
size of fruit of unnamed Arabian 
tree comp. (see App. (126)); 
4. 13. 1. shorter-lived than 
KOTLVOS ; 4. 13. 2. story of a very 
old tree at Athens; 4. 13. 5. ex- 
planation of longevity ; 4.14.2. 
diseases ; 4. 14. 8. effect of rain 
on fruiting; 4. 14. 9. specially 
apt to shed fruit at Taras; 

4. 14. 10. other diseases : effect 
of hot winds; 4. 4. 11. suffers 
much from special winds ; 4.16.1. 
improved by lopping branches ; 
5.3.3. character of wood; 5.3.7. 
images made from the root; 

5. 4. 2. wood proof against de- 
cay ; 5. 4. 4. wood not eaten by 
teredon ; 5. 5. 2. core not 
obvious: wherefore wood not 
apt to 'draw'; 5. 5. 3. core not 
obvious but exists ; 5. 6. 1. wood 
apt to split under pressure; 
5. 9. 6. wood good for kindling 
furnaces ; 5. 9. 7. wood not suit- 
able for fire-sticks : reason ; 

5. 9. 8. articles made of the 
wood have been known to pro- 
duce shoots: instances; 6. 2. 1. 
leaf of Kvewpo? 6 AevKo? comp.; 

6. 2. 4. will not grow more than 
a short distance from the sea; 
8. 2. 8. abundant in Melos; 
9. 18. 5. fruit of O^vyovov comp. 

to /Spvof Of e. : fruit Of appevoyo- 

vov comp. to undeveloped olive. 
A<ia (2), Olea cuspidata 
4. 4. 11. Indian (in hill-country 


'lAaa' (3) (= 6a<J>}(6) = App. (14)), 
white mangrove, Avicennia offi,- 

4. 7. 1. grows in ' Eed Sea ' ; 4.7.2. 



oiayvo? (properly eAeayi/os), goat 
willow, Salix Caprea 

4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of L. 
Copals: described. 

aTTj (1), silver-fir, Abies cephalonica 

1. 1. 8. branches opposite ; 1. 3. 6. 
refuses cultivation ; 1. 5. 1. 
erect and tall ; 1.5.2. bark in 
layers; 1. 5. 3. wood fibrous; 
1. 5. 4. wood easily split; 1.5.5. 
do. because of straight grain ; 
1. 6. 3. root single ; 1. 6. 4. roots 
fibrous; 1.6.5. roots not branch- 
ing ; 1. 8. 1. many knots ; 1. 8. 2. 
' male ' has more knots than 
'female'; 1.8. 3. branches at 
right angles; 1. 9. 1. growth 
chiefly upwards ; 1. 9. 2. growth 
affected by position; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 5. leaves de- 
scribed ; 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit ; 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 1.13.1 
flower yellow; 2. 2. 2. pro- 
pagated only by seed ; 2. 7. 3. 
requires pungent manure ; 
3. 1. 2. grows only from seed ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 4. 5. time of 
flowering and fruiting; 3. 5. 1. 
period of budding; 3. 5. 3. 
do.; 3. 5. 5. winter-buds ; 3. 6. 1. 
quick growing: even young 
tree fruits ; 3. 6. 2. formation of 
buds ; 3. 6. 4. not deep-rooting ; 

3. 6. 5. deep-rooting according 
to Arcadians; etc.; 3. 7. 1-2. 
dies if topped: formation of 
callus ; 3. 9. 5. timber compared 
with TrevK?) : etc.; 3. 9. 6. differ- 
ences between 'male' and 
' female ' : described ; 3. 9. 7. 
further comparison with Trev/o? : 
produces Kov&crov ; 3. 9. 8. do. : 
core and callus; 4. 1. 1. likes 
shade ; 4. 1. 2. grows tall in 
shade but has inferior timber ; 

4. 1. 3. grows high on moun- 
tains, but not tall; 4. 4. 1. (?) 
distribution in Asia; 4. 5. 1. 
in list of Northern trees; 
4. 5 3. does not grow in 
Pontns; 4. 15. 3. effects of 
stripping bark at various sea- 
sons; 4. 16. 1. topping fatal; 
4. 16. 1-2. not injured by cut- 

ting for resin ; 4. 16. 4. said to 
perish if entirely deprived of its 
heart-wood; 5. 1. 1. time when 
timber is of best colour ; 5. 1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 1. 4. 
do. ; 5. 1. 5-6. timber comp. 
with TUTVS; 5. 1. 7. uses of tim- 
ber ; 5. 1. 8. growth and char- 
acter; 5. 1. 9-10. methods of 
cleaving; 5. 3. 3. character of 
wood; 5. 3. 5. used for doors; 
5. 4. 4. less eaten by teredon 
than jrevKij; 5. 4. 6. wood, if 
barked just before time of bud- 
ding, does not decay in water : 
story in proof of this; 5. 5. 1. 
knotty parts of wood hard 
to work' 5. 5. 2. core most 
obvious in e. ; 5. 6. 1. wood 
good for struts : behaviour 
under pressure ; 5. 6. 2. strong- 
est of all woods ; 5. 7. 1-2. use 
of wood in ship-building; 
5. 7. 4-5. uses of wood in house- 
building and crafts : the most 
generally useful of woods : more 
so than Treu'/crj; 5. 9. 8. wood 
has a peculiar exudation ; 9.1.2. 
sap gummy ; 9. 2. 1. production 
of resin (prjrtVrj); 9.2.2. quality 
of resin. 
eAarij (2), silver-fir, Abies pectinata 

5. 8. 1. grows to great size in 
Latium, but finer still in 
Corsica ; 5.8.3. grows in hill- 
country of Latium. 

' tAaTTj ' (3), ' sea-fir,' Cystoseira 


4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 
4. 6. 7-8. described. 

e\arripiov, S6& crucvos 6 aypio? 

4. 5. 1. in list of northern plants. 

e\eio<re\ivov (= <re\ivov TO e'A.eiov), 
marsh celery. Apium graveolens 
7. 6. 3. comp. with <re\t.i>oi> : medi 
cinal use. 

eAeioxpvtro?, gold-flower, Helichry 
sum siculum 

6. 8. 1. flowering time ; 9. 19. 3. 
alleged magic properties : de- 
scribed : medicinal use. 

eA.eAiV<|>a/cos, salvia, Salvia triloba 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild uhder- 
shrub ; 6. 2. 5. like wild 
leaf described. 

44 8 


, calamint, Calamintha in- 

2. 1. 3. propagation; 6. 1. 1. in 
list of under-shrubs ; 6. 6. 2. a 
cultivated under-shrub: n coron- 
ary plant : the whole plant 
scented ; 6. 6. 3. woody : only 
one form ; 6. 7. 2. said by some 
to have no fruit ; 6. 7. 4. roots 

crack willow, Salixfragilis 
3.13.7. Arcadian name for willow. 
e'A<., ivy, Hedera Helix 

3. 18. 7-8. described : does not 
develop into KITTOS; 3. 18. 8. 
kinds; 7. 8. 1. stem ' clasping.' 

eAt TJ Aev/oj, white-berried ivy, 

Hedera Helix 
3. 18. 8. several kinds. 

e'Ai >j 7roi/'AT) ( = f.T) pa/a'a, 3.18.8.), 

ivy, Hedera Helix 
3. 18. 8. several kinds. 
e\i T) x^oepa, ivy, Hedera Helix 

3. 18. 8. described. 
eAAe/SopiVjj, rupture-wort, Herniaria 

9. 10 2. seed mixed with tAAe/3opos 

6 ACVKO? to make an emetic. 

eAAe'/3opos, hellebore, Hclleborus cydo- 

phyllus and Veratntm album 

4. 5. 1. seeks cold regions ; 6. 2. 9. 
belongs to ' ferula-like ' plants : 
has a hollow stem ; 9. 8. 4. what 
part of root cut for medicinal 
use : ' bulbous ' part a purge for 
dogs ; 9. 8. 6. poisonous effect 
on those who dig it; precau- 
tions; 9. 9. 2. medicinal use; 
9. 10. 1-4. kinds distinguished 
(see beloic) ; 9. 14. 1. how long 
drug will keep; 9. 17. 1-3. the 
drug can be made ineffectual by 
use : instances . 

eAAe^opos 6 AevKo?, white hellebore, 

Veratrum album 

9. 10. 1. has nothing in common 
with e. 6 /xe'Aas except the name : 
divergent accounts given of the 
resemblances between the two 
plants : described ; 9. 10. 2. not 
poisonous to sheep ; when in 
season : distribution ; 9. 10. 3-4. 
very local : local varieties, 

OtTouos, noiriKO?, 'EAearrjs, Ma- 
Ilapcacrios, AiTwAtKOS I 


OITCUOS the best: properties of 
'EAeaTTi?; 9. 15. 5. grows in Ar- 
cadia ; 9. 18. 2. restores scorpion 
to life when it has been killed 

With O-KOpTUOS (3). 

eAAe/Sopos o jue'Aas (drug crrjo-a/aoetSe; 

9. 14. 4.), hellebore, Helleborus 

9. 8. 8. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 10. 1. (see under e. 6 
AevKo?) : described ; 9. 10. 2. 
poisonous to animals; 9. 10. 3. 
grows everywhere : some local- 
ities specified; 9. 10. 4. called 

by Some e/CTO/uoi/ TO /u.eAa/X7r66ioi' : 

uses for puriiication and as 
charm ; 9. 14. 4. use of fruit in 
medicine; 9. 15. 5. grows in 
Arcadia ; 9.16.6. leaf of e<;/iepoi/ 
com p. 

IA.V/AOS, Italian millet, Setaria italica 
4. 4. 10. inflorescence of bpv&v 
comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of ' summer 
crops ' distinct from cereals and 
pulses; 8. 11. 1. seed keeps 

evOpvantov, chervil, Scandix australis 

7. 7. 1. a \axavoif. 

eTreriVr) (?) (? TTITIU'I/T)), Ajuga Ira 
7.8.1. stem 'clasping,' but, for 
want of support, 'on the 

'EjrijU.ei'tSetos, see ovaAAa 17 'E. 

fTrirreTpov, stone-crop, Sedum ano- 

7. 7. 4. flowerless. 

pe/3t^o?, chick-pea, Cicer arietinum 
2. 4. 2. seed soaked before sowing ; 
2. 6. 6. size of some dates comp.; 
4.4.4. size of fruit of <TVKTJ ^ 'ivSiKij 
comp.; 4. 4. 9. not found in 
India ; 6. 5. 3. leaf of a kind of 
Tpt/3oAo? comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of 
pulses; 8. 1. 4. sown both early 
and late; 8. 2. 1. germination 
described; 8. 2. 3. comes up 
with several leaves : deep-root- 
ing; 8. 2. 5. flowering time; 
8. 2. 6. time of maturing seed ; 
8. 3. 2. stem ; 8. 5. 1. several 
kinds: three mentioned, <cpiot, 

opo/Siatot, ot ava pea-ov: white 

forms sweetest; 8. 5. 2. pod 
round : seeds comparatively 
few ; 8.5.4. attachment of seed ; 

a G 


8. 6. 5. rain hurtful when F. is in 
flower: three kinds mentioned, 

/u,e'Aas, Truppos, Aevieo? ; 8. 7. 2. 

comp. with other pulses: de- 
stroys weeds : suitable soil : 
grows well after /cu'ajuo?; 8. 9. 1. 
exhausts the soil most of pulses ; 
8. 10. 1. diseases and pests; 
8. 10. 5. infested by caterpillars ; 

8. 11. 2. only seed which does 
not engender ' worms ' etc.: 
seed keeps well; 8. 11. 6. do. 
especially in hill country. 

K-r), heath, Erica arborea 
1. 14. 2. bears fruit on the top; 

9. 11. 11. AijSai'toTis }] axapTros 

grows where e. is abundant. 
epevOeSavov, madder, Rubia tinc- 


6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub; 7.9.3. roots red; 9.13.4. 
do.; 9. 13. 6. described : habit : 
habitat : medicinal use. 
epii>e6s, wild flg, Ficus Carica 
1. 8. 2. has more knots than o-vK-fj ; 

1. 14. 4. wild form of trvicrj; 

2. 2. 12. cannot be made into 
(7VKTJ by cultivation; 2. 3. 1. 
sometimes changes to <TVAJ 
spontaneously; 3. 3. 1. a moun- 
tain tree; 3. 4. 2. time of bud- 
ing ; 4. 2. 3. fruit of <rvoj ^ 
KvTrpia comp.; 4. 13. 1. longer- 
lived than O-VKT}; 4. 14. 4. not 
liable to diseases of <TVKTJ ; 5. 6. 2. 
wood tough and easy to bend : 
uses ; 5. 9. 5. wood makes pun- 
gent smoke. 

(StvSpov TO) epi6(j)opov, cotton-plant, 

Qossypium arboreum 
4. 4. 8. (not named) clothes made 
from it; 4. 7. 7-8. described. 

epn-uAAos (1) (e. 6 rj/uepo?), tufted 

thyme, Thymus Sibthorpii 
1. 9. 4. evergreen j 2. 1. 3. propa- 
gation ; 6. 1. 1. in list of under- 
shrubs; 6. 6. 2. a cultivated 
under-shrub : a coronary plant: 
the whole plant scented ; 
6. 6. 3. woody: only one form ; 
6. 7. 2. said by some to have no 
fruit: 6.7.4. roots described; 
6.7. 5. growth peculiar: wild 
forms (see efpn-vAAos (2)) ; 6. 7. 6. 


epirvXAos (2) o a-yptos, Attic thyme, 

Thymus atticus 

6. 7. 2. produces seeds, unlike 
e. (1) ; brought from Hymettus ; 
sometimes quite like 0u/xos ; 

6. 7. 5. has various forms. 
epuo-1/u.oj/, Sisymbrium polyceratium 

8. 1. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses, a 'summer crop'; 
8. 3. 1. leaf; 8. 3. 3. flower; 
8. 6. 1. rain not beneficial after 
sowing; 8. 7. 3. doubtful if 
eaten green by animals : de- 

epvcrt/3?? (cf. epvo-ifiav, epu<ri/3oiSi7<j 

8. 3. 2.), wheat-rust, Puccinia 

8. 10. 1. a pest common to all 
crops (cereals, pulses etc.). 

erv/oi65pus ( = V e P 1 '? (2) 3. 8. 2. = 5pvs 
ri Tj/u-epo?), true oak, Quercus 

3. 8. 2. one of the five kinds of 
oak (Mt. Ida) : = >Vept? : fruit ; 
3. 8. 7. one of the four Mace- 
donian kinds : has sweet acorns. 

TZvfioiicov, see Kapva r) EujSotVjj. 

ev^tufj-ov, rocket, Eruca saliva 

1. 6. 6. root woody; 7. 1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7. 2. 8. root described; 

7. 4. 1. only one kind; 7. 4. 2. 
leaf of a kind of pa^ai/i's comp.; 

7. 5. 5. seed keeps well ; 9. 11. 6. 

leaf Of orpvxi'O? o juar-iKos COmp. 

eu0t><Aoios (fipvs), see Spvs (4). 
evaii'v/xos, spindle -tree, Euonymus 

[3. 18. 13. described]. 

e^/xepot- (= (T7raA.a (?)), meadow 

saffron, ColcMcum parnassicum 

9. 16. 6. a poison which has an 
antidote : described : effects. 

eia, rice-wheat, Triticum dicoccum 

2. 4. 1. seed, unless bruised, pro- 
duces Trupos; 4. 4. 10. opvfrv 
comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of cereals ; 

8. 1. 2. sown early; 8. 8. 3. . 
and Ti'(J>Tj only plants which can 
change into something quite 
different (cf. 2. 4. 1.); 8. 9. 2. 
exhausts the soil : reason : likes 
rich soil : . and TI'$TJ the cereals 
most like n-vpos 


maple, Acer campestre 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree: name 
for mountain form of o-^eVSa/A- 
i/o?; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 
3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) ; 
3. 11. 1-2. described; 5. 1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 1. 4. 
do.; 5. 3. 3. character of wood ; 
5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 
jp, see $0*0? (1) TO n\arv<f>v\\ov. 

liSvocr/jiov, (= liivQrj), green mint, 

Mentha viridis 
7. 7. 1. a \OLXO-VOV. 
i)\ioTp6irov, Heliotropium vttlosum 
7. 3. 1. length of flowering season 

of wKinxoj/ comp.; 7. 8. 1. stem 

'on the ground'; 7. 9. 2. long 

in flower ; 7. 10. 5. evergreen ; 

7. 15. 1. flowering depends on 

the heavenly bodies. 
)7jmepi? (1), gall-oak, Quercus infec- 

3.8.2. one of the five 'Idaean' 

kinds of oak: fruit; 3. 8. 4. 

habit and timber ; 3. 8. 6. galls, 
/i/xept's (2), (so-called by some) ( = 

fipvs t) i'ifj.epo<; = 6TVju.6Spvs 3.8.2.), 

true oak, Quercus Robur 
3.8.2. bears sweet fruit. 
r)fj.epoica.\\e<;, Martagon lily, Lilium 


6. 1. 1. in list of under-shrubs (see 
note); 6. 6. 11. grown from 
seed : a coronary plant. 

ymomov, milt-waste, Asplenium 


9. 18. 7. properties of leaf: de- 
scribed: habitat: mules fond 
of it. 

>jpa(cXei'a ( = jaTjKu>i' 17 'HpaKA.eta), Si- 

lene venosa 
9. ] 5. 5. an Arcadian drug. 

T/paKAeum/CTj (xapua), see Kapva r) 

ripiytptav, groundsel, Seneclo vulgaris 

7. 7. 1. a \d\wov : classed as 
' chicory-like from its leaves : 
7. 7. 1. prolonged flowering- 
time ; 7.10.2. flowers in winter. 

f)pvyyioi>, eryngo, Eryngium cam- 

6. 1. 3. has spines on the leaves : 
a wild under-shrub. 

flai/aa, Thapsia garganica 
9. 8. 3. most powerful juice from 
root ; 9. 8. 5. superstition as tc 
method of cutting; 9. 9. 1. root 
and juice used; 9. 9. 5. medi- 
cinal use; 9. 9. 6. described; 

9. 11. 2. leaf Of ndvaiees TO 'Aa- 
*cA.i)jrieioi/ comp.; 9. 20. 3. medi- 
cinal use : grows specially ia 
Attica : properties ; effect on 
foreign and native cattle. 

0e'pju.os, lupin, Lupinus alba 
1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation ; 1.7.3. 
seed roots through under- 
growth ; 3. 2. 1. fruits better in 
wild state; 4. 7. 5. fruit of 
an unnamed Arabian tree (see 
App. (13)) comp.; 4. 7. 6. fruit 
of an unnamed Persian tree 
(see App. (13)) comp.; 4. 7. 7. 
fruit of a tree of the island of 
Tylos (see App. (13)) comp.; 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 2. 1. 
germination described ; 8. 5. 2. 
seeds in compartments ; 8.5.4. 
attachment of seed; 8. 7. 3. 
not eaten green by any animal ; 
8. 11. 2. seed keeps well : like a 
wild plant; 8. 11. 6. seed keeps 
specially well in hill country; 
8. 11. 8. peculiarities about 
sowing seed. 

9t)\vyovov ( appevoyovov), dog-mer- 

cury, Mercuriqhs perennis 
9. 18. 5. properties : described. 

flrjAvKpaveia, cornel, Cornus san- 

1.8.2. has less knots than icpdveia. ; 
3. 3. 1. tree of mountain and 
plain ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 
3. 4. 3. time of fruiting ; 3. 4. 6. 
fruit inedible; 3. 12. 1-2. de- 
scribed; 5. 4. 1. less fruitful 
than Kpai/eia. 

flrjAvTTTepis, bracken, Pteris aquilina 
9. 18. 8. properties : distinguished 
from Trrept?. 

6r\\\><$>ovov ( = aKovirov = fjLv6<f>ovoi> = 

CTKOpTUO? (3) 9. 18. 2.), WOlf'S 

bane, Aconitum Anthora 
9. 18. 2. properties : habit : fatal 

to the scorpion. 
OTJO-UOV. Corydalis densiflora 
7. 12. 3. root bitter : medicinal 


G G 2 


0pav'n-aAo?, joint-fir, Ephedra campy- 

3. 6. 4. very shallow -rooting : 
many roots ; 4.1.3. likes shade 

ivY) (properly, but not always, 
distinguished from 0piSa), wild 
lettuce, Lactuca scariola 
1. 10. 7. time of leaf -growth : 
stem presently spinous ; 1.12.2. 
taste of sap ; 7.1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and of germination; 
7. 3. 2. seeds; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds; 7. 4. 5. do. viz. Aevio;, 
ir\o.TVKa.v\o<;, crrpo-yyvAo/cavAo?, 
Aa*o> 1/1/07 : differences; 7. 5. 4. 
pests ; 7. 6. 2. wild form dis- 
tinguished : medicinal use ; 
9. 8. 2. juice of stalk collected, 
with a piece of wool ; 9. 11. 10. 

leaf Of A.i/3ai/wTts ri a.Knpiro<; COmp. 
to 6. -TI rrtKpd.. 

, lettuce, Lactuca satiea 
7. 2. 4. grows again when stem is 
cut : effect on flavour ; 7. 2. 9. 
root described; 7. 5. 3. bears 

flpvaAAi'?, Plantago crassifolia 
7. 11. 12. flowers more or less in a 

' spike.' 

Qpvov, (a grass), Imperata arundi- 

4. 11. 12. foliage of some KaAa^ot, 

6pvopov (?) (= ffrpvxvbs o /mai'iKo? 
9. 11. 6.), thorn-apple, Datura 

Bvia. (0veia), odorous cedar, Jnni- 

perus foetidissima 
1. 9. 3. evergreen ; 3. 4. 2. time of 
budding ; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 
ing ; 4. 1. 3. grows on hill-tops. 

(Ovua, ? a madrepore 
4. 7. 1. grows in Atlantic : turns 
to stone). 

Ovufipa. (evufipov), savory, Satureia 


1. 3. 1. (?) a typical under-shrub ; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 6. 1. 4. a spineless 
wild under-shrub ; 6. 2. 3. seed 
conspicuous: not, like 0u>o?, 
particular as to situation ; 6.7.5. 
a wild form of epn-vAAos comp.; 
7. 1. 2-3. thne of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 1. 6. germin?,- 

45 2 

tion ; 7. 5. 5. seed keeps well; 

7. 6. 1. wild form distinguished. 
9vy.ov (1) (flvVos), Cretan thyme, 

Thymbra capitata 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 3. 1. 3. re- 
produces itself without seed; 

6. 2. 3. two forms, black and 

white : seed inconspicuous ; 

6. 2. 4. requires sea-breezes. 
('0v>oi/' (2), ? a madrepore 
4. 7. 2. a marine plant which turns 

to stone : described). 
6vov (0va), thyine-wood, Callitris 

5. 3. 7. described : character and 

use of wood ; 5. 4. 2. wood proof 

against decay. 

iao-twi/Tj, bindweed, Convolvulus 

1. 13. 2. flower consists of one 

' leaf.* 

IK/AT?, ? duckweed, Lemna minor 
4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais; 4.10.4. requires further 
l|ia (1), oak-mistletoe, Loranthus 


3. 7. 6. grows on oak and other 
trees; 3. 16. 1. grows on Trpu/os. 

li'a (2) (= ateavda (9) = acavos = 
ii'fi7 = xajaaiA.e'a>i' Aeu6s), pine- 

thistle, Atracti/lis aummifera 
9. 1. 3. Cretan : produces a gum. 

if(.V>)(gum (d/<eu>0iKrj) /nao-n^i) 6. 4. 9., 
9. 1. 2.) (= a.K.avOa (9) = axou-os 
= tt'a (2) = xaM"A.eW 6 Aeu(f6s), 
pine-thistle, Atractylis gummi- 

6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant; 
6. 4. 4. time of growing ; 6. 4 9. 
described ; 9. 1. 2. produces a 
gum called ftaori'xr?. 

lov ( iaivta. = lov TO \evKov), gilli- 

flower, Matthiola incana 
1. 9. 4. evergreen; 2. 1. 3. pro- 
pagation; 4. 7. 4. colour and 
scent of unnamed Arabian 
tree (see App. (12)) comp. ; 
6. 1. 1. in list of under-shrubs ; 
6. 6. 1. a cultivated under- 
shrub : a coronary plant ; sweet- 
scented ; 6.6.5. sweetest-scented 
at Gyrene; 6. 6. 11. grows from 


seed ; woody ; 6. 8. 5. position 
and climate important for frag- 
rance : flowers very early in 
Egypt; 6. 8. 6. on mountains 
blooms well, but has inferior 
scent; 7. 6. 4. wild form quite 
distinct, alike only in leaf. 

lov TO \evKOv ( AevKot'op (1) = Itavia -q 

\evK-ri), gilliflower, Matthiola in- 

3. 18. 13. flower of euwi/v/ixos 
comp.; 4. 7. 8. flower of an 
Arabian tree (see App. (15)) 
comp ; 6. 6. 3. several colour 
forms; 6. 6. 7. distinguished 
from i. TO jueAav; 6. 8. 1-2. 
flowering-time; 6. 8. 5.. plant 
lives three years at most: de- 
generates with age : 7. 8. 3. 
leaves ' on the stem. ' ( 

lov TO fj.e\ai> ( = io>m'a r) jae'Aaiva), 

violet, Viola odorata 
1. 13. 2. has a 'twofold' flower; 
6. 6. 3. only one form ; 6. 6. 7. 
distinguished from I. TO Aevxoi/ ; 
6. 8. 1-2. a coronary plant: 
flowering time. 

ITTVOV, ? marestail, Hippuris vulgaris 
4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais; 4.10.4. requires further 
investigation. ( = (J-ayvSapis), PrangOS 


6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub : belongs to ' ferula-like ' 
iTTTi-oo-eAiyoc, Alexanders, Smyrnium 


1. 9. 4. evergreen ; 2. 2. 1. propa- 
gation ; 7. 2. 6. root Of reurAioi/ 
comp.; 7. 2. 8. root; 7. 6. 3. 
comp. with eAetoo-e'Ai.i>ov : medi- 
cinal use ; 9. 1. 3. root produces 
a gum : which is like a/uupi/a ; 
9. 1. 4. propagated from a 
Sa/cpvov : a popular error about 
e. and <rju.v>'a; 9. 15. 1. grows 
in Arcadia. 

iTTTro^ae?, see TiflJ/jtaAAo?. 

i7T7r6(j(>ea)9, spurge, Euphorbia acan- 


6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
spines ; 6. 5. 2. has no spines oa 
the leaves. 

!pi?, iris, Iris pallida, etc. 
1. 7. 2. root fragrant; 4. 5. 2. 
grows best in Illyria on shores of 
Adriatic ; 6. 8. 3. a coronary 
plant : flowering time ; 7. 13. 1. 
leaves described; 7. 13. 2. 
flower-stem not the only stem : 
stem comp. with aoxj!>6SeAos : 
9. 7. 3. in list of ap^/mara ; 9. 7. 4". 
only European <xpo>/u.a : best in 
Illyria: preparation; 9. 9. 2. 

ia-xaiju.os, Andropogon Ischaemum 
9. 15. 3. Thracian : properties. 

i<rx(= aTrios (2) 9. 9. 5. = pa<f>ai/os 

TJ 6peia), spurge, Euphorbia 

ire'a, willow, Salix spp. 
1. 4. 2. lives near water; 1. 4. 3. 
'amphibious'; 1. 5. 1. crooked 
and low; 1. 5. 4. wood light; 
3. 1. 1. propagation; 3. 1. 2. 
seems to have no fruit, yet re- 
produces itself: instance ; 3.1.3. 
sheds its fruit unripened ; 3.3.1. 
tree of mountain and plain; 
3.3.4. a question if it bears fruit; 

3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 6. 1. 
quick or slow grower ? ; 3. 13. 7. 
described : kinds (see below) : 
called in Arcadia eXi/cr; ; 3. 14. 4. 
leaf of KoAuTea comp.; 4. 1. 1. 
likes wet ground ; 4. 5. 7. com- 
mon in some Mediterranean 
regions; 4. 8. 1. grows partially 
in water; 4. 10. 1. in list of 
plants of Lake Copais; 4. 10. 6. 
grows both on land and in 
water; 4. 13. 2. shorter-lived 
by water; 4. 16. 2. grows again 
after being cut or blown down ; 

4. 16. 3. instance of a tree which 
survived the lopping of its 

branches; 5. 3. 4. character of 
wood; 5. 7. 7. uses of wood; 

5. 9. 4. wood makes an evil 
smoke when burnt for charcoal 

Irea ^ Aev/o?, white willow, Salix 


3. 13. 7. described. 
Ire'a 17 /xe'Aaiva, Salix amplexicaulis 

3. 13. 7. described. 
l<f>vov, spike-lavender, Lavandula 

0. 0. 11. a coronary plant: grown 



from seed ; 6. 8. 3. flowering 

V'o?) 1 cork-oak, Quercus Suber (G. 
from Plin. 16. 98. Hesych. has 

l</>0? = KKTCTOS) 

3. 4. 2. time of budding. 

icofia ( = lov q.V. = liavia. T) ACVKTJ = 
lov TO \evKOV = \evKo'Cov (1)), 

gilliflower, Matthiola incana. 

iiavia. 17 Aevicrj ( = tioiu'a = lov Q.V.), 

gilliflower, Matthiola incana. 

tcocia i) fjie\aiva. (= lov TO fie \avfq.V.), 

violet, Viola odorata. 

Ka/c-ro? (1), cardoon, Cynara Cardun- 


6. 4. 10-11. a ' thistle-like ' 
plant: described: peculiar to 

KGIKTOS (2), artichoke, Cynara Scoly- 


6. 4. 11. has erect 'stalk ' called 
irrepvLg : described ; edible ; base 
of receptacle called o-KaAia?. 

KaAa/*os, reed 

1. 5. 2. bark fibrous: bark in one 
layer; 1. 5. 3. stem jointed; 
1.6.2. core membranous; 1. 6. 7. 
root jointed ; 1. 6. 10. roots large 
and numerous; 1. 8. 3. joints 
regular; 1. 8. 5. joints analogous 
to ' knots ' ; 1.9. 4. evergreen ; 
1. 10. 5. leaves end in a point ; 
further described ; 1.10.9. leaves 
made of fibre : leaf -stalk made 
of fibre; 2. 2. 1. (a kind of) 
propagation ; 4. 8. 1. in list of 
TOL AoxM^ 1 ) > 4. 8. 7. Kvajotos 6 
Aiyu'Tmo? comp.; 4. 8. 8. thick- 
ness of root Of Kua/oios 6 AtyuTr- 
Tio? comp.; 4. 9. 1. class of rivers 
in which K. grows; 4. 9. 3. has 
'side-growths'; 4. 10. 1. in list 
of plants of Lake Copais ; 4.10.6. 
grows both on land and in 
water; 4.10.7. effect of drought ; 
4. 11. 1. distinguished from K. 
o avATjTiKo? (see below) : a stout 
and a slender form (6 x a P aK ^ 
and 6 TrAo/a/uos) (see below) ; 
4. 11. 10-13. other forms ; 6. 2. 8. 
setting of leaves of rapO^ and 

i/ap#r/Ki'a COmp.; 9.16.1. 5i(cra/avov 
kept ev (caAa/aa) . 

= K. b (rvpiyyia? = K. o rofiKo? 
= c. 6 x a P aK ^ ai > o6i>a, pole- 
reed, Arundo Donax 
4. 10. 1. in list of plants of Lake 
Copais ; 4. 10. 6. grows only in 
water; 4. 11. 1. distinguished 
from the ordinary form of K.: 
4. 11. 2. not true that it takes 
nine years to grow; 4. 11. 3. 
conditions of growth ; 4. 11. 4. 
described by contrast with other 
K<xAaj.oi ; 4. 11. 4-7. manufac- 
ture of the mouthpieces of 
pipes ; 4. 11. 8-9. distribution 
in region of Lake Copais. 

KoAa/uos 6 etAerca?, Ammophila arun- 


4. 11. 13. the 'male kind' of K. 
en-i-yetos, so called by some. 

KoAajuos (eiriyeio?), bush-grass, Cala- 

moffrostis Epigeios 
4. 11 V 13. described : growth comp. 

to aypwcrns. 
KaAa/u.os 6 euwfirjs, SWCCt flag, AcOTUS 


4. 8. 3. grows in a Syrian lake ; 
9.7.1. habitat (east of Lebanon) : 
described : fragrance ; 9. 7. 3. in 

list of apcojuara. 

K<Aa/u.os 6 'lvoiK.6-; , bamboo, Bambusa 

4. 11. 13. described. 
K<xAa/xo? 6 'Irfit/co? ('male'), Male 
bamboo, Dendrocalamus strictus 
4. 11. 13. distinguished as solid. 

K<xAa/AO 6 Aa/ctoi'iKos ( = K. 6 avArjTi/cos 
K. o crvpiyyi'as = K. 6 TOIKOS 
= K. 6 xP a '"'o t s = Soj'a^), pole- 
reed, Arundo Donax 
4. 11. 12. colour. 

/caAa/xo? 6 ;rA6/ajuio?, Spear-graSS, 

Phragmites communis 
4. 11. 1. pliant reed; compared 
with K. 6 x a P aKla ? ' grows on 
floating islands of Lake Copais. 

KaAa/uo? 6 avptyyt'as ( = K. 6 avArjrt/co? 

= K. 6 Aa/COJJ'lKOS = K. O TO^IKO? 

= K. 6 x a paKia? = 66va^), pole- 
reed, Arundo Donax 
4. 11. 10 described. 

Ka.\a.fJ.OS 6 TO^tKO9 (KprjTlKOs) (== K, o 

avAijTt*c6s = K. 6 Aajcwt'iKos = c. 6 
crvpiyyta? = K. o x a P aK ^ a ^ = ^o- 

ra^), pole-reed, Arundo Donax 
4. 11. 11. described. 



apaKtas ( = K. 6 AO.K wi'i/cds 

etc.), pole-reed, ^.rwnrfo Donax 
4. 11. 1. stout form: described: 

grows in reed-beds of Lake 

/caAa/xo? (other kinds) 

4. 11. 10. briefly described. 
/caTTTTapis, caper, Capparis spinosa 
1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation ; 3. 2. 1. 

fruits better in wild state ; 

4. 2. 6. fruit of /SoAowos comp.; 

6. 1. 3. has spines on the shoots ; 

6. 4. 1. has spines on leaves as 
well as on stem ; 6. 5. 2. de- 
scribed; 7. 8. 1. stem 'on the 
ground'; 7. 10. 1. grows and 
flowers entirely in summer. 

/.apfia/Aoi', cress, Lepidium sativum 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 7. 1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7. 1. 6. germination; 

7. 4. 1. only one kind; 7. 5. 5. 
seed keeps well. 

Kapfia/Aw/j.of', cardamom, Elettaria 


9. 7. 2. an ap<u/*a, Median or In- 
dian ; 9. 7. 3. in list Of ap^ara. 
Kapuu (fruit Kapvoy), hazel, Corylm 


1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 3. 2. 3. 
evidence that it is really wild ; 

3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding ; 3. 4. 4. time 
of fruiting ; 4. 5. 4. abundant 
on Tmolus and Mysian Olym- 
pus; 8. 2. 2. germination de- 

Kapva. -ft Eti/Soucrj, sweet chestnut, Gas- 

tanea vesca var. (improved form) 

1. 11.3. seed hi a leathery shell; 

4. 5. 4. common hi Euboea and 
Magnesia; 5. 4. 2. wood proof 
against decay; 5. 4. 4. wood 
does not decay in water (?) 

5. 6. 1. wood makes a noise 
when about to split : instance ; 
5. 7. 7. uses of wood : does not 
rapidly decay; 5. 9. 2. charcoal 
of this wood used in iron-mines. 

i:apva. 17 'HpcueAeom/CTj ('HpaKAeums) 

(fruit Kdpvoi'), filbert, Coryhis 
avellana vars. 

1. 3. 3. effect of not pruning; 
1. 10. 6. leaves notched ; 1.11.1. 
seed immediately within enve- 

lope ; 1. 11. 3. seed in a woody 
shell ; 3. 3. 8. doubt whether it 
has a flower ('iovAos) ; 3. 5. 5-6. 
catkins; 3. 6. 2. formation of 
buds; 3. 6. 5. deep-rooting ac- 
cording to Arcadians : etc.; 

3. 7. 3. catkins; 3. 15. 1-2. 
described: kinds. 

apvx 17 Ilep<7i/oj, walnut, Juglans 


3.6.2. formation of buds ; 3.14.4. 
leaf of o-Tj/avSa comp. 

ao-ux, cassia, Cinnam<nnum iners 
4. 4. 14. in list of oriental aroma- 
tic plants; 9. 4. 2. Arabian; 
9. 5. 1. and 3. described: 
method of collection ; 9. 7. 2. 
Arabian ; 9. 7. 3. in list of opu>- 

avKaAis, Tordylium apulum 

1. 7. 1. a \a X ai>oi>. 

e'yxpos, millet, Panicum miliaceum 

1.11.2. seeds in a husk ; 4. 4. 10. 

inflorescence of '6pv$ov comp.; 

4. 8. 10. fruit of AWTOS (2) comp.; 

4. 10. 3. size of seeds of 0-16/7 
comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of 'sum- 
mer crops ' distinct from cereals 
and pulses; 8. 1. 4. sown later 
than cereals and pulses ; 8.2. 6. 
time of maturing seed; 8. 3. 2. 
stem; 8. 3. 3. flower; 8. 3. 4. 
seed abundant; 8. 7. 3. needs 
little water : comp. with /ue'Ai- 
ros; 8. 9. 3. reasons why it 
might have been expected to 
exhaust the soil : contrasted 
with pulses as to ' lightness ' ; 
8.11.1. seed keeps well; 8.11.6. 
do. specially in hill-country ; 
9. 18. 6. fruit of Kparaiywv comp. 

eSpt's, juniper, Juniperus communis 
1. 9. 4. evergreen : a dwarf kind 

(cf. Ke'Spos 3. 13. 7.); 1. 10. 6. 

leaf spinous at tip; 1. 12. 1. 

taste of fruit. 
e'Spos (1) (= ovKe5pos 3. 12. 3.), 

prickly cedar, Juniperus Oxy- 

1. 5. 3. wood not fleshy ; 1. 10. 6. 

leaf spinous at tip; 3. 6. 5. 

shallow-rooting according to 

Arcadians; 3.10.2. M'Ao? comp.; 

3. 12. 3-4. described : two kinds, 

i\ AvKti) and i) $om/CTJ (? 4>oiri- 



KI/OJ) (see KfSpos (3)); distin- 
guished from -upKeuflos ; 3. 13. 7. 
has a dwarf form (?KeSpt?, cf. 
I. 9. 4.); 4. 3. 3. size of fruit of 
TraAioupos 6 'Ai-yvTTTios COmp.; 
4.5.2. grows on Thracian and 
Phrygian mountains ; 4. 16. 1. 
some think topping fatal ; 5.3.7. 
images made from the wood; 
5. 4. 2. wood proof against de- 
cay; 5. 9. 8. wood exudes mois- 
ture : hence ' sweating ' statues ; 

9. 1. 2. sap gummy. 


(2), Syrian cedar, Juniperus 

3. 2. 6. characteristic of mountains 
of Cilicia and Syria; 4. 5. 5. 
grows in Syria and is used for 
ships ; 5. 7. 1-2. use of wood 
in ship-building ; 5. 7. 4. use of 
wood in house-building ; 5. 8. 1. 
remarkably fine in some regions 
e.g. Syria. 

xe'Spos (3), 19 <boi.viKi.Kri ( = ap/cev0os), 

Phoenician cedar, Juniperus 

3. 12. 3. see e'6po? (1) ; 9. 2. 3. said 
to be burnt for pitch in Syria. 

/ce'Spos (4) r) AUKITJ 

3. 12. 3. a kind so distinguished 

by some from /ce'Spos (3). 
Kei/raupiov, centaury, Centaurea sa~ 

1. 12. 1. taste 9f fruit; 3. 3. 6. 
only bears fruit in hill country ; 
4.5.1. seeks cold regions; 7.9.5. 
leaves and stems bitter, yet 
wholesome ; 9. 1. 1. juice blood- 
red; 9. 11. 6. juice mixed with 

trrpux^o? o /mavi/cds to make a 

Keyravpi's, feverwort, Erythraea Cen^ 


9. 8. 7. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 14. 1. how long drug 
will keep. 

broom, Ruscus aculeatus 
3. 17. 4. bears fruit on its leaves. 

Kepai's (= pd<|>aj>os 19 aypia 9. 15. 5.), 

charlock, Raphanus Rax>hanis- 
Ke'pao-os ( = XaKapr)), bird-cherry, Pru~ 

nus avium 
3. 13. 1-3. described 4. 15. 1. bark 

can be stripped; 9. 1. 2. sap 
epaui'ioi/, ' thunder-truffle,' Tuber 


1. 6. 5. has no roots, 
ep/ci? (1), Judas-tree, Cercis Sili- 


1. 11. 2. seeds in a pod. 
ep/a's (2). aspen, Populus tremula 

3. 14. 3. described. 

epwvi'a ( = CTVKTJ rj AlyvTrria 1. 11. 2.), 

carob, Ceratonia Silioua 
1. 11. 2. seeds in a pod; 1. 13. 2. 
bears on stem and branches; 
4. 2. 4. described. 

TyAacTTpo? (/CTJAaoTpoj/), holly, Ilex 


1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation ; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 3. 1. tree of moun- 
tain and plain; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green ; 3. 4. 5-6. time of fruit- 
ing ; said to lose fruit in winter ; 
4. 1. 3. grows in very cold 
positions ; 5. 6. 2. colour of wood 
of </)iAu'KTj comp.; 5. 7. 7. wood 
used for walking-sticks. 
va/Awjoiop, cinnamon, Cinnamomum 

4. 4. 14. in list of oriental aromatic 
plants; 9.4.2. Arabian; 9.5.1-2. 
two kinds, white and black, 
described : habitat : method of 
collection : a story ; 9. 7. 2. in 

list of apoj/aara. 

i'aflo?, rock-rose, Cistus spp. 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub ; 6. 2. 2. described : two 
forms (see bdoiv). 

t<r6os 6 apprji', Cistus villosus 
6. 2. 1. described. 

urflos 6 flrjAvs. Cistus salvifolius 
6. 2. 1. described. 

ITTO;, ivy, Hedera Helix 
1. 3. 2. a shrub which becomes 
tree-like ; 1. 9. 4. evergreen ; 
1. 10. 1. leaves change shape 
with age of plant ; 1. 10. 7. long 
leaf-stalk; 1. 13. 1. flower 
' downy' ; 1. 13. 4. attachment 
of flower ; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 
ing: 3. 10. 5. fruit and leaf 
of <i'A.vpa comp.; 3. 14. 2. leaf 
of Kep.-a? (2) comp.; 3. 18. 6. 
kinds distinguished (see belotv); 
3. 18. 7. distinguished from 



eAt; 3. 18. 9-10. described: 
habit etc.; 3. 18. 11. cluster of 
berries of o>uA.a (2) comp.: de- 
scribed ; 4. 4. 1. distribution in 
Asia; 4. 16. 5. overgrowth of K. 
dangerous to trees; 5. 3. 4. 
character of wood ; 5. 9. 6. wood 
said to make best fire-sticks; 
5. 9. 7. the stationary fire-stick 
should be made of K. or u6pa- 

yev-n; 9. 13. 6. leaf of epevOeSavov 


KITTO? 6 e'Ai , see t'Ai 
KITTO? 6 Aeu/cos, white-berried ivy, 

Hedera Helix 
3. 18. 6. described : several kinds : 

VCKO?; 3.-18. 9. roots ; 3. 18. 10. 
fruit ; 9. 18. 5. properties of fruit. 

KITTOS 6 jue'Aas, black-berried ivy, 

Hedera Helix 

3. 18. 6. several kinds; 3. 18. 9. 
roots ; 3. 18. 10. fruit. 

Kixopiov (/axoprj), chicory, Cichorium 


1. 10. 7. attachment of leaves; 
7. 7. 1. a Kaxa-vov; a class of 
plants called ' chicory-like' from 
their leaves; 7. 7. 3. season of 
growing; 7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the 
ground' and 'on the stem' ; etc.; 
7. 9. 2. long in flower ; 7. 10. 3. 
flowers borne in succession; 
7. 11. 3. root, inflorescence and 
seed-vessel described ; 9. 12. 4. 

Hrjxiav 17 coias COlllp. to K. TO 
ayptoy; 9. 16. 4. leaf of CLKOVITOV 

K\rjOpa, alder, Alnus glutinosa 
1. 4. 3. ' amphibious ' ; 3. 3. 1. tree 
of mountain and plain ; 3. 3. 6. 
does not always fruit ; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding; 3. 4. 4. time 
of fruiting; 3. 6. 1. slow grow- 
ing (?); 3. 6. 5. roots slender 
and ' plain,' according to Area 
dians; 3. 14. 3. described; 

3. 15. 1. leaf Of /capva -YI 'Hpa/cAeco- 

TIKTJ comp.; 4. 8. 1. grows par- 
tially in water. 

cutting; 9. 18. 6-7. properties 
of fruit. 
KI/S'WDOV (berry KWStos KOKKOS), 

Daphne Qnidium 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub; 9. 20. 2. berry de- 
scribed ; medicinal use and pro- 

Kvecopo; 6 AevKos, Daphne oleoides 
6. 2. 2. distinguished from K. 6 

/xe'Aa? ; use of root. 
Kveajpos 6 jixeAas, Thymelaea hirsuta 
1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 6. 2. 2. see 

K. 6 Aev/co?. 

KI'Tj/CO? (= K. O TJjUepO? = KpOKOS 6 a.KO.V- 

3. 11. 1. a form of 
\vit.evov t honeysuckle, Lonicera 

9. 8. 5. superstition as to time of 

torius etc. (see below) 

1. 13. 3. flowers attached above 
each seed ; 6. 1. 3. a wild under- 
shrub : has spines on the leaves ; 
6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant; 
6. 4. 4. no side-growths ; 6. 4. 5. 
three forms distinguished and 
described, one cultivated (see 
beloiv); 6. 6, 6. seed of poSov 
KVYJKO<; I) aypia, Carthamm leucocaulos 

6. 4. 5. distinguished from K. 77 

(cyrj/cos 17 dypca (ere'pa), CnicilS bene- 


6. 4. 5. described. 

KJ/TJKOS ij TJ/itepos, Carthamustinctorius 
6. 4 5. distinguished from wild 


Kvt'Sios /COK/COS, see Kvetapov 

Kol'f (= /cov/ao^opov), doum-palm, 

Hijphaene thebaica 
1. 10. 5. reedy leaves; 2. 6. 10. a 

shrubby palm : Ethiopian. 
KOKKvyea, wig-tree, Rhus Cotinus 
3. 10. 6. described. 

KOKKViJ.yb.ea (fruit /co/c/cu/j.TjAci'), plum- 

tree, Prunus domestica 
1. 10. 10. fruit made of flesh and 
fibre; 1. 11. 1. seed enveloped 
in flesh and stone ; 1 . 12. 1. taste 
of fruit; 1. 13. 1. flower ' leafy ' ; 
1. 13. 3. flower above fruit-case ; 

3. 6. 4. very shallow-rooting : 
few roots; 3. 6. 5. deep-rooting 
according to Idaeans; etc.: 

4. 2. 3. size of fruit of CTVKTJ ij 
KvTrpta comp.; 4.2.5. fruit-stone 

Of Trepo-e'a COHlp. 



KOKKV(t.ri\fa. (r/ AiyvTm'a) (sebesten), 

Cordia Myxa 
4. 2. 10. described. 
KoAoiTta (1) (/coAovTe'a 3. 17. 2.: C/. 

3. 17. 3. n.), Ci/tisus aeolicus 
1. 11. 2. tree of Lipari islands: 
seeds in a pod ; 3. 17. 2. de- 
KoAoiria (2), Salix cinerea 

3. 17. 3. Idaean : described 

KoAo/cwTTj, gourd, Cucurbita maxima 

1. 11. 4. seeds in a row: 1. 12. 2. 

taste of sap; 1. 13. 3. flower 

attached above fruit: 2. 7. 5. 

use of dust; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 

sowing and of germination; 

7. 1. 6. germination ; 7.2.9. root 

described ; 7. 4. 1. several kinds ; 

7. 5. 5. seed does not keep well. 

/coAvre'a, bladder-senna, Colutea ar- 

[3. 14. 4. described.] 

KO/uapos (fruit'KvAof 3. 16. 4.), 

arbutus, Arbutus Unedo 
1. 5. 2. bark readily drops off ; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 16. 4. de- 
scribed; 3. 16. 6. leaf of KOK- 
Kvye'a comp.; 5. 9. 1. wood makes 
good charcoal. 

KQU.Y) = TpayoTTtoyo)!' 7. 7. 1. Q.V, 

K.6i>va, Inula spp. 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under - 
shrub; 6. 2. 5. two kinds de- 
scribed and compared (' male ' 
and 'female') (see belov:); 
7. 10. 1. grows and flowers 
entirely in summer. 

Kovvfa TJ appriv, Inula VlSCOSd 

6. 2. 5. 
Kowga. ij 07jAeia, Inula graveolens 

6. 2. 5. 

Kopiawov, coriander, Coriandmm 


1. 11. 2. seeds naked ; 7. 1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germination ; 
7. 1. 6. germination; 7. 2. 8. 
root described; 7. 3. 2. seeds 
described; 7. 4. 1. only one 
kind; 7. 5. 4. effect of hot 
weather ; 7. 5. 5. seed keeps well. 

/copujix/Sias, see KITTO9 o AevKo?. 

Kopxopos, blue pimpernel, Anagallis 

7. 7. 2. a Aaxayoi' : proverbial for 


hartshorn, Plantago 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground.' 

KOO-TOS, Saussurea Lappa 
9. 7. 3. in list of ap^ar 
KOTIVOS (? = dypie'Aaios), Wild olive, 

Olea Oleaster 

1. 4. 1. more fruitful than eAaa ; 
1. 8. 1. many knots; 1. 8. 2. 
more knots than <fAaa; 1. 8. 3. 
knots regular : knots opposite ; 

1. 8. 6. liable to excrescences; 
1.14.4. wild form of eAaa ; 2.2.11. 
cannot be made into eAaa by 
cultivation : effect of transplant- 
ing and removing top-growth ; 

2. 3. 1. occasionally changes to 
eAaa spontaneously; 3. 2. 1. 
produces more fruit than eAaa 
but ripens less; 3. 6. 2. knots 
opposite ; 3. 15. 6. size of fruit 
Of Kparatyos Comp.; 4. 4. 11. 

Indian olive between K. and 
eAaa; 4. 13. 1. longer-lived than 
eAaa; 4. 13. 2. story of a very 
old K. at Olympia; 4. 14. 12. 
suffers less than eAaa from 
special winds ; 5. 2. 4. story of 
a tree at Megara ; 5. 3. 3. char- 
acter of wood ; 5. 4. 2. wood 
proof against decay; 5. 4. 4. 
wood not eaten by teredon : 
5. 7. ses of wood for car- 
pen' .ols. 

KOVKIO,. = Koi'), doum-palm, 

Ht/pnaene thebaica 

2. 6. 9. (not named) described; 
4. 2. 7. described. 

Kpai/eia (fruit KpdvfOv 4. 4. 5 ), 

cornelian cherry, Cera 's 

1.6.1. core hard and close; 1.8.2. 
has more knots than flrjAv- 
/cpaveta; 3. 2. 1. fruit sweeter 
and better ripened in wild than 
in cultivated form ; 3.3.1. tree 
of mountain and plain ; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding ; 3. 4. 3. time 
of fruiting; 3. 6. 1. slow-grow- 
ing (?); 3. 12. 1-2. described; 

4. 4. 5. fruit of an unnamed 
Indian tree (seeApp. (6)) comp.; 

5. 4. 1. more fruitful than Or)\v- 
Kpaveca; 5. 6. 4. wood very 


y, willow-weed, Polygo- 
num Persicaria 
9. 18. 6. properties : described. 

araiyo? (= /cparaiyoji/ 3. 15. 6.), 

Crataegus Heldreichii 

3. 15. 6. described : perhaps a 
wild form of /OK-O-TTI'AIJ. 

rjTri?, ox-tongue, Helminthia echi- 

7. 8. 3. leaves on the stalk. 

iOri, barley, Hordeum sativum 

1. 6 5. roots numerous ; 1. 6. 6. 
do.; 1. 11. 5. each seed separ- 
ately attached : 2. 2. 9. said to 
turn sometimes into wheat; 
2. 4. 1. wild K. turns into culti- 
vated with cultivation ; 4. 4. 9. 
India has a corresponding cereal 
and a wild form of K.; 8. 1. 1. 
in list of cereals; 8. 1. 3. sown 
early, before Trupos ; 8. 1. 5-6. 
time of germination in Hellas 
(and in Egypt ?) ; 8. 2. 1. ger- 
mination described; 8. 2. 3. 
single leaf first appears: roots 
described ; 8. 2. 6. time of ma- 
turing seed ; 8. 2. 7. time of 
harvest in Hellas and in Egypt; 
8. 2. 9. crop very early in island 
ofChalkia; 8. 3.2. stem; 8.4.1-2. 
comp. in detail with other 
cereals : kinds distinguished 
(see below)', 8.6.1. conditions for 
sowing; 8. 6. 4. suitable soil; 
8. 6. 5-6. rain hurtful when K. 
is in flower : and when it is ripe ; 
8. 7. 1. said to change into alpa. 
under certain conditions ; 8.7.5. 
in many places comes up again 
next year ; etc.; 8. 8. 2. favour- 
able localities ; 8.8.3. at-yi'Xw^ (2) 
grows specially among AC.; 8.9.1. 
exhausts the soil, but less 
than Trupo? : reason ; 8. 10. 2. 
wheat- rust; 8. 10. 3. effects 
of weather ; 8. 11. 1. seed 
keeps less well than Trvpds ; 
8. 11. 3. grain stored without 
drying ; 8. 11. 7. at Babylon 
grain jumps on the threshing- 
floor : reason ; 9. 11. 9. nOv- 
jxaAAos 6 Mvpn'TT)? gathered at 
time of barley-harvest ; 9. 12. 
4. WKUV i) pom? grows in fields 
of K. 

KpiOal a.1 aypi'ai (Indian), Sorghum 


4. 4. 9. can be used for bread, 
/cpiflai ai 'AxiAAeuu, barley, Hordeum 

sativum var. 
8. 4. 2. ear close to leaf ; 8. 10. 2. 

specially liable to wheat-rust. 
Kpidal ai 'IvSiKaC, barley, Hordeum 

sativum var. 
8 4. 2. branching. 
KpiOw yews rpi'fjirivov, barley, Hor- 
deum sativum var. 
8. 1.4. sown late. 

Kpivov ( = Kpivtavia, cf, \eipiov (1)), 

lily, Lilium candidum etc. 
1. 13. 2. has a 'twofold' flower; 
2.2.1. propagation from exuda- 
tion; etc.; 4.8. 6. an unnamed 
Egyptian plant (see App. (18)) 
comp.; 4.8.9. petals of fiower of 
Aomk (2) comp. ; 6. 6. 3. several 
colour forms ; 6. 6. 8. do. ; a 
coronary plant : described : pro- 
pagation ; 6. 6. 9. leaves of 

i/apxtcrcro? (1) comp.; 6. 8. 3. 

flowering time ; 9. 1. 4. cf. 
2. 2. 1. 

Kpivov TO nop<f)vpovv, Turk's cap lily, 
Lilium chalcedonicum 

6. 6. 3. (see Kpivov). 
*pi(H, see epe'/Sti/flo?. 

Kp<kos, crocus, Crocus spp. etc. (see 


I. 6. 6. root fleshy ; 1. 6. 7. do. 
1. 6. 11. large fleshy root ; 
7.7.1. leaf of TpayonwyMv comp.; 
7. 7. 4. flowering time short: 
three kinds mentioned, euoo>ios, 
A.VK05, aKavOwSrft (see below). 
7.9.4. root acorn-shaped ; 7.10 2. 
flowers in winter; 7.13.1. leaves 
described; 7. 13. 2. no stem 
except flower -stem. 

Kpo/cos 6 aKav0<a8v)<; ( = KI/TJKO? = K. y 

fyxepos), safflower, Carthamus 

7. 7.4. (see (cpoxos). 

/cpoKo? 6 evoovAos, saffron crocus, 

Crocus sativus 

4. 3. 1. abundant in Cyrenaica ; 
6. 6. 5. sweetest-scented at 
Cyrene; 6. 6. 10. a coronary 
plant : described : propagation ; 
6. 8. 3. flowering time : a wild 
(scentless) and a cultivated 



kind ; 7. 7. 4. see K poKo<s ; 9. 7. 3. 

in list of apo/u.aTa. 

s, crocus, crocus can- 

7. 7. 4 : 7. 10. 2. (see 
Kpo/avoyrjTetov, onion, Allium Cepa 

4. 6. 2. root of (/>UKOS TO v\arv 

Kpdnvov, onion, Allium Cepa 

1. 5. 2. ' bark ' in layers ; 1. 6. 7. 
root in scales ; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots; 1. 10. 7. attachment of 
leaves; 1. 10. 8. leaves hollow; 
7. 1. 7. stem single; 7. 2. 1. 
propagation ; 7. 2. 3. growth of 
yri&voi' and npda-ov comp.: off- 
sets specially numerous ; 7. 3. 4. 
seed borne at top ; 7. 4. 7-10. 
kinds distinguished, 2ap6toi/, 
Kin'Sioc, 2afio9pd/ciOf, OTjTai'ioi', 
o-^icTToV, 'Atr/caAwi/ioi' i cultiva- 
tion and special points of <rxw 
TOV (see below), 'A<TKa\u>vt.ov : 
further local varieties ; 7. 4. 12 
formation of roots of a-KopoSov 
contrasted ; 7. 5. 1. likes water; 
7 5. 2. said to dislike rain- 
water; 7. 8. 2. stem smooth, 
not branched ; 7. 9. 4. c/. 1. 6. 7 ; 
7. 13. 4. grows in colonies be- 
cause of offsets ; 9. 15. 7. root of 
JUU>AV comp. 

Kpo^vov TO O-XLVTOV, shallot, Allium 
Cepa var. 

7. 4. 7-10. distinguished from 
other varieties of /cpo'/avoy : cul- 

KPOTUV, castor-oil plant, Ricinus 

1. 10. 1. leaves change shape with 

age of plant ; 3.18. 7. do. 
/cuajuos, bean, Vicia Faba 

3. 13. 3. size of fruit of Kepao-o? 
comp.; 3. 15. 3. fruit of rcp/ui^o? 
comp.; 3. 17. 6 size of berry of 
aju7re\o? (2) comp.; 4. 3. 1. size 
of fruit of AOJTOS (4) comp.; 

7. 3. 1. length of flowering 
of UKIHOV comp.; 8. 1. 1. in 
list of pulses; 8. 1. 3-4, sown 
early, but can be sown late; 

8. 1. 5. time of germination: 
very slow ; 8.2.1. germination 
described; 8. 2. 3. comes up 


with several leaves : roots and 
side-growths contrasted with 
other pulses; 8. 2. 5. flowering 
time ; 8. 2. 6. time of maturing 
seed ; 8. 3. 1. leaf ; 8. 3. 2. stem ; 
8. 5. 1. more than one kind: 
white form sweetest; 8. 5. 4. 
attachment of seed ; 8. 6. 1. rain 
not beneficial after sowing; 
8. 6. 5. likes water when in 
flower, but not later; 8. 7. 2. 
makes ground fertile for epe- 
0iy0os ; 8. 8. 6 causes etc. of 
K. becoming ' cookable ' or ' un- 
cookable ' ; 8. 9. 1. improves the 
soil (cf. 8. 7. 2.) ; 8. 10. 5. in- 
fested by u>es; 8. 11. 1. seed 
does not keep; 8. 11. 3. seed 
keeps well in some localities. 
/UOS (6 AiyvVnos), Nelumbium spe- 

4. 8. 7-8 described; 4. 8. 9. stalk, 
leaves and growth of fruit of 
A.WTOS (2) comp. 

cv6wf,.oj (fruit yu.rjAoi' /cvSumov) ( = 
a-rpovOCov (1)), quince, Cydonia 

2. 2. 5. produced from seed of 
a-rpovOiov, 4. 8. 11. size of root 

Of A.WTO? (2) COmp. to /ATJA.O:/ 

7. 13. 9. (hi defective sentence) : 

belongs to TO. /3oA/3^6rj. 

VK\dfjui>o<;, cyclamen, Cyclamen 


7. 9. 4. root has 'bark'; 9. 9. 1. 
root and juice used ; 9. 9. 3. use 
in medicine and as charm ; 
9. 18. 2. leaf of cr/copiu'os (3) 

V^LVOV, cummin, Cuminum Cymi- 


1. 11. 2. seeds naked ; 7. 3. 2-3. 
seeds described: popular belief 
about sowing; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds ; 8. 3. 5. seed very abun- 
dant and small; 8. 6. 1 rain 
not beneficial after sowing; 
8. 8. 5. a plant parasitic on 
root (see App. (25)); 8.10.1. 
diseases ; 9. 8. 8. cf. 7. 3. 2-3. 

woppoSov, dog-rose, Rosa coMina 
4. 4. 8. an unnamed Indian tree 
(cotton plant) comp. 


s, wild rose, Rosa semper- 

3. 18. 4. described ; 9. 8. 5. super- 
stition as to method of cutting. 
vvtaij/, rib-grass, Plantago lanceo- 

7.7.3. time of growing : 7.11.2. (?) 

flowers in a spike. 
un-dpiTTos, cypress, Cupressus 

1. 5. 1. erect and tall; 1. 5. 3. 
wood not fleshy ; 1. 6. 4. shallow 
rooting; 1. 6. 5. roots not 
branching; 1. 8. 2. 'male' has 
more knots than ' female ' ; 
1. 9. 1. growth chiefly upwards ; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 4. 
leaves fleshy; 2. 2, 2. propa- 
gation ; 2. 2. 6. seed of ' female ' 
produces ' male ' trees ; 2. 7. 1. 
dislikes manure and water; 
3. 1. 6. comes up spontaneously 
in Crete; 3. 2. 3. evidence that 
it is really wild (at least ' male ' 
form) ; 3. 2. 6. characteristic of 
the Cretan Ida ; 3. 12 4, bark 
of /ce'Spos(l) comp.; 4.1.3. grows 
very high on Cretan mountains ; 
4. 3. 1. grows in Cyrenaica; 

4. 5. 2. abounds in Crete, Lycia, 
Rhodes; 4. 18. 12. beer (/3pvrds) 
made from K. in Egypt ; 4, 16. 1. 
some think t9pping fatal ; 5.3.7. 
0voi/ comp.: images made from 
the wood; 5. 4. 1. the 'male* 
form the more fruitful ; 5. 4. 2. 
wood proof against decay: an 
instance : takes a fine polish ; 

5. 7. 4. use of wood in house- 

viretpoi/, Cyperus rotundus 

9. 7.3. in list Of aptoju.o.Ta. 

VTreipcs, galingale, Cyperus longus 
1. 5. 3.. stem very smooth ; 1. 6. 8. 
a stout root and also fibrous 
roots ; 1. 8. 1. no knots ; 1. 10. 5. 
leaves end in a point; further 
described; 4. 8. 1. in list of TO. 
AoxfwiSr); 4. 8. 12. leaves of 
juaAti/afldAAr; comp.; 4.tlO. 1. in 
list of plants of Lake Copais; 
4. 10. 5. described; 4. 10. 6. 
grows both on land and in 
water : grows on the float- 
ing islands of Lake C'opais 

4. 11. 12. foliage of some KoAa/xot 


K.VTLVO 1 ;, see p6a. 
KVTtcros (1), laburnum, Laburnum 

I.Q.I, core hard and close ; 4. 4. 6. 

habit of e/3eV?) comp.; 5. 3. 1. 

wood of the core very close 

and heavy. 
KUTKTOS (2), tree-medick, Medicago 


4. 16. 5. dangerous to trees. 
/wojuaKov, Ailanthus malabctrica 
9. 7. 2. an Arabian apwjua (i.e. 

imported through Arabia : 

mixed with other apM^ara : 

[name also given to fruit of a 
different plant]. 

v, hemlock, Conium macu- 

1. 5. 3. stem fleshy ; 6. 2. 9. belongs 
to ' ferula-like ' plants : has a 
hollow stem ; 7. 6. 4. leaf of 
opeiocre'Au'Of' comp.; 9. 8. 3. most 
powerful juice from root; 
9. 15. 8. localities; 9. 16. 8. medi- 
cal experience ; 9. 16. 9. treat- 
ment in Keos; 9. 20. 1. iretrepi 
an antidote to K. 

K(av6<j)opo<; , see [TTCVKIJ 17] 

\dOvpos, Lathi/rus sativus 
8. 3. 1. leaf; 8. 3. 2. stem; 
8. 10. 5. infested by ' worms.' 

\atcdpr) (\a.Kapa.) ( = /cepatros ? Mace- 
donian name), bird-cherry. Pru- 
nus avium 

3. 3. 1. a tree of mountain and 
plain; 3. 6. 1. slow-growing (?). 

A.a7r<x0oj (XdiraOov), monk's rhubarb, 

Rumex Patientia 

1. 6. 6. root single; 7. 1. 2. time 
of sowing; 7. 2. 7-8. root 
described; 7. 4. 1. only one 
kind ; 7. 6. 1. wild form distin- 
guished (see below); 9. 11. 1. 
leaf of Trdvaxes TO Xeipcoj/eiof 

kd.ira.6ov TO dypiov, dock, Rumex con- 


7. 6. 1. distinguished from A. TO 
Ji/xepoi/; 7.7.2. a \d\avov; needs 

4 6l 


, ' (? = <7/c6Av/u.os 6. 4. 3.)> 
golden thistle, Scolymus his- 
6. 4. 3. a thistle-like' plant: 

leaves spinous. 

A.eiptoi' (1) ( = Kpivov q.v.) Madonna 
lily, Lilium candidum 

3. 13. 6. flower of a/cTrj has the 
heavy scent of A..; 3. 18. 11. 
scent of flower of o>uAaf (2) 
comp.; 9.16.6. (?) leaf of e</>ijjuepov 

Xei'pioy (2), narcissus, Narcissus 

spp. (see below) 
1. 13. 2. flower consists of one 

' leaf ' only partly divided. 
Aetpiov, polyanthus narcissus, Nar- 
cissus Tazetta 

6. 8. 1. flowering time; 7. 13. 4. 
grown from seed . 

Aei'pioj/ (TO erepov 6.8.3.) ( = vapKiercros 

(1) 6.6.9.), narcissus, Narcissus 

6. 6. 9. a coronary plant: de- 
scribed ; flowering time. 
\e>j/a, water chickweed, Callitriche 

4. 10. 1. in list of plants of Lake 

\evKdicav9a, milk-thistle, Silybum 

6. 4. 3. a ' thistle-like ' plant. 

AevAcrj, abele, Populus alba 
I. 10. 1. leaves change shape with 
age of tree: leaves inverted 
in summer; 3. 1. 1. propaga- 
tion; 3. 3. 1. tree of moun- 
tain and plain ; 3. 4. 2. time 
of budding; 3. 6. 1. qnick- 

rowing; 3. 14. 2. described; 
. 18. 7. cf. 1. 10. 1.; 4. 1. 1. 
likes wet ground; 4. 2. 3 

stem of (TVK-fj i) Kvirpia COmp.J 

4. 8. 1. grows partially in water; 
4. 8. 2. scarce on Nile; 4. 10. 2. 
flower of eAaia-yros comp. ; 
4. 13. 2. shorter-lived by water; 
4. 16. 3. instance of a tree 
which grew again after falling 
down; 5. 9. 4. wood makes an 
evil smoke when burnt for char- 

\evKoiov (1) (= i'oi' TO AeuKoV = iiavia 

j) Aev/cTj), gilliflower, Matthiola 

\fVKoiov (2), snowdrop, Galanthus 


7. 13. 9. (in defective sentence) 
belongs to TO. /3oA/3c66r/. 

9.95. medicinal use; 9.11.10-11. 

two kinds (see below). 
A.i/3ai>ums ^ aKapTros, Lactuca graeca 

9. 11. 10-11. described: medi- 
cinal use : habitat. 

A.i/3ai/wTt? 17 Kap7rtju.os, (fruit Ka^pv 

9. 11. 10.), Lecokia cretica 
9. 11. 10. described: medicinal 

use : habitat : prevents moth in 


XtjSavwTos, (gum At/Safe?, frankin- 
cense : also A.t/3ai/wTos 9. 4. 4-9. 

etc.), frankincense-tree, Bos- 

wellia Carteri 
4. 4. 14. in list of oriental ip^ara ; 

9. 1. 6. time of tapping ; 9. 4. 1. 

collection of gum; 9. 4. 2. 

Arabian : described : habitat ; 

9.4.3. another account; 9.4.4-10. 

accounts of travellers; 9. 11. 3 

SCent of Travoxe? TO 'HpoKAetoi' 

comp.; 9. 11. ,10. scent of root 

of At^avums ^ KapTrijuos COmp.; 

9. 20. 1. an antidote to KUVSIOV. 
\ivov, flax, Linum usitatissimum 
3. 18. 3. seeds oily ; 8. 7. 1. said 

to change into atpa. 
XiVof Trvpivov ? 

9. 18. 6. growth Of Kparai'-yoro? 

\iv6<rnapTov , Spanish broom, Spar- 

tium junceum 
1.5.2. bark in layers. 
Avx^i?, rose-campion, Lychnis coron- 


6. 8. 3. a coronary plant : flower- 
ing time. 

7. 15. 3. many plants called by 
this name which have nothing 
in common but the name. 

(1), nettle-tree, Cdtis aus- 

1. 5. 3. wood not fleshy; 1. 6. 1. 
core hard and close; 1. 8. 
few knots ; 4. 2. 5. colour of 
wood of Trepo-eo. comp.; 4. 2. 9. 
wood of olive of Thebaid comp.; 
4. 2. 12. wood of an unnamed 

tree (? /co/c/cv/xr)Aea i] 



comp.; 5. 3. 1. wood very close 
and heavy ; 5. 3. 7. images 
made from the wood ; 5. 4. 2. 
wood proof against decay : 
turns black when old ; 5. 5. 4. 
core not obvious but exists; 
5. 5. 6. treatment of core for 
making door-hinges ; 5. 8. 1. 
grows in some places exception- 
ally fine. 

TOS (2) (aquatic) (root Kopa-iov), 
Nile water-lily, Nymphaea stel- 

4. 8. 9-11. described, 
os (3) (herb), trefoil, Trifolium 

7. 8. 3. leaves 'on the stem'; 
7. 13. 5. seed sometimes takes 
two years to germinate. 

rds (4) (Libyan tree), Zizyphus 

4 3.1. common in Libya ; 4.3.1-2 
described; 4. 3. 4. further de- 

ro? (5) (aromatic) ( = 
Trigonella graeca 

9. 7. 3. in list Of apta^a-ra. 

(= iTTTro/aapafloi'), PrangOS 


1, 6. 12. root most characteristic 
part; 6. 3. 7. distinct from 
a-L\<fnov : described : distribu- 

[6. 3. 4. name also given to seed 
of <ri'A$i<n']. 

a5(ovais( = vv/A$cua 9.13.1.), yellow 

water-lily. Nuphar luteum 

(1), mallow, Lavatera ar- 

1. 3. 2. a herb which becomes 
tree-like under cultivation ; 
1. 9. 2. do.; 4. 15. 1. outer bark- 
can be stripped; 9. 18. 1. leaf 
fruit and taste of stem of aA0aia 

^aAaxi? (2), cheese-flower, Malca 

7. 7. 2. a \axa-vov, needs cooking; 
7. 8. 1. stem ' on the ground ' 

/uaAax>? (3) T; i-ypia (= aA0at'a 9.15.5.), 

marsh-mallow, Althaea offici- 

(= /avaeriov), CypeniS 
4. 8. 12. described. 
juai/Spa-ydpa? (1), mandrake, hjandra- 

gora officinarum 

9. 8. 8- superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 9. 1. root and juice 
used : medicinal use of leaf and 

jmaj'fipa-yopa? (2), ? deadly night- 
shade, Atropa Belladonna 

6. 2. 9. belongs to 'ferula-like' 
plants : has hollow stem : fruit 

papaOov, fennel, Foeniculum vulgare 
1. 11. 2. seeds naked; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap ; 4. 6. 3. </>OKO? TO 
Tpixo<f>vAAoi/comp.; 6.1. 4. aspine- 
less wild under-shrub: belongs 
to ' ferula-like ' plants ; 6. 2. 9. 
do.: has a fibrous stem ; 7. 3. 2. 
seeds described ; 9. 9. 6. leaf of 
0cu/u'a comp. 

/xacrTreTOV, see triA^toj/ 

/u.eAa-ypavt9 (= (rxoivos 6 *cap7rt/iios 

4. 12 1.), bog-rush, Schoenus 

^.eAajHTrvpoi' (/aeAa/xTrvpo?), Neslia 


8. 4. 6. infests Trupb? 6 Si/ceAd? : 
contrasted with aipa; 8. 8. 3. 
(MeAaju.7rvpo5 6 Hoi'TiKos), speci- 
ally affects crops of Trupo?. 
/aeAia, manna-ash, Fraxinus Ornus 

3. 3. 1. tree of mountain and 
plain; 3. 4. 4. time of fruiting; 
3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) ; 3. 6. 5. 
roots numerous matted and 
run deep, according to Arca- 
dians; 3. 11. 3-4. described: 
two kinds, see /Jov/xe'Ato? ; 3.17.1. 
leaf of <eAA6s comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
grows in Pontus ; 4. 8. 2. 
common on Nile; 5. 1. 2. time 
of cutting timber ; 5. 6. 4. wood 
'moist': used for elastic bed- 
steads; 5. 7. 3. wood used for 
bent-wood work : use in ship- 
building; 5. 7. 8. uses of wood 
for carpenter's tools. 

(= AOJTO? (5)), Trigonella 

7. 15. 3. one of the many diverse 
plants called AIOTOS. 

?, (in other authors /aeAi^: 



see 8. 1. 1. n.), Italian millet, 
Setaria italica 

8. 1. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses; 8. 2. 6. time of 
maturing seed; 8. 3. 2. stem; 

8. 3. 3. flower; 8. 7. 3. needs 
little water : comp with Keyxpos. 

!j.e\i<ra-6<f>v\\ov, balm, Melissa offlci- 


6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

ju.ejU.euKvXoi', see KOjitapos 

fj.e<nri\r) (fruit /aeVrrtAoi/) (= jit. 17 

traravetos), medlar, Mespilus 

3. 12. 5-6. described : three kinds 
(Idaean account, see below) ; 
3. 13. 1. leaf of /cepauo? comp.; 

3. 15. 6. leaf, bark and taste of 
fruit of (cpaTcu-yo? comp.; 3.17.5. 
flower of o-uKTJ -rj 'I5aia comp. 
also taste of fruit ; 4. 2. 10, fruit 
of KOKKVjoiTjAea. comp.; 4 8. 12. 
juaAii>a0aAAT} COmp.; 4. 14. 10. 

fruit gets worm-eaten. 

jueOTriArj 17 ai^rjSoi'oei'fiT)?, hawthorn, 

Crataegus Oxyacantha 
3. 12. 5. described. 
ju.ecnuA.i7 ^ di^fiwv, oriental thorn, 

Crataegus orientalis* 
3. 12. 5. described. 

jueenriAT; r/ o-aroVeios, medlar, Mes- 

pilus germanica 
3. 12. 5. described. 
M^CHKTJ (Troa), lucerne, Medicago 


8.7.7. destroyed by sheep sleep- 
ing on it. 
M.TJKwi', poppy etc., Papaver spp. etc. 

(see below) 

1. 9. 4. evergreen; 1. 11. 2. seeds 
in a vessel ; 4. 8. 7. size of flower 

of Kua/u.05 6 AiyvwTios COmp.; 

4. 8. 10. size of ' head' of AWTO? 
(2) comp.; 4.10.3. atS-n comp. (?) ; 
9. 8. 2. juice of ' head ' collected ; 

9. 12. 3-5. kinds (see below) 
having nothing in common but 
the name; 9. 16. 9. medical 
experience; 9. 20. 1. seeds of 
one kind of TreVepi comp. 

ju.T7Kwv r/ 'IIpaxAei'a ( = 'Hpa/cAeia), 

Silene venosa 

9. 12. 5. described: medicinal 

WI/ ^ KfpaTtri?, horned poppy, 
Glauciam flavum var. Serpierii 
. 12. 3. described : medicinal use ; 

tav rj jue'Aaiva, Papaver Rhoeas 
. 11. 9. mixed with TtflvVaAAo? 6 
/tvpriTTjs to make a medicine. 
UV (^ 6n-c66rjs), opium poppy, 
Papaver somniferum 
. 12. 2. juice. 

wi/ V; potas, Papaver hiibridum 
. 12. 4. described : edible : habi- 
tat : medicinal use. 

(= TtfliVoAAo? 9. 8. 2.), 

spurge, Euphorbia Peplus 
. 8. 2. collection of juice. 
e'a (fruit (j-ri^ov), apple, P//ms 

1. 3. 3. a tree whose stem is not 
single; 1. 5. 2. bark smooth: 
bark readily drops off; 1. 6. 1. 
core fleshy; 1. 6. 3. few roots; 
1. 6. 4. shallow rooting; 1. 8. 4. 
knots peculiar; 1. 9. 1. trunk 
divides low down; 1. 10 4. 
(?) leaves fleshy; 1. 10. 5. 
leaves oblong; 1. 11. 4. seeds 
all together in a single case; 
1. 11. 5. seeds in a membrane; 

1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 12. 2. 
taste of sap; 1. 13. 1. flower 
'leafy'; 1. 13. 3. flower above 
fruit-case; 1. 14. 1. bears on 
last year's "wood: some kinds 
bear also on new wood ; 1.14.4. 
many cultivated forms ; 2. 1. 2. 
propagation; 2. 2. 4. degene- 
rates from seed; 2. 2. 5. seed 
produces wild form ; 2. 5. 3. 
grafting ; 2. 5. 6. trees should be 
planted fairly close together; 

2. 6. 6. some dates round like 
fj.rj\a ; 2. 8. 1. apt to shed im- 
mature fruit; 'A. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain ; 3. 3. 2. has 
better fruit and timber in low- 
lands; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 

3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 3. 11. 5. 
mountain and lowland forms 
compared; 4. 5. 3. abundant in 
Pontus ; 4. 5. 4. grows on Mount 
Tmolus and Mysian Olympus; 

4. 7. 7. size of fruit of SeVSpov TO 
epi6<j)opov comp.; 4. 10. 2 leaf of 
eAouayyos COmp. (?); 4. 10. 3. 



size of flower of crtSrj comp.; 
4. 13. 2. short-lived, especially 
certain kinds; 4. 13. 3.- after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock ; 4. 14. 2. apt to get 
worm-eaten; 4. 14. 10 fruit 
gets worm-eaten ; 4. 14. 12. un- 
injured by special winds ; 4.16.1. 
survives splitting of stem ; 5.3.3. 
character of wood ; 5. 4. 1. the 
less fruitful trees produce more 
solid wood; 6. 4. 9 'head' of 
III/T) comp. to ju.TJA.ov. 

/u.T}\e'a r) y^vKela, PyrUS MaluS Var.? 

4. 13. 2. specially short-lived; 
4. 14. 7. has specially weak con- 
stitution ; a form of ^. r) eapu^ ; 
9. 11. 6. leaf of a-rpvxvos 6 vir- 
i/oSSrjs comp. 
/arjAe'a T) eapivn, Pyrus Malus var.? 

2. 1. 3. propagation ; 4. 7. 7. size 
of cotton-bearing vessel comp.; 
4 13. 2. specially short-lived; 
4. 14. 7. has weak constitution ; 

(cf. ju.. -f] y^vnela). 

/arjAea 19 6eia, Pyrus Malus var.? 
4. 13.2. comparatively long-lived. 

jtxijAe'a Tf Ilepo-iKT? (MrjSifoj) citron, Cft- 

rws Medico, 

1. 11. 4. seeds in a row; 1. 13. 4. 
only pistillate flower fruitful ; 
4. 4. 2. peculiar to Media and 
Persia: described. 


/ATjAwflpov (= a/ATreAo? (4)), bryony, 

Bryonia cretica 
3. 18. 11. fruit of er/arxa^ (2) comp.; 

6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

/arji'ai'tfo? , Limnanthemum nymphoi- 

4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of 

Lake Copais ; 4. 10. 4. requires 

further investigation. 
/ouAa(= o>uA.a (2)),smilax, Smilax 

1. 10. 5. leaf described ; 1. 10. 6. 

leaf with spinous projections; 

6. 8. 3. flower used in garlands. 
ju.i'A.0?, yew, Taxus baccata 

1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 1. a 

mountain tree; 3. 3. 3. ever- 
green ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 

3. 4. 5. time of flowering and 

fruiting ; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 


ing; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) 

3. 10. 2. described ; 4. 1. 3. likes 
shade ; 5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 

\i.lvQi\ (ju.iV0a) (= r)Sv6criJ.ov), green 

mint, Mentha viridis 
2. 4. 1. o-iorV/Spiov turns into M- 
unless often transplanted; 6.7.2. 
said by some to have no fruit. 
fjLvdffiov (= f*.a.\ivaOd\\7)), Cyperus 

4. 8. 2. used for food in Egypt ; 

4. 8. 6. described. 

fjivaKavOos (= /cei/rpo/xuppiVjj), but- 

cher's broom, Ruscus aculeatus 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 

which have leaves as well as 


jotvKTj?, mushroom etc., Fungus 
1. 1. 11. has not all the ' parts ' of 

a plant; 1. 5. 3. stem very 

smooth ; 1. 6. 5. no roots ; 

3. 7. 6. grows on roots of trees. 

[4. 7. 2. marine growths which 

turn to stone] ; 

[4. 14. 3. name given to a disease 

of eA.aa], 

(= aKoi>i.Toi' = 

spn-i'os (3)), wolf's bane, Aconi- 
tum Antkora 

6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 

shrub: belongs to 'ferula-like' 

plants; 6. 2. 9. do.; has a 

fibrous stem. 

upiKij (1), tamarisk, Tamarix te- 


1. 4. 3. 'amphibious'; 1. 9. 3. 
evergreen; 1. 10. 4. leaves 
fleshy; 3. 3. 1. tree of mountain 
and plain; 3. 3. 3. evergreen; 

3. 16. 4. bark of Ko/uapos comp.; 

4. 2. 6. (?) leaf of ^Wos comp.; 
4. 6. 7. leaf of SpO? (7) comp ; 

6. 2. 1. leaf of Ki'e'oopos 6 /ue'Aas 

comp.; 6. 4. 8. flower of x a ^ at - 

AeW comp. 
vpuoj (2), tamarisk, Tamarix artic- 


5.4.8. Arabian : wood very strong. 
.uppiVrj ([j.vppivo<; , /uvpTos) (fruit M^P" 

TOV), myrtle, Myrtus communis 
1. 3. 3. effect of not pruning; 

1. 9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 2. 

leaves close-set and opposite ; 

1. 10. 4. leaves narrow ; 1. 10. 8. 


H H 


leaves regular; 1. 12. 1. taste 
of fruit; 1. 13. 3. flower above 
fmit-case; 1. 14. 1. bears on 
last year's wood : flowers borne 
on new wood not fertile ; 1.14.4. 
many cultivated forms ; 2. 1. 4. 
propagation ; 2. 2. 6. sometimes 
improves from seed ; 2. 5. 6. 
propagation : trees should be 
planted close together ; 2. 7 2. 
needs much pruning; 2. 7. 3. 
requires pungent manure and 
much water ; 3. 6 2. formation 
of buds ; 3. 12. 4. fruit of ceSp<K 
(1) comp.; 3. 15. 5. leaf of TTUO? 
comp.; 3. 16. 4. flower of /co- 
mpos comp.; 4. 2. 6. (?) leaf of 
pdkavos comp.; 4. 3. 1. arrange- 
ment of fruit of AWTOS (4) comp.; 
4. 5. 3. does not thrive in cold 
regions ; 4. 5. 4. grows in Pro- 
pontis; 5. 8. 3. grows in low- 
land parts of Latium : and on 
Circeian promontory (a dwarf 
kind); 6. 8. 5. very fragrant 
in Egypt; 9. 11. 9. leaf of ri.6v- 

juaAAos 6 /uupTir>)S Comp. 

fnS)\v, moly, Allium nigrum 
9. 15. 7. localities in Arcadia : 
said to be like the /m. of Homer : 
described : use as charm. 

vcdpov ? 

9. 7. 3. in list of apw/uuxra. 
vanv, white mustard, Brassica alba 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 7. 1. 2-3; 
time of sowing and of germina- 
tion; 7. 3. 2. seeds described ; 
7. 5. 5. seed keeps well. 
vdpSov, spikenard, Nardostachys Ja- 


9. 7. 2. an Indian apw/ua; 9. 7. 3. 

in list of apoj/uara ; 9. 7. 4. an 

unnamed Thracian plant (see 

App. (25)) comp. 

vap0rj;a'a( = i/dp0ij see 6.2.7.), ferula, 

Ferula, communis 
6.1.4 spineless: belongs to 'ferula- 
like, plants ; 6. 2. 7. perhaps 
differs only in size from vdpO^ ; 
6.2.8. described. 
vdp6i}% ( = vapOriKia see 6. 2. 7.), ferula, 

Ferula communis 
1. 2. 7. flesh turns to wood ; 1.6.1. 
core fleshy; 1. 6. 2. core mem- 

branous ; 6. 2. 7. perhaps differs 
only in size from vapOrjicia ; 

6. 2. 8. described; 6. 3. 1. stalk 
of o-i'A.c/Hoz' comp.; 9. 9. 6. stem 
of 0cu//t'a comp.; 9. 10. 1. leaf of 
both eAAe/Sopoi comp. by some ; 

9. 16. 2. diKTafjii'Ov kept ev rda- 


i/ap/ao-cros (1) (= Xfipiov (2) 6. 6. 9.), 

narcissus, Narcissus serotinus 
6.6.9. a coronary plant: described; 

7. 13.1. leaves described; 7.13.2. 
no stem except the flower-stem ; 
7. 13. 5-7. stem appears before 
leaves, viz. flower-stem : se- 
quence described and comp. 
with o-Ki'AAa. 

i-apKicrcro? (2), pheasant's eye nar- 

cissus, Narcissus poeticus 
6. 8. 1. flowering time. 

vdpnr] ? 

9. 7. 3. in list Of apw/xara. 
(vrjTrevdes) = iLr)K.u>v 77 077106779, opium 

poppy, Papaver somniferum. 
9. 15. 1. mythical : supposed 

vv^aia ( = /xa6coi'ai? 9.13.1.), yellow 

water-lily, Nuphar luteum 
9. 13. 1. fragrant: habitat and 
localities : leaf described : medi- 
cinal use : called ^.aSwi-ais in 

t'pi?, gladwyn, Iris foetidissima 

9.8.7. superstition as to gathering. 
u/Hoi' (= t'0os 7.13.1. = <f)d(rya.voi>) , 

corn-flag, Gladiolus segetum 
6. 8. 1. flowering time; 7. 13. 2. 
flower-stem not the only stem. 

|t(/>o?(= i<f)iov 1. 13. 1.= $d<Tyai>oi>), 
corn-flag, Gladiolus segetum. 

wild pear, Pyrus communis 
var. P.t/raster 

2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 

rather far apart. 
077 (OLT?), sorb, Sorbus domestica 

2. 2 10. becomes sterile in a warm 
place ; 2. 7. 7. ' correcting ' the 
tree ; 3. 2. 1. fruit sweeter and 
better ripened in wild than in 
cultivated form ; 3. 5. 5. winter- 
buds ; 3. 6. 5. roots shallow but 
strong: thick according to Ar- 
cadians; 3 11. 3. leaf of /ue 



comp. ; 3. 12. 6-9. described ; 

3. 15. 4. leaf of Te'p/oui>0os comp. 

oivdvGri (1), drop-wort, Spiraea Fili- 


6. 0. 11. a coronary plant: grown 
from seed ; 6. 8. 1-2. flowering 
time : flower described. 

oivdvQr) (2) r) aypux, wild Vine, Vitis 


5. 9. 6. aflpa-ytVrj CO nip. 

ola-os ( = a-y'o?), withy, Vitex Agnus- 


3. 18. 1-2. has two forms, ' white' 
and ' black ' ; 6. 2 2. used for 

oAocrxoii'o?, nee trxoivos 6 6A. 

oAvpa, (cultural variety of eta), rice- 
wheat, Triticum dicoccum 

8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 4. 1. comp. 
in detail with other cereals ; 
8. 9 2. does not exhaust the 
soil much : reason. 

bvo6r)pa.<; ( = 5a<i'i7 >; dypi'a), oleander, 

Nerium Oleander 

9. 19 1. effect on 'mind': de- 

o^oTrvfos, Onopordon illurwum 

6. 4. 3. a ' thistle-like ' plant. 
oi-oxeiAe's, bugloss, Echium diffusion 

7. 10. 3. flowers borne in succes- 

6 i>o> i/is, rest-harrow, Ononis anti- 

6. 1. 3. has leaves as well as 
spines : a wild under-shrub ; 
6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
spines; 6. 5. 3-4. described: 
troublesome to farmers. 

o^vaicavtfos, cotoneaster, Cotoneaster 


1. 9. 3. evergreen ; 3. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 4. 2. time of bud- 
ding ; 3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 

4.4.2. thorilS Of /u.T)Ae<x 17 Ilepo-i/cr) 

comp.; 6. 8 3. fruit used in gar- 

6vr) (oua), beech, Fagus silvattca 
3. 3. 8. doubt whether it has a 
flower; 3. 6. 5. roots few 
slender and ' plain' according to 
Arcadians : shallow - rooting ; 
3. 10. 1. described; 3. 11. 5. 
mountain and lowland forms 

compared; 5. 1. 2. time of cut- 
ting timber ; 5. 1. 4. dp.; 5. 4. 4. 
wood does not decay in water ; 
5. 6. 4. w r ood ' moist ' : used for 
elastic bedsteads ; 5. 7. 2. wood 
used for keel etc.of small vessels; 
5. 7. 6. other uses of wood ; 
5. 8. 3. grows very fine in low- 
land part of Latin m. 
b&KeSpos (=*ce'a P os (1) 3. 12. 3.), 
prickly cedar, Juniperus Oxy- 

3. 12. 3. some, who call ap*eu0o<> a 
Kf'Spos, distinguish /ce'Spo? (1) as 

OTTtTlW, ? 

7. 13. 9. (in defective sentence) 

belongs to ra jSoA/SwS^. 
oTro/SaAtrapov, See jSaAcrajuoi'. 

opeiocre'Atvoi', parsley, Petroselinum 

7. 6. 3-4. distinguished from other 
forms of vekivov : medicinal use. 

opeiTrreAea, wych-elm, Ulmus mon- 

3.14.1. distinguished from TrreAea. 

bpiyavov (opi'yavos) (== 6. 17 jiteAaiva), 
marjoram, Origanum viride etc. 
1. 9. 4. evergreen (partly) ; 1. 12. 1. 
taste pf fruit; 6. 1. 4. a spine- 
less wild under-shrub ; C. 2. 3. 
two forms, ' black ' and ' white' 
(see beloiv) : seed conspicuous : 
not, like flj/io?, particular as to 
situation ; 7. 1. 3. time of ger- 
mination ; 7. 1. 6. germination ; 
7. 2. 1. propagation; 7. 6 1. 
wild form distinguished. 

uptyai'os T; Aeuoj, marjoram, Ori- 
ganum heracleoticum 
6. 2. 3. distinguished from 6. 17 


opcyavo? v) /xe'Aaiva ( = opiyai/or), mar- 
joram, Origanum viride 
6. 2. 3. distinguished from 6. 17 


op^ivov , Salvia Horminum 

8. 1. 4. sown later than cereals 
and pulses ; 8. 7. 3. doubtful if 
eaten green by animals: de- 
scribed : sown at same time as 


opo/Sayx 7 ?. dodder, Cuscuta europaea 
8. 8. 4. grows specially among 
opo^oi : reason : aTrapu'Tj comp. 

H H 2 



opo/3os, bitter vetch, Ervum Ervilia 

2. 4. 2. more digestible if sown in 
spring ; 7. 5. 4. used to prevent 
\jtv\\at in pcu/>ai>i's; 7. 6. 3. size of 

fruit of in-Troo-eA.U'Oi'COmp.: 8.1.4. 

sown both early and late ; 8.2.5. 

flowering time; 8. 3. 2. stem; 

8. 5. 1. more than one kind : 

white form sweetest; 8. 5. 2. 

seeds not in compartments; 

8. 5. 3. shape of pod ; 8. 8. 4. 

6poj3ayvTi grows specially among 

6.; 8. 10. 1. a pest; 8. 11. 2. 

seed keeps well; 8. 11. 6. do. 

specially in hill-country ; 9.20.1. 

shipe of one land of neirepi 

(fruit) comp. 
opTvg ( o-TeA.e</>oupos according to 

some, 7. 11. 2.), plantain, Plan- 

tago JLagopus. 
opvgov, rice. Oryza saliva 

4. 4. 10. described. 
opxts (1) (/^eyas), orchis, Orchis pap- 


9.18.3. properties : leaf and stalk. 
6px<.s (2) (/on/epos), orchis, Orchis 


9.18.3. properties: leaf and. stalk. 
oQ-Tpva, (oorpvi?) (oorpvi's = o'orpus 

3.10.3.), hop-hornbeam, Ostrya 

I. 8. 2. male ' has more knots 

than 'female'; 3. 3. 1. tree of 

mountain and plain ; 3. 6. 1. 

slow-growing (?); 3. 10. 3. de- 


ocrrpus(= ba-rpva 3.10.3.), hop-horil- 
beam, Ostrya carpinifolia 

3. 10 3. described. 
oinyyov, (Jolocasia antiquorum 

1.1.7. 'fruit' underground; 1.6.9. 
grows underground; 1.6.11. 

4. 1. 3. likes shade. 
auovia( = 'yAvKv<rio 1 T) 9. 8. 6.), peony, 

Paeonia officinalis 
9. 8. 6. superstition as to time of 

aAtoupo? (1), Christ's thorn, Pali- 

urus australis 
1. 3. 1. a typical ' shrub ' ; 1.3. 2. 

becomes tree-like ; 1 .5.3. thorns 

on wood; 1. 10. 6. leaf with 

spinous projections; 1. 10. 7. 
stem presently spinous ; 3. 3. 1. 
tree of mountain and plain; 

3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting ; 3. 11. 2. fruit 
of o-$eV6ajai>os comp.; 3. 18. 3. 
kinds: described; 4. 8. 1. to 
some extent grows in marshes ; 
4.12.4. to some extent aquatic; 
6.1.3. has spines on the shoots. 

na\iovpos (2) (6 AiyvTTTtos), Zizyphus 

4. 3. 1-2. common in Libya; 

4. 3. 3. described : distinguished 
from TT. of Hellas. 

navaKfLa (= TO 'Hpa/cAetoi'), 

Opopanax hispidus 
9. 15. 7. localities. 

rrdvaKes (TO Svptov ? 9. 7. 2 ! 9. 10. 1.), 

(juice xaAjBairi (?) 9.7.2: 9.9.2., 

see note), all-heal, Ferulago 


9. 1. 2. in list of plants whose 
juice is a gum : 9. 7. 2. Syrian : 

X^A/Barr? made from TT.; 9. 7. 3. 

in list of aptojuaTo. ; 9. 9. 1. root 

fruit and juice used; 9. 9. 2. 

uses for medicine and perfume ; 

9. 11. 1. kinds (see below); 

9. 11. 4. two further kinds, one 

fine-leaved, the other not: 

medicinal use. 

ndvaKes TO 'AcrKArjTrieiov, Ferula no- 


9. 8. 7. superstition as to gather- 
ing; 9. 11, 1. described: medi- 
cinal use. TO 'HpaxAetoi/ (= Trai/u/ceia), 

Opopanax hispidus 
9. 11. 1. in list of kinds of *-.; 
9. 11. 3. described : medicinal 
TravctKes TO Xeipajyeiov, elecampane, 

Inula Helenium 
9. 11. 1. described: habitat: 

medicinal use. 
iravTdSova-a, star-thistle, Centaurea 


6. 5. 1. in list of spinous plants 
which have leaves as well as 
TraTrupos (stalk TraTi-vpos), papyrus, 

Cyperus Papyrus 
4. 8. 2. useful for food in Egypt ; 
4. 8. 3-4. described: use 



4. 8. 5. stem of trapi comp ; 
6. 3. 1. belongs to 'ferula-like ' 

napOeviov, bachelor's buttons, Pyre- 
thrum Parthenium 

7. 7. 2. a \dxavov : needs cooking 
Treats, bullfist, Lycoperdon Bovista 

I. 6. 5. no roots. 

77-eAe(avos, axe-weed, Securigem Coro- 

8. 8. 3. grows specially among 
a<j)dKri : name explained. 

irevTa-neTes ( = Trei/rcu^iAAoi/ 9.13. 5.), 

cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans 

9. 13. 5. described. 

nevTa.(}>v\\oi' ( = TrevTaTrere's 9. 13. 5.), 

cinquefoil, Potentilla reptans. 
(TreVepi), pepper, Piper nigrum 
9. 20. 1. a fruit : two forms : de- 
scribed : properties : antidote 
to Kuveiov; 9. 20. 2. size of 
Ki/iSio? KOKKOS comp. 
nepSiKLov, 'partridge-plant,' Polygo- 

num ttiaritimum 
1. 6. 11. large fleshy roots. 
irepiTxos (? a-Tpvx vo< > TreptTrds) ( = 
viKos 9. 11. 6.), 

jrepcrea ( = TTep<riov),MimuSOpS ScMm- 


3. 3. 5. not fruitful everywhere ; 
4. 2. 1. peculiar to Egypt; 
4. 2. 5. described ; 4. 2. 8. com- 
mon in Thebaid. 

Trepo-iov ( = Trep<rea.),MimilSOpS Schitn- 


2. 2. 10. effects of climate. 
nevKeSavov, sulphur-wort, Peuceda- 
num officinale 

Q. 14. 1. how long drug will keep ; 

9. 15. 1. grows in Arcadia; 

9. 20. 2. properties of root : use 

in medicine : grows in Arcadia. 

irevicr), fir, Pinus spp. 

1. 3. 6. refuses cultivation ; 1. 5. 1. 
erect and tall ; 1. 5. 4. wood has 
many knots ; 1.6.1. core woody; 
1. 6. 3. root single ; 1. 6. 5. root? 
not branching; 1. 8. 1. many 
knots; 1. 9. 3. evergreen (the 
wild and one cultivated kind) ; 
1. 10. 4. leaves like teeth of 
comb(?); 1.10 6. leaf spinousat 
tip; 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap ; 2. 2. 2. 

propagated only by seed ; 2. 5. 2. 
instance of very long roots; 
3. 1. 2. grows only from seed: 
3. 2. 3. evidence that it is really 
wild; 3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 
3. 3. 3. evergreen ; 3. 3. 8. doubt 
whether it has a flower ; 3. 4. 5. 
time of budding and fruiting; 
3. 4. 6. time of fruiting ; 3. 5. 1. 
periods of budding ; 3. 5. 3. do.; 

3. 5. 5. winter-buds ; 3. 5. 6. 
cone; 3. 6. 1. quick growing: 
even young tree fruits ; 3. 6. 4. 
not deep-rooting ; 3. 7. 1. dies if 
topped ; 3. 7. 3. produces a 
'tuft' (Ku'rrapos); 3. 9. 1-8. 
kinds according to various 
authorities (see beloiv) : distinc- 
tion from TTI'TVS; 3. 9. 4. timber, 
foliage; 3. 9. 5. further dis- 
tinction from TTtVn? : the disease 
1 pitch-glut' ; 3. 9. 7. comparison 
with eAa-nj; 3. 9. 8. do.: core 
and callus; 4. 1. 1. likes sun; 

4. 1. 2. in shade has inferior 
timber ; 4. 5. 1 . in list of North- 
ern trees ; 4. 5. 3. does not grow 
in Pontus; 4. 15. 3. effects of 
stripping bark at various sea- 
sons; 4. 16. 1. topping fatal; 
4.16. 1-2. not injured by cutting 
for tar ; 4.16. 4. said to perish 
if entirely deprived of its heart- 
wood ; 5. 1. 2. time of cutting 
timber; 5. 1. 4. do.; 5. 1. 9-10. 
methods of cleaving; 5. 4. 2. 
wood (when resinous) proof 
against decay ; 5. 4. 4. more 
eaten by teredon than eXarrj : 

5. 4. 8. effect of salt water on 
different parts; 5. 5. 1. knotty 
parts of wood hard to work ; 
5. 6. 1. wood good for struts: 
behaviour under pressure; 5.6.2. 
takes glue best of all woods ; 
5. 7. 1-2. uses of wood in ship- 
building; 5. 7. 4-5. uses in 
house-building and crafts; 5.8.1. 
grows to great size in Latin m, 
but finer still in Corsica ; 5. 8. 3. 
grows in hill-country of Latium ; 
5. 9. 3. charcoal of this wood 
preferred by smiths to that of 
fipus; 9. 1. 2. sap gummy; 9.1.6. 
time of tapping; 9. 2. 1. pro- 



ductive of resin (pyjrtVr?) ; 9. 2. 2j 
quality of resin ; 9. 2. 3-4. Mace- 
donians only burn the ' male' 
for pitch (jriTTa), and the roots 
of the ' female' ; aspect etc. re- 
quired for production of good 
pitch; 9. 2. 5. Idaean account 
different (see IT. ^ 'iSata and 
it. r; TrapaAta); 9. 2. 6. filling 
up the holes ; 9. 2. 7. do. Idaean 
account ; 9. 2. 8. further rules 
for collecting pitch : age of tree ; 
etc.; 9. 3. 1-3. method of pre- 
paring pitch; 9. 1. 4. does not 
grow in Syria. 

ev/aj T) a/capn-os ( = TT. TJ Or'j\ei.a. = ir.ri 

'iSeu'a), Corsican pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 2. described : 3. 9. 4. one of 

three wild kinds (Idaean ac- 

CUKTJ >i otKapTTo? ('male'), Corsican 

pine, Pinus Laricio 
3. 9. 2. comp. with ' female.' 
euKT? >'; a(cap<ros ('female'), Aleppo 

pine, Pinus halepensis 
3. 9. 2. comp. with ' male.' 

euKTj T? <xpp7jv(= TT. >i irapa\LO. = TTI'TUS 

in 3. 9. 5.), Aleppo pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 3. timber: produces a-vitfj 
(Mt, Ida) ; 3. 9. 4. one of three 
wild kinds (Idaean account). 

evKi] T] Tj/ixepo? (= [TT. TJ] /cwco^opos), 

stone pine, Pinus Pinea 
3. 9. 1. distinguished from other 
kinds; 3. 9. 4. Arcadians say it 
is a TTITU; : timber, foliage, 

nevnr\ r) A.eia= TT. 17 aicapTro; = TT. >j 

'iScu'a), Corsican pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 3. timber: contains atyi'?; 
3. 9. 4. one of three wild kinds 
(Idaean account). 

irevKj] r} 'iSaia ( = TT. rj aKapnos = TT. TJ 

flrjAeia), Corsican pine, Pinus 
3. 9. 1-2, described ; 9. 2. 5. Tdaean 

account of pitch (WLTTO). 
[jreu/crj 17] x<av6(f>opo<; (= 17. 17 rjuepos), 

stone pine, Pinus pinea 
2/2. 6. seeds true ; 3. 9. 4. foliage : 
pitch (n-irra) : Arcadians say it 
is a irtTu?. 


nevKq r] 7rapoAia( = IT. i] appr)v = TUTVS 

in 3. 9. 5), Aleppo pine, Pinus 

3. 9. 1. described ; 9. 2. 5. Idaean 
account of pitch (iriTTa). 

Trrjyavov (rrriydviov), rue, Rutd ffmveo- 


1. 3. 1. a typical under-shrub ; 
1.3.4. becomes tree-like ; 1.9.4.. 
evergreen ; 1. 10. 4. leaves 
fleshy ; 2. 1. 3. propagation ; 

6. 1. 1. may be classed as an 
under-shrub ; 6. 5. 3. leaf of 
ovuvis comp.; 6. 7. 3. strong 
plants of afiporovov comp.; 7.2.1. 
propagation : seed slow to ger- 
minate ; 7. 4. 1. only one kind ; 

7. 5. 1. dislikes manure ; 7. 6. 1. 
wild form distinguished ; 9. 4. 2. 

Colour of leaf Of Ai/Sai/coro? 

comp.; 9. 5. 1 leaf of /SaAcra/xoi/ 

comp.; 9. 9. 6. leaf of to^as 

(aTrtos (2)) comp. 
$09 (?) (? = TrdSo? 4. 1. 3.), Prunns 


5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 
irtKpis, Urospermiim picroeides 

7. 11. 4. inedible: flowers in 
spring, but also throughout 
winter and summer. 

7nAos, Polyporus igniarius (?) 
3. 7 4. produced by 5pv?; de- 
TTIO-OS, pea, Pisum sativum 

8. 1. 1. in list of pulses; 8. 1. 4 
sown late; 8. 2. 3. comes up 
with several leaves; 8. 3. 1. 
leaf; 8. 3. 2. stem; 8. 5. 2. 
seeds not in compartments; 

8. 5. 3. shape of pod ; 8. 10. 5. 
infested by ' worms.' 

JTI'TV? ( = TUTU? 17 crypto. = rreuKTj 17 
appijv in 3. 9. 5. = TrevKij 17 Trapa- 

Aia in 3. 9. 5.), Aleppo pine, 
Pinus halepensis 

1. 6. 1. core woody; 1. 10. 4: 
leaves like teetli of comb ; 
1. 10. 6. leaf spinotis at tip; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 2 2. 2 
propagated only by seed ; 3.1.2. 
do.; 3. 3. 3. evergreen ; 3. 3. 8. 
doubt whether it has a flower 
(Kirrrapo?); 3. 4 5. time of bud- 
ding and fruiting; 3.5.5. winter- 
buds; 3. 6. 1. slow growing (?) : 


even young tree fruits; 3.9 4-8. 
TTfVKT\ and TUTVS ; 3 9. 6. dis- 
tinction from TrevKTj; 3. 11. 1. 
bark of o-^e'i'Sa.jitf'os comp.; 3.17.1. 
bark of <eAA6s comp.; 4. 5. 3 
does not grow in Pontus : 
4. 14. 8. if topped, becomes 
barren, but is not destroyed; 

4. 16 1. topping fatal; 5. 1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 1. 4. 
do.; 5. 1. 5-6. timber comp. 
with eAaTTj; 5 7. 1. used in 
Cyprus for ship building instead 
of Trevor?; 5. 7. 3. wood used for 
bent-wood work in triremes; 

5. 7. 5. use of wood in ship- 
building and house-building : 
soon rots; 5. 7. 8. use of wood 
for carpenter's tools ; 5. 9. 2. 
charcoal of this wood used In 
silver mines ; 9.1.2. sap gummy ; 
9. 2. 1. production of reran 
(pTjTiVrj); 9. 2. 2. quality of 
resin ; 9. 2. 3. said to be burnt 
for pitch (TU'TTO.) in Syria. 

TUTUS r) dypia. ( = TUTUS = TreuKTj n 
appTjf = Treu'/cTj 77 TrapaAiain 3.9.5.) 

Pinus halepcnsis (mountain 

1. 9. 3 evergreen; 3. 3. 1. a 
mountain tree (Macedonian). 

TUTU? ] </>0eipoTroi6s, Pinus brutia 

2. 2. 6. seeds come true. 
TrXaTat-oS; plane, Platanus orientalis 

1. 4. 2. lives near water ; 1. 6. 3. 
roots many and long ; 1 7. 1. 
example of long roots ; 1. 8. 5. 
diseased formation (KpaStj) ; 
1. 9. 5. evergreen specimens ; 
1. 10. 4. leaves broad; J.10. 7. 
attachment of leaf-stalk; 3.1.1. 
propagation ; 3. 1 3. produces 
seed and seedlings ; 3.3.3. ever- 
green in some places ; 3 4. 2. 
time of budding; 3. 6. 1. quick 
growing; 3. 11 1. leaf of ox/>eV- 
SafjLvos comp.; 3. 11. 4. has a 
sort of winter-bud like that 
of /ueAia; 4. 5. 6. found at 
only one place on Adriatic 
coast : rare in Italy ; 4. 5. 7. 
common in some Mediterranean 
regions; 4. 7. 4. size of unnamed 
Arabian tree (see App. 12a) 
comp.; 4. 8. 1. grows partially 

in water ; not common on Nile ; 
4. 13. 2; trees said to have been 
planted by Agamemnon ; 4.15.2. 
bark cracks; 4. 16. 2. grows 
again after being cut or blown 
down: instances; 5 3. 4. char- 
acter of wood ; 5. 7. 3. wood 
used for bent-wood work : soon 
decays ; 5. 9. 4. wood makes an 
evil smoke when burnt for char- 
coal; 9. 11. 6. ' head ' of o-rpux- 
vos 6 juaiaKos comp. to fruit of TT. 

7rAaTi></>uAAos (6pvs) see Spus (6). 

Troa, grass 
7. 8. 3. leaves ' on the ground.' 

Trdo. 17 M-qSiKYj, see MT/SIKT;. 

Tr60os (1), larkspur, Delphinium 


6. 8. 3. a coronary plant : flowers 
in summer: flower like uafarflos. 

Tr60os (2) (= i(r^)6SeAos), asphodel, 

Asphodel us ramosus 
6. 8. 3. a coronary plant: flowers 
in summer : flower white : used 
in connexion with funerals. 

TroAtoj', hulwort, Teucr'nnn Folium 
1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy: prevents 
moth in clothes; 2. 8. 3. used 
for capriflcation ; 7 10. 5. ever- 

TroAvd/cai'<?os, Carduus acanthoides 
6. 4. 3. a ' thistle-like' plant. 

jroAvTToSioi/, polypody, Polypodium 

vulgar e 

9.13.6. peculiar shape : described : 
named from cuttle-fish (TroAu- 
TTOUS), and used as charm to 
prevent polyp (TroAuVous) : other 
medicinal use: habitat; 9.20.4. 
comes up after rain : has no 

npatTiof, Marrubium spp. 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub ; G. 2. 5. two kinds; 
see below. 

Trpda-iov (1), horehound, Marrubium 


6. 2. 5. leaf described: used by 

Trp<x<7toi> (2), horehound, Marrubium 
vulgar e 

6. 2. 5. leaf described. 
Trpdvov (1), leek, Allium Porrum 

7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination; 7. 1. 6. germina- 



tion; 7. 1. 7. bears fruit in 
second year : stem single ; 
7. 2. 2 3. root makes offsets ; 
7. 3. 4. seed borne at top : me- 
thod of sowing; 7. 4. 10. coat 
often like y-rJTeiov; 7. 4. 11. size 
of ' head ' of one year old O-KO- 
poSov comp.; 7. 5. 3. improved 
by transplanting ; 7. 5. 4. pests ; 
7. 5. 5. seed keeps well ; 7. 8. 2. 
stem smooth, not branched; 
9. 10. 1. leaf of eMe'/Sopos 6 
ACVKOS comp. by some. 

irpd<rov (2) ( = 6crn)p 4. 6. 2. = <UKOS 
(1)) : grass-wrack, Posidonia 
4. 6. 2. = (Juicmjp, <7.v. 

Tj^ao-ov (3) ( = (/>u/eo? (2)), riband-weed, 

Laminaria saccharina 
4. 6. 4. carried by current from 
Atlantic into Mediterranean : 
described; 4.7.1. refers to 4 6.4. 

wptvo?, kermes-oak, Quercus coccifera 
1. 6. 1. core hard and close ; 1.6.2. 
core large and conspicuous; 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 1. 10. 6. 
leaves with spinous projections ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 3. 6. does not al- 
ways fruit : 3. 4. 1. takes a year 
to ripen fruit ; 3. 4. 4-6 ; time 
of fruiting ; 3. 6. 4. deep root- 
ing ; 3. 7. 3. produces a scarlet 
'berry'; 3. 16. 1. described; 
3. 16. 2. o-fjii*.a (1) comp.; 
3. 16. 3. <f>e\\68pw; Spu? and n. 
comp.; 3. 16. 4. leaf of Ko/uapos 
comp.; 4. 3. 1. leaf of A.WTOS (4) 
comp.; effect of stripping bark 
in winter; 5. 4. 8. wood of 
juvpuo? (2) comp. for strength; 
5. 5. 4. core not obvious, but 
exists; 5. 7. 6. uses of wood; 
5. 9. 7. wood iised for fire-sticks ; 
9. 4. 3. leaf of a-^pva. comp. by 

Trpovfjivi) ( = o-rroSias), bullace, Prumts 

9. 1. 2. sap gummy. 

7TTA.ea, elm, Ulmus glabra 
1.8.5. diseased formation (xpaSri) ; 
1. 10. 1. leaves inverted in sum- 
mer; 1. 10. 6. leaves notched; 
3. 1. 1. propagation; 3. 1. 2. 
seems to have no fruit yet re- 


produces itself : instance ; 3.1.3. 
do.: proof; 3. 3. 1. tree of 
mountain and plain : 3. 3. 4. a 
question if it bears fruit ; 3.4.2. 
time of budding ; 3. 6. 1. quick 
growing; 3. 7. 3. produces a 
/Sorpvs and leaf-galls; 3. 11. 5. 
mountain and lowland forms 
comp.; 3. 14. 1. description: 
kinds; 3. 15. 4. leaf-galls of 
Te'p/oui/tfos comp.; 3. 17. 3. leaf of 
Idacan /coXotrta comp.; 3. 17. 5. 

leaf Of <rvKriri'l8aiaCOmi).\ 3.18.5. 

leaf of povs comp.; 4. 2. 3. leaf 
of (Tu/cTJ 17 KvTrpi'a comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
grows in Pontus ; 4. 5. 7. com- 
mon in some Mediterranean 
regions ; 4. 9. 2. leaf of rpi- 
jSoA.os (3) comp.; 4. 15. 2. sur- 
vives stripping of bark ; 5.1.2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 3. 4. 
character of wood ; 5. 3. 5. 
method of making door-hinges 
of the wood ; 5. 4. 3. wood does 
not decay if exposed to air; 
5. 6. 4. wood strong : used for 
door-hinges ; 5. 7. 3. wood used 
for bent-wood work : use in 
shipbuilding; 5. 7. 6. other 
uses of wood ; 5. 7. 8. uses of 
wood for carpenter's tools; 
9. 1. 2. sap gummy : gum con- 
tained in the ' bag ' ; 9. 4. 3. 
leaf of a-^vpva comp. (by some). 

Tept?, fern, Nephrodium Filix-mts 
1. 10. 5. frond described ; 4. 2. 11. 
leaf of an unnamed Memphian 
shrub (see App. (2)) comp.; 8.7.7. 
destroyed by manure or by 
sheep sleeping on it ; 9. 13. 6. 
leaf of no\vn6Su>v comp. to n. TJ 
/ueyaA.ij; 9. 18. 8. distinguished 
from 0>jA.v7rTept9 ; 9. 20. 5. root 
only of use : medicinal use : 
time of gathering. 

VOS, box, Buxus sempenrirens 

1. 5. 4. wood heavy; 1. 5. 5. do. 

because of close grain ; 1. 6. 2. 

core not conspicuous ; 1. 8. 2. 

few knots; 1. 9. 3. evergreen; 

3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 4 6. time of fruit- 
ing : fruit inedible ; 3. 6. 1. slow 
growing (?) ; 3.15.5. described; 

4. 4. 1. hard to grow in Baby- 


Ion ; 4. 5. 1. in list of Northern 
trees; 5. 3. 1. wood very close 
and heavy'; 5. 3. 7. images 
made from the wood; 5. 4. 1. 
wood hard and heavy ; 5. 4. 2. 
wood proof against decay ; 
5. 4. 5. wood not attacked by 
o-KojATjf; 5. 5. 2. core not ob- 
vious : wherefore wood not apt 
to ' draw ' ; 5. 6. 4. core not 
obvious but exists ; 5. 7. 7. uses 
of wood : that grown on Mount 
Olympus useless; 5. 7. 8. uses 
of wood for carpenter's tools; 
9. 20. 4. wood of e/3evos comp. 
vpdj, wheat. Triticum, vulgare 
1-5.2. 'bark' fibrous; 1.6.5. roots 
numerous ; 1. 6. 6. do.; 1.11.2. 
seeds in a husk; 1 11. 5. each 
seed separately attached ; 2.2.9. 
said to turn sometimes into 
Kpi07) ; 2.4.1. turns into cupa : wild 
TT. turns into cultivated with 
cultivation ; 4.4.9. irvpoi grow in 
India ; 4. 10. 3. taste of seeds of 
o-tSrj comp.; 7.11.2. inflorescence 
and general appearance of oreAe- 
<oupos comp.; 8. 1. 1. in list of 
cereals ; 8. 1. 3. sown early, but 
after xpi^ ; 8. 1. 4. one kind 
sown late ; 8. 1. 5. time of ger- 
mination ; 8. 2. 1. germination 
described; 8. 2. 3. single leaf 
first appears : roots described ; 
8. 2. 6. time of maturing seed ; 
8. 2. 7. time of harvest in Hellas 
and in Egypt; 8. 3. 2. stem; 
8. 4. 1-2. compared in detail 
with other cereals; 8. 4. 3-5. 
kinds distinguished, local and 
other (see below); 8. 6. 1. con- 
ditions for sowing ; 8. 6. 4. suit- 
able soil; 8. 6. 5-6. rain hurtful 
when TT. is in flower : and when 
it is ripe, but less so than to 
KpiQr) 8. 7. 1. said to change 
into aipa under certain condi- 
tions ; 8. 7. 4. effect of cutting 
down or grazing young crop in 
Thessaly and in Babylon ; 8.7.5. 
in many places comes up again 
next year; etc.; 8.8.2. favourable 
localities; 8. 8. 3. degenerates 

into aipa, or else ai'pa is 

specially apt to grow among TT,; 

8. 9. 1. exhausts the soil most of 
cereals; 8. 10. 1. a pest of TT.; 
8. 10. 2. wheat-rust; 8. 10. 3. 
effects of weather ; 8.10.4. effects 
of ' worms' in various localities ; 
8. 11. 1. seed keeps better than 
KpiOrj ; 8. 11. 3. grain stored 
without drying; 8. 11. 7. effect 
of mixing earth with the grain 
in some places : at Babylon 
grain jumps on the threshing- 
floor: reason. 

Trvpbs 6 Ai-yvTTTios, Triticum vulgare 


8. 4. 3. in list of varieties of TT.; 
8. 4. 6. escapes aipa. 

Tr-jpbs b 'AAea><5peios, Triticum vul- 

gare var. 
8. 4. 3. in list of varieties. 

Trvpbs 6 'Ao-oo/pios, Triticum vulgare 

8. 4. 3. in list of varieties. 

Trvpbs 6 Boiomos, Triticnm vulgare 

8. 4. 5. heaviest grain. 

Trvpbs 6 pa/cios, Triticum vulgare 

8. 4. 3. grain has many coats. 

Trvpbs 6 KaxpvSias 

8. 4. 3. thick stem. 

Trvpbs 6 KpiOa.via<; 

8. 2. 3. branching. 

Trvpbs 6 AaKwviKOS 

8. 4. 5. grain light. 
Trvpbs 6 AI/SVKOS 
8. 4. 3. grain not long in husk 

thick stem. 
Trvpbs 6 IIovTTKos 

8. 4. 3.-4. lightest grain ; 8. 4. 5. 
variation in grain ; 8.4.6. escapes 

Trvpbs b <rtTai/ias 

8. 2. 3. branching. 

Trvpbs b 2i*eAos 

8. 4. 3., 8. 4. 5. heaviest grain of 
kinds imported to Hellas ; 8.4.6. 
fairly free from atpa, especially 
that of Akragas : infested with 

Trvpbs b crrAeyyv's 

8. 4. 3. in list of varieties, see note 

, buckthorn, Rhamnus spp. 

1 5. 3. stem fleshy; 1. 9. 4. ever- 

green ; 3. 18. 12. cluster of ber- 



ries of o>uAaf (2) comp.; 5. 9. 7. 
wood used for fire-sticks, es- 
pecially for the stationary piece . 
pd/ai/os 17 kevKTJ, buckthorn, Rhamnus 

3. 18. 2. distinguished from p. r/ 


pd/Ai/os 17 /j.e\aiva, buckthorn, Rham- 

nus oleoides 
3. 18. 2. distinguished from p. 17 


pa^ai/i's, radish, Raphanus sativus 
1. 2. 7. flesh of root turns to 
wood; 1. 6. 6. root fleshy; 
1 . 6. 7. root of ' bark' and flesh ; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination ; 7. 1. 5. do.; 7. 1. 7. 
germination ; 7. 2. 5. survives 
and increases in size under a 
heap of soil ; 7. 2. 5-6. root de- 
scribed; 7. 2. 8. do.; 7. 3. 2. 
seeds described; 7. 3. 4. seed 
borne at side ; 7. 4. 1-2. several 
kinds (described) Kopt^ia, 

KAeaji/cu'a, Aetoflacria, (or po/cta), 
ajuwpe'a (see b('low), Boiam'a,' and 

one with leaf like evo/uioi> ; 7.4.3. 
effects of weather ; 7. 5. 3. im- 
proved by transplanting; 7.5.4. 
pests ; 7. 6. 2. root of wild yoy- 
yvMs comp.; 7. 6. 3. root of 
iTTTrocreAi.i'oz' comp.; 7. 8. 2. stem 
branched; 9. 9. 1. method of 

Cutting root Of /u.a.i/Spa-ydpas (1) 

comp.; 9. 12. 1. method of cut- 
ting up x<x/AaiAe'a>i/ 6 Aevc6s for 
medicinal use comp. 

pa^ai/l? ^ d/Awpe'a, horse-radish (?) 
7. 4. 2. in list of varieties of p. 

pajtavos, cabbage, Brassica cretica 
1. 3. 4. becomes tree-like; 1. 6. 6. 
root single; 1. 9. 4. evergreen; 
1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 1. 14. 2. 
bears fruit on top and at side ; 
4.4.12. size of an unnamed Asian 
shrub (see App. (10)) comp.; 
4.16.6. spoils flavour of grape : 
vine-shoot turns away from p ; 
whence use of 'p. as cure for 
effects of wine ; 6. 1. 2. may be 
classed as an under-shrub ; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and of 
germination ; 7. 2. 1. propaga- 
tion ; 7. 2. 4. grows again when 
stem is cut ; effect on flavour ; 


7. 4. 1. several kinds; 7. 4. 4. 
three kinds distinguished, ouA6- 
<>vAAos, Aeio<f)vAAos, aypia. (see 
below) ; 7. 5. 3. bears trans- 
planting; 7.5.4. pests ; 7.6.1-2. 
wild form distinguished, 

pa$<xi/os r) aypia ( = sepal's 9. 15. 5.), 

charlock, Raphanus Raphanis- 

7. 4. 4. see pafyavos ; 7. 6. 1-2. see 
pd^avos; 9. 15. 5. Arcadian: a 
drug : also called Kepdts. 

pdfyavos -fj opeta (= an-ios (2)=io-X"s), 

spurge, Euphorbia Apios 
9. 12. 1. used to kill a pig, mixed 

With xaM al ^ e ' wl/ o Aeufco?. 

pod (poid), (flower KVTIVOS), pome- 
granate, Punica Granatum 
1. 3. 3. a tree which has not how- 
ever a single stem; 1. 5. 1. 
crooked and low; 1. 6. 1. core 
fleshy ; 1. 6. 3. few roots ; 1. 6. 4. 
shallow rooting; 1. 6. 5. roots 
branching upwards; 1. 9. 1. 
much branched ; 1. 10. 4. leaves 
narrow ; 1. 10. 10. fruit made of 
fibre and skin; 1. 11. 4. seeds 
all together in a single case; 
1. 11. 5. each fruit separately 
attached (?); 1. 11. 6. arrange- 
ment of stones: 1. 12. 1. taste 
of fruit: 1. 13. 1. flower red; 
1. 13. 3. flower above fruit-case ; 

1. 13. 4. some kinds sterile; 
1.13.5. flower described; 1.14.1. 
bears on last year's wood ; 
1. 14. 4. many cultivated forms ; 

2. 1. 2-3. propagation ; 2. 2. 4. 
degenerates from seed ; 2. 2. 5. 
do. details; 2. 2. 7. in some 
places improves from seed ; 
2. 2. 9. effects of cultivation ; 
2. 2. 10. ref. to 2. 2. 9.; 2.2. 11 
effect of good cultivation ; 2.3.1. 
sometimes changes character; 
2. 3. 2. ref. to 2. 2. 7.; 2. 3. 3. 
sometimes bears fruit on the 
stem ; 2. 5. 5. propagation ; 
2. 5. 6. trees should be planted 
close together; 2. 6. 8. size of 
fruit of a kind of 4>olvi (I) 
comp.; 2. 6. 12. cuttings set up- 
side down; 2.7.1. water-loving; 
2. 7. 3. requires pungent manure 
and much water ; 2. 8. 1. apt to 


shed immature fruit; 3. 5. 4. 
autumn budding; 3. 6. 2. for- 
mation of buds ; 3. 18. 4. fruit 
and growth of KWOCT/BO.? comp.; 
3.18.13. size and leaf of evwi/v/xo? 
comp.; 4. 3. 3. stones eaten with 
fruit ; 4. 5. 3. grows well in 
Pontus with shelter ; 4. 5. 4. 
grows on Mt. Tmolus and 
Mysian Olympus; 4. 10. 3. 
flower of a-iSrj comp.: seeds of 
o-i'Srj contrasted ; 4. 13. 2. short- 
lived, especially the stoneless 
form (see belotv); 4. 13. 3. after 
decaying shoots again from 
same stock ; 4. 14. 10. fruit gets 
worm-eaten ; 4. 14. 12. unin- 
jured by special winds ; 4. 16. 1. 
survives splitting of stem; 6.1.3. 
has spines on the shoots ; 7.13.4. 
fruit kept by inserting stalk 
in bulb of o-a'AAa ; 9. 5. 2. size 
of /3aAcra/aov COmp. 

poa T/ aTrvpTjfO', , Punica Granatum 

4. 13. 2. specially short-lived. 

pooWi'a (flower poSov, fruit JU.TJAOI/ 
6. 6. 6.), rose, Rosa centifolia 

1; 9. 4. evergreen ; 1. 13. 1. colour 
alluded to ; 1. 13. 2. has a ' two- 
fold ' flower; 1. 13. 3. flower 
above fruit-case ; 1.13.5. flower 
of poa comp.; 2. 2. 1. propaga- 
tion ; 4. 8^ 7. colour of flower of 
Kva/ixos o Ai-yiiTrTios comp.; 4.10.3. 
sepals of <riSr) comp.; 6. 1. 1. in 
list of under-shrubs ; 6.1.3. has 
spines on the shoots ; 6. 6. 4-6. 
a cultivated under-shrub : a 
coronary plant : many kinds : 
localities : propagation and cul- 
tivation ; 6.8.2. flowering time ; 
6. 8. 5. bush lives five years 
and then degenerates unless 
pruned: position and climate 
important for fragrance: flowers 
very early in Egypt ; 6. 8. 6. 
blooms well on mountains, 
but has inferior scent ; 9. 19. 1. 
colour of flower of bvoOiipas 

poSoi' TO aypiov, wild rose, Rosa 

6. 2. 1. flower of KiVflo? comp. 

povs (drug pous 3. 18. 5.), sumach 

Rhus Coriaria 

3. 18. 1 . has more than one form 
(see below) ; 3. 18. 5. ' male ' 
and ' female ' forms : described : 
used for dyeing : produces a 
drug called pous. 

povs 17 Aev/fTj 

3. 18. 2. distinguished from p. ^ 


3. 18. 2. distinguished from p. ij 

, globe-thistle, Echinops spin- 

6. 4. 4. a ' thistle-like ' plant : 
branches from the top. 

o-api (stalk o-api), Cyperus auricomus 
4. 8. 2. useful for food in Egypt : 
4. 8. 5. described. 

cre'A.ivoi', celery, Apium graveolens 
1.2.2. takes two years to mature ; 
1. 6. 6. root single, but with 
large side-growths ; 1.9.4. ever- 
green (partly) ; 1. 10. 7. time of 
leaf-growth ; 1. 12. 2. taste of 
sap ; 2. 4. 3. effect of trampling 
and rolling in seed ; 6. 3. 1. leaf 
of o-tA^toi/ comp.; 7. 1. 2-3. time 
of sowing and germination ; 
7. 1. 6. germination; 7. 1. 7. 
bears fruit in second year ; 
7. 2. 2. root makes offsets; 
7. 2. 5. root described ; 7. 2. 8, 
do.; 7. 3. 4-5. methods of sow- 
ing and transplanting ; 7. 4. 6. 
kinds distinguished ; 7. 5. 3. 
bears transplanting ; 7.6.3. wild 

forms ('nnroa'ekivov, eAeiocre'Aivoi', 

opeioo-e'Ati/oi') distinguished. 

CTeAti/ov TO eAetov (= t'Aeiowe'Aii'Oj'), 

marsh celery, Apium graveo- 
4. 8. 1. in list of marsh plants; 

9. 11. 1. leaf of Ai/Sa^toTis 17 *dp- 

Trifxos comp. 
o-eo-eAt, hart wort, Tordylium offi,- 


9. 15. 5. an Arcadian drug. 
o-Tj/uuSa (?), Judas-tree, Cercis Sili- 

3. 14. '4. described ; 5. 7. 7. (?) 

wood used for walking-sticks. 



<rrj< (seed 

Sesamum indicum 
1.11.2. seed-vessel; 3.13.6. seeds 
of berry of a/crrj comp.; 3.18.13. 
fruit of eucow/aos comp.; 4.8.14. 
size of fruit of an unnamed 
Egyptian plant (see App. (20)) 
comp.; 6. 5. 3. seed of a kind of 
Tpij3oA.o? comp.; 8.1.1. in list of 
'summer crops' distinct from 
cereals and pulses ; 8. 1. 4. sown 
later than cereals and pulses; 
8 2. 6. time of maturing seed ; 
8.3. 1. leaf; 8. 3.2. stem; 8.3.3. 
flower ; 8. 3. 4. seed abundant ; 
8. 5. 1. a white kind, which is 
the sweetest; 8. 5. 2. seeds in 
compartments; 8. 6. 1. rain 
not beneficial after sowing; 
8. 7. 3. not eaten green by any 
animal: epvo-ipov comp.: sown 
at same time as opjuuvov ; 8. 9. 3. 
exhausts the soil ; 9. 9. 2. fruit 
of eAA.e'/3opos comp.; 9. 14. 4. do. 

0-1817, waterlily, Nymphaea alba 
4. 10. 1-2. in list of plants of 
Lake Copais ; 4. 10. 3-4. de- 
scribed : size of fruit of /Sovro/xo? 
comp. (to seed of a-.); 4. 10. 6. 
grows only in water ; 4. 10. 7. 
part used for food. 

criKva, bottle-gourd, Lagenaria vul- 


1. 11. 4. seeds in a row; 1. 13. 3. 
flower attached above fruit; 
7. 2. 9. root described ; 7. 3. 5. 
takes shape of vessel in which 
it is grown. 

o-tKvo? (O-CKVOV), cucumber, Cucumis 


1. 10. 10. fruit made of flesh and 
fibre; 1. 12. 2. taste of sap; 
1. 13. 3. flower attached above 
fruit; 1. 13. 4. some flowers 
sterile; 2. 7. 5. use of dust; 
7. 1. 2-3. time of sowing and 
germination ; 7. 1. 6. germina- 
tion ; 7. 2. 9. root described; 
7. 3. 1. long in flower; flower 
described; 7. 3. 5. effect of 
soaking seed in milk; 7. 4. 1. 
several kinds ; 7. 4. 6. do. viz. 
AaKcopuco?, ovcvTaAia?, Boiamos ; 
7. 5. 2. said to dislike rain- 
water; 7. 5 3. bears trans- 


planting ; 7. 5. 5. seed does not 
keep well; 7. 5. 6. seed not 
liable to pests ; 7. 13. 1. leaf of 

apov COmp. 
O-I'KVOS 6 a-ypios, (drug eXar^piov 

9. 9. 4.), squirting cucumber, 
Ecballium Elaterium 
4. 5. 1. in list of Northern plants ; 
7. 6. 4. quite distinct from cul- 
tivated o-.; 7. 8. 1. stem ' on the 
ground' ; 9. 9. 4. medicinal use : 
eAar^pioi/ made from seed ; 
9. 4. 1-2. how long drug will 
keep: conditions; 9. 15. 6. 
grows in Arcadia. 

aikfyiov (leaf ^da-irerov 6. 3. 1), (seed 
$v'AAov, /ua-yv'Sapis 6. 3. 4), sil- 

phium, Ferula tingitana 
1. 6. 12. root most characteristic 
part ; 3. 1. 6. comes up spon- 
taneously; 3. 2. 1. fruits better 
in wild state ; 4. 3. 1. grows in 
Cyrenaica; 4. 3. 7. considera- 
tion postponed ; 6. 3. 1-2. de- 
scribed : belongs to ' ferula- 
like' plants : rules as to cutting 
and treatment; 6. 3. 3. distri- 
bution ; 6. 3. 4-6. another ac- 
count, inconsistent in some 
points ; 6.5.2. grows in mountain 
country; 7. 3. 2. seeds of aSpd- 
$avs comp.; 9. 1. 3. stem and 
root produce a gum; 9. 1.4. 
gum pungent; 9. 1. 7. time of 
tapping : details about juices 
of stem and root. 

o-Lo-ufj.ftpi.ov, bergamot-mint, Mentha 


1.3.1. (?) a typical ' under-shrub'; 
2. 1. 3. propagation ; 2. 4. 1. 
turns into v-ivOri, unless often 
transplanted ; 6. 1. 1. in list of 
under-shrubs ; 6. 6. 2. a culti- 
vated under-shrub ; a coronary 
plant : the whole plant scented ; 
6. 6. 3. woody : only one form ; 
6. 7. 2. said by some to have no 
fruit : but the wild form cer- 
tainly seeds ; 6. 7. 4. roots de- 
scribed ; 6. 7. 6. cultivation ; 
9. 16. 3. leaf of (erepov) 

<rt(rvpijx<.ov, Barbary nut, Iris 

1. 10. 7. attachment of leaves; 


7. 13. 9 (in defective sentence) 
belongs to ra /3oAj3w6rj : peculiar 
growth of root: upper part 

(TKaAux?, Sf /ca/cTo? (2). 

<rKaju.ju.toi'ia, scainmony, Convolvulus 


4. 5. 1. seeks cold regions ; 9. 1. 3. 
root produces a gum ; 9. 1. 4. 
gum has medicinal properties ; 
9. 9. 1. root and juice used; 
9. 20. 5. juice only used. 

o-KavSig, wild chervil, Scandix Pec- 


7.7.1. a Aaxewoi/ ; a class of plants 
called <TKavSiKuSr) ; 7. 8. 1. stem 
'on the ground.' 

o-Kt'AAa, squill, Urginea maritima 
1. 6. 7. -root in scales; 1. 6. 8. 
root fleshy and bark -like : root 
not tapering; 1. 6. 9. no side 
roots; 1. 10. 7. no leaf -stalk : 
attachment of leaves ; 2. 5. 5. 
cuttings of crv/crj etc. set in the 
bulb, of a-.; 7. 2. 2. root makes 
offsets; 7. 4. 12. formation of 
roots of Kponvov comp.; 7. 9. 4., 
cf. 1.6.7.; 7.12.1. root edible (of 
the kind called ^ 'ETrtjaevt'Setos) 
(see below) ; 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed : 7. 13. 2. flower-stem 
not the only stem ; 7. 13. 3. 
' successive ' flowering of d<r</>6- 
fieAos comp. ; 7. 13. 4. very 
tenacious of life : hence various 
uses : use as a charm ; 7.13.5-7. 
stem appears before leaves: 
sequence described and comp. 
with that of yap/cto-cros (1) ; 
9. 18. 3. leaf of opx i comp. 

<ra'AAa r) 'ETTijuepiSetos, French spar- 
row-grass, Ornithogalum pyren- 
7. 12. 1. see above. 

o-KoAujoios ( = ? Aeijuwi'ia 6.4.3.), golden 

thistle, Scolymus hispanicus 
6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like* plant: 
leaves spinous ; 6. 4. 4. time of 
flowering ; 6. 4. 7. described ; 

7. 4. 5. leaf Of 9piSaicivr) ^ Aa/cw- 

vi/crj comp.; 7. 10. 1. grows and 
flowers entirely in summer; 
7. 15. 1. flowering depends on 
the heavenly bodies; 9. 12. 1. 

leaf Of \a/x(uAeW 6 Aevxo? COinp.J 

9. 13. 4. an unnamed plant of 
Tegea comp. 

o-KoAoVevSpoi', hart's tongue, Scolo- 

pendrium vulgare 
9. 18. 7. leaf of fifjuoviov comp. 

o-KopoSov (a-KopSov), garlic, Allium 


1. 6. 9. no side-roots ; 1. 10. 7. 
attachment of leaves ; 7. 1. 7. 
stem single; 7. 2. 1. propaga- 
tion; 7. 2. 3. offsets specially 
numerous; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds ; 7. 4. 7. do.; 7. 4. 11. do.; 
e.g. TO KvTTpiov : cultivation etc.; 
7. 4. 12. formation of roots of 
Kpo^vov contrasted ; 7. 8. 2. 
stem smooth, not branched; 
7. 13. 4. grows in colonies be- 
cause of offsets ; 9. 8. 6. eaten 
as precaution by diggers of 


(r/cop7ri'os (1), Genista, acanthoclada 
6. 1. 3. has spines for leaves; 

6. 4. 1. one of very few plants 

which are altogether spinous; 

6. 4. 2. described. 
o-KopTi-i'os (2), leopard 's bane, Doro- 

nicum cordatum 
9. 13. 6. peculiar shape, resembles 

scorpion, and is useful against 

its sting. 

<T/cop7ri'os (3) (? crKoptriov) (= O.KOVLTOV 

wolf's bane, Aconitum Anthora 
9. 18. 2. properties : habitat : 
fatal to scorpion. 

VKvOiKr, (= yAv/ceZa, SC. pi'a 9.13.2.), 

liquorice, Glycyrrhiza glabra 
9. 13. 2. fragrant : grows on Lake 

Maiotis : medicinal use : use 

against thirst. 
o>uAa (1), holm-oak, Quercus Ilex 


3. 16. 2, described. 
o>ieAa (?) (2) ( = /a?Aa), smilax, Smi- 

Inx aspera 
3. 18. 11-12. described; 7.8.1. 

stem clasping. 
a-fjLvpva (gum 0-fj.vpva. 9. 1. 2.), myrrh, 

Balsamodendron Myrrha 
4.4.12. gum of an Arian aKavOa (see 

App. (9)) comp. ; 4. 4. 14. in list 

of Oriental dpw/aara ; 9. 1. 2. sap 

gummy (called ff^vpva.) ; 9. 1. 6 

time of tapping ; 9. 4. 1. collec- 



tion of gum; 9. 4. 2. Arabian : 
habitat ; 9. 4. 3. described (two 
accounts) ; 9. 4. 4-10. accounts 
of travellers ; 9. 7. 3. in list of 

a-oyKos, sow-thistle, SonchusNymani 
4.6.10. growth of folvii- (2) comp.; 
6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant, 
but has not the characteristic 
' head ' of such plants ; 6. 4. 5. 
stalk of a kind of a<caj>o? comp.; 

6. 4. 8. root. 

o-7j-aAa (?) (= e<|>rj/j.epoi>), meadow 
saffron, Colchicum parnassicum 
1. 6. 11. large fleshy roots. 
o-Treipeua, privet, Ligustrum vulgare 
1.14.2. bears fruit at top ; 6. 1. 4. 
a spineless wild under-shrub. 

((nroyyia, Sponge 

4. 6. 5. found on North Coast of 

Crete; 4. 6. 10. distinguished 

from ' plants.') 
a-TroSias ( = jrpovjuvij), bullace, Primus 

3. 6. 4. very shallow rooting : few 


crTeAe'(|>ovpos (= apv6y\b)o~o'ov 7. 11. 2. 

according to some) (= op 

7. 11. 2. according to some), 
plantain, Plantago Lagopus 

orot/3>7 (=(f>ews 6. 1. 3.), Poterium 

1. 10. 4. leaves fleshy; 6. 1. 3. 
has leaves as well as spines : a 
wild under-shrub ; 6. 5. 1. in 
list of such plants ; 6. 5. 2. has 
no spines on the leaves. 

crrpovBiov (1) = (nvotavios) , quince, 
Cudonin vulgaris 

2. 2. 5. seed produces KU&OI/IOS. 
o-rpov0iov (2) ( = orpovtfo?), soap-wort, 

Saponaria officinalis 

6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant, but 
has not the characteristic ' head ' 
of such plants; 6. 8. 3. a coro- 
nary plant : flowering time : 

o-Tpoi)#os ( = o-rpov6iov (2)),soap-wort, 

Saponaria officinalis 
9. 12. 5. leaf of /x^/cwi/ 17 'Hpa/cAeia 


7. 15. 4. several plants called by 
this name, which have nothing 
in common but the name : three 


mentioned (see below) ; 9.11. 5-6. 
kinds (see below) ; 9. 15. 5. two 
kinds grow in Arcadia. 

orpuxi'os o eSoifiijuos, garden night- 
shade, Solanum nigrum 
3. 18. 11. fruit of o>uA.a (2) comp.; 
7. 7. 2. a K6.xa.vov : can be 
eaten raw ; 7. 15. 4. more or 
less cultivated : has berries. 

ffrpvxvos 6 /utamKOs (= 0pi;opo? 911 6. 
= TrepiTTos 9.11.6) thorn-apple. 
Datura Stramonium 
7. 15. 4. causes madness, or, in a 
large dose, death; 9. 11. 6. de- 
scribed : medicinal use ; 9. 19. 1. 
effect on ' mind.' 

aTpvxyos 6 inrviaSr)-; , Withania somni- 


7. 15. 4. induces sleep; 9. 11. 5. 
described : medicinal use : habi- 

<7Tu'pa, stprax, Storax officinalis 

9. 7. 3. in list Of apco/mara.';, mulberry, Morus nigra 
1. 6. 1. core hard and close : 1. 9. 7. 
time of leafing; 1. 10. 10. 
fruit made of fibre and skin; 
1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 1. 13. 1. 
flower ' downy' ; 1. 13. 4. attach- 
ment of flower ; 5. 3. 4. charac- 
ter of wood; 5. 4. 2. do.: wood 
little liable to decay: turns 
black when old ; 5. 6. 2. wood 
tough and easy to bend : 
uses; 5. 7. 3. wood used for 
bent- wood work: use in ship- 

{rvKa/Juvo'; 17 Aiyvirria, sycamore 

Ficus Sycamorus 
1.1.7. position of fruit ; 1. 13. 2. 

bears on stem ; 4. 1. 5. barren 

in uncongenial climate ; 4.2.1-2. 

peculiar to Egypt : described ; 

4. 2. 4. KepoWa distinguished. 
<ruaj (1) (fruit <TVKov), fig, Ficus 

1. 3. 1. a typical 'tree'; 1. 3. 5. 

evergreen at Elephantine ; 1.5.1. 

crooked and low; 1. 5. 2. bark 

smooth : bark in one layer ; 

1. 5. 3. wood fleshy; 1. 5. 3. 

wood not fibrous ; 1. 6. 1. core 

fleshy ; 1. 6. 3. roots many and 

long; 1. 6. 4. roots crooked; 

1.7 2. roots very long ; 1.8.1. 


no knots ; 1. 8. 2. has less knots 
than epii/eos; 1. 8. 5. young 
branches 'roughest'; 1.9. 7. time 
of shedding leaves; 1. 10. 4. 
leaves broad; 1. 10. 5. leaf 
divided : etc.; 1. 10. 8. leaves 
made of ' bark ' and flesh ; 1. 11. 
4. seeds all together in a single 
case; 1. 11. 6. arrangement of 
seeds; 1. 12. 1. taste of fruit; 
1. 12. 2. taste of sap ; 1. 14. 1. 
bears on new shoots : some- 
times also on old wood (?); 

1. 14. 4. cultivated form of 
epifeo? : many cultivated forms ; 

2. 1. 2. propagation; 2. 2. 4. 
degenerates from seed: etc.; 
2. 2. 12. cannot be made 
out of epiveos by cultivation ; 
2. 3. 1. sometimes changes to 
epii/eos spontaneously ; 2. 3. 3. 
sometimes bears fruit from be- 
hind the leaves : other anoma- 
lies; 2. 5. 3. grafting; 2. 5. 4 ; 
propagation; 2. 5. 5. cuttings 
set in a bulb of ovaAAi? ; 2. 5. 6. 
easily propagated : trees should 
be planted far apart ; 2. 5. 7. 
low ground suitable ; 2. 6. 6. 
dates said to vary as much 
as figs in colour etc.; 2. 6. 12. 
cuttings set upside down; 
2. 7. 1. effects of watering ; 

2. 7. 5. use of dust; 2. 7. 6. 
root-pruning etc.; 2.8 1. apt to 
shed immature fruit : capriflca- 
tion; 2.8.2-4. do. and pseudo- 
caprification ; 3. 3. 8. sheds 
epii/a ; 3. 4. 2. time of budding; 

3. 5. 4. autumn budding ; 3. 6. 2. 
formation of buds; 3. 7. 3. 
produces epiva and o\wOoi ; 
[3. 17. 4. a local Idaean kind 
(see below); 3. 17. 5. do. de- 
scribed ;] 4. 2. 3. taste of fruit of 
<r. T/ Kvn-pux comp.; 4. 4. 4. fruit 
of T] eru/aj 'Ii/fiiKr} comp.; 4. 5. 3. 
grows well in Pontus with shel- 
ter ; 4. 7. 7. size of marine trees 
of island ot'Tylos comp.; 4.13.1. 
shorter - lived than epii/eds ; 
4. 13. 2. short-lived ; 4. 14. 2. apt 
to get worm-eaten : young 
plants liable to 'sunscorch'; 

4. 14. 3. destroyed by 'worms' 

which breed in it: gets scab 
in some regions; 4. 14. 4-5. 
other diseases; 4. 14.8. effects 
on fruit of rain and drought; 
4. 14. 10. infested by Jcnips; 
4. 14. 12. suffers most from 
special winds ; 4. 15. 2. survives 
stripping of bark for some time ; 
4. 15. 2. instance of bark grow- 
ing again; 4. 16. 1. survives 
splitting of stem; 5. 3. 3. char- 
acter of wood; 5. 6. 1. wood 
strong only against a vertical 
strain ; 5. 9. 5. wood makes 
pungent smoke ; 5. 9. 6. wood 
good for kindling furnaces ; 
7. 13. 2. root of d<r$6SeA.os eaten 
with figs. 

<rv(CTJ (2) q AiyvTTTio. (= *cepcoi/ia 
1.11.2.), carob , Ceratonia Siliqua 

(rvKTJ (3) 17 'ISaia (fruit O-VKOV), Ame- 
lanchier vulgaris 

3. 17. 4-5. described. 

erv/crj (4) 17 'IvSnoj, banyan, Ficus 

1. 7. 3. roots again from branches ; 
4. 4. 4-5. described. 

o-v/cTJ (5) 17 KvTrpia, sycamore, Ficus 
Sycamorus var. 

4. 2. 3. described. 

avK-r) (6) 17 AaKwvi/cTJ, Ficus Carica 

2. 7. 1. water-loving; 2. 8. 1. 
caprification not used. 

a-vKfi (7) (TJ 'Apa|3i/o?), Ficus Carica 


4. 7. 8. an evergreen Arabian kind. 
(O-UKT) (8) (? an alcyonidian polyp) 
4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 

4. 6. 9. described). 
<r<aKos, sage, Salvia calycina 
6. 1. 4. a spineless wild under- 
shrub; 6. 2. 5. like cultivated 
eAeAiV^aKos : leaf of one kind of 

irpaviov comp. 

cr<f>eV5a/Ai'os, maple, Acer monspes- 

3. 3. 1. a tree of mountain and 

Klain ; 3. 3. 8 doubt whether it 
as a flower ; 3. 4. 4. time of 
fruiting ; 3. 6. 1. slow-grow- 
ing (?) ; 3. 6. 5. roots shallow 
and few according to Arcadians; 
3. 11. 1-2. described; 5. 1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5. 1. 4. 



do.; 5. 3. 3. character of tim- 
ber ; 5. 7. 6. uses of wood. 

xtvos (fruit (Txivt? 9.4.7.), mastich, 
Pistacia Lentiscus 

9. 1. 2. produces a gum ; 9. 4. 7. 

mp. by some. 
, Ju 


erxoiVos (1), rush, Juncus spp. etc. 
1. 5. 3. not jointed ; 1. 8. 1. no 

knots ; 4. 8. 1. in list of TO. 

AoxMJ<fy J 4. 12. 1-3. kinds dis- 

o-xoiyos (2) (6 euwSTjs ?), ginger-grass, 

Cymbopogon Schoenanthus 
9. 7. 1. habitat (E. of Lebanon) : 

described : fragrance ; 9. 7. 3. 

in list Of apwjmaTtt. 

crxoivos (3) 6 Ka.pTTLfj.oy, (== jmeAay/cpa- 
vis, 4.12.1.), bog-rush, Schoenus 

4. 12. 1-3. described. 
o-xoti'os (4) 6 oAocrxoico?, Scirpus 


4. 12. 2. described ; 9 12. 1. used 
for stringing pieces of x a f jia '-^< a v 

6 AevKO?. 
a-xou'o? (5) 6 6v?, luncus acutus 

4. 12. 1-2. described. 
trxotvos (6) 

4.7. 3. stone 'axoiVoi' in 'Red 

), terebinth, Pis- 
tacia Terebinthus 
1. 9. 3. evergreen (wild form); 
3. 2. 6. characteristic of Syria ; 
3. 3. 1. a mountain tree ; 3. 3. 3. 
evergreen ; 3. 4. 2. time of bud- 
ding ; 3. 4. 4. time of fruiting ; 
3. 15. 3-4. described ; 4. 4. 7. T. 
y 'IJ/SKOJ comp.; 4. 16. 1-2. not 
injured by cutting for resin ; 
5.3.2. character of wood : uses ; 
5. 7. 7. fruit and resin useful, 
wood not used in crafts ; 9. 1. 2. 
sap gummy ; 9. 1. 6. time of 
tapping; 9. 2. 1. method of 
tapping ; 9. 2. 2. produces best 
resin (PTJTU/IJ) ; 9. 2. 2. said to 
be burnt for pitch (TTLTTO) in 
Syria: cf. 3. 2. 6.; 9. 3. 4. 
method of preparing pitch in 
Syria ; 9. 4. 7. ar^vpva. comp. by 
some ; 9. 4. 8. some say 

= T. ; 9. 5. 1. fruit Of 


rerpayiavia., Euoni/muS latifolillS 

3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 4. 6j 

time of fruiting. 
TerpaAi, yellow star-thistle, Cen~ 

taurea solstitialis 
6. 4. 4. a 'thistle-like' plant: 

time of growing. 

7. 7. 2. a Aaxowo" ; needs cooking. 

Tevr\ov (revT\iov) ',= TeOrAis, beet, 

Seta maritima 

1. 3. 2. becomes large in cultiva- 
tion ; 1.5.3. stem fleshy; 1.6.6. 
root single, but with large side- 
growths ; 1. 6. 7. root fleshy; 
1. 9. 2., cf. 1. 3. 2; 1. 10. 4. 
leaves fleshy ; 7. 1. 2-3. time of 
sowing and germination ; 7.1.5. 
do.; 7. 1. 6. germination ; 7.2.2 
root makes offsets; 7. 2. 5-6. 
root described ; 7. 2. 7. root of 
\d.TraOov comp.; 7. 2. 8. root; 
7. 3. 2. seeds; 7. 4. 1. several 
kinds; 7. 4. 4. two kinds, TO 

\evKOv (SiKeXiKov) and TO /ae'Aav; 

7. 5. 5. seed keeps well. 
TijA.1? ( = 0ovKe'pa S ), fenugreek, 2Vi0o- 

neZ/a Foenum-graecum 
3. 17. 2. leaf Of /coAouTea (xoAoiTia 
(1) comp. 

Ti0v'/u.aAAos (produces i7r7ro</)ae? ? 

9. 15. 6. see note) (= H^KUVLOV 
9. 8. 2.), spurge, Euphorbia 
Peplus etc. 

9. 8. 2. juice of stalk, how col- 
lected; 9. 11. 1. several kinds; 
9. 11. 5. do.; leaf of o-Tpvxvo? 6 
virvu)Sr]<; comp.; 9. 11. 7-9. kinds 
(see below) ; 9. 15. 6. Arcadian : 
TiOvfj.a\\o<; 6 apptjv, Euphorbia Sib- 


9. 11. 8. described: medicinal 

Tt&VaAAos 6 /xvpTtTrj? (fruit Kapvov 

9. 11 9.). Euphorbia Myrsinites 
9. 11. 9. described : habitat : time 
of gathering : medicinal use. 

Tt0v/aaAAo? 6 TrapdAtos, sea-Spurge, 

Euphorbia Paralias 
9. 11. 7. described: medicinal 

TI'^TJ, one-seeded wheat, Tvilicum 

1. 6. 5. roots numerous; 2. 4. 1. 



seed, unless bruised, produces 
nvpog ; 8. 1. 1. in list of cereals ; 
8. 1. 3. sown early; 8. 2. 1. ger- 
mination described ; 8. 2. 6. 
time of ripening seed ; 8. 4. 1. 
comp. in detail with other 
cereals; 8. 8. 3. r. and geid only 
plants which can change into 
something quite different (cf. 
2. 4. 1.) ; 8. 9 2. exhausts the 
soil less than any other cereal : 
reason : likes light soil : T. and 
etd the cereals most like 


Ttyvov, autumn squill, Scilla autum- 

7. 13. 7. flower appears before 

leaves and stem. 
rpayanavQa. (I), tragacanth, Astra- 

galus creticus 

9. 1. 3. produces a gum : now 
known to grow not only in 
Crete (see r. (2)) ; 9. 8. 2. no 
cutting needed to collect gum. 
Tpa.-yaKo.v6a (2), tragacanth, Astra- 
galas Parnassi 

9. 15. 8. abundant in Achaia and 
not inferior to the T. of Crete. 

TpayoTTiay<ai> (= KOJU.TJ 7. 7. 1.) goat's 

beard , Tragopogon porrifolius 
7. 1. 1. described : a kdxa-vov. 
rpi'jSoAos (1), caltrop, Tribulus ter- 

3. 1. 6 comes up spontaneously 
in damp places; 6. 1. 3. has 
leaves as well as spines: has 
spines on the fruit- vessel : 

6. 5. 3. distinguished from rpi- 
/SoAos (2) ; 7. 8. 1. stem ' on the 
ground'; 8. 7. 2. (as a weed) 
destroyed by epefiivOos. 

rptjSoAos (2), caltrop, Fagonia cretica 
6. 1. 3. has leaves as well as 
spines; 6. 4. 1. do.; 6. 5. 1. in 
list of such plants ; 6. 5. 3. dis- 
tinguished from rpi/SoAos (1); 
grows near enclosures. 

rpi'/SoAos (3), water chestnut, Trapa 

4. 9. 1-3. described. 
TptTi-oAioi' (?), Aster Tripolium 

9. 19. 2. use as charm. 

rpixo/xai'e's (? = a&Lavrov TO \evKov) 

7. 14. 1., English maidenhair, 
Asplenium Trichomanes 


<i>r), bulrush, Typha anyustata 
1. 5. 3. not jointed; 1. 8. 1. no 
knots ; 4. 10. 1. in list of plants 
of Lake Copais; 4. 10. 5. de- 
scribed ; 4. 10. 6. grows both on 
land and in water : some doubt 
this ; 4.10.7. part used for food . 

aKwOos T] aypia, Scilla blfolia 

6. 8. 1-2, flowering time. 
aKiv0os y cmapTri, larkspur, Del- 

phinium Ajacis 
6. 8. 2. flowering time : flower of 

7r60os (1) comp. 
Svov, truffle, Tuber cibarium 
1. 1. 11. has not all the ' parts' of 
a plant ; 1. 6. 5. no roots ; 1. 6. 9. 
TToxoipi's, cat's ear, Hypochoeris 


7; 7. 1. a Aax<woi/; classed aa 
' chicory-like ' from its leaves ; 
7. 11. 4. growth contrasted with 

, mistletoe, Viscum album 
3. 16. 1. grows on Trpit/os. 

(/>a*6s, lentil, Ervum Lens 

2. 4. 2. seed sown in dung ; 3. 15, 3. 
fruit of rep/at vGos comp.; 3.17.2. 
size of fruit of /coAotrta (1) comp.; 
3. 18. 5. arrangement of fruit of 
povs cornp.; 4. 4. 9. not found in 
India ; 4. 4. 10. a so-called 0. in 
India; 8. 1. 4. sown late; 8.3.2. 
stem; 8. 3. 4. seed; 8. 5. 1. 
several kinds ; white form 
sweetest ; 8. 5. 2. seeds com- 
paratively few ; 8. 5. 3. shape 
of pod ; 8. 8. 3. apa/co? grows 
specially among <!>.; 8. 8. 4. so 
also anapiv-n ; 8. 8. 6. causes etc. 
of 0. becoming 'cookable' or 
' uncookable.' 

(fxicryavov ( = i<f>i,ov = t'$os 7. 13. 1.), 

corn-flag, Gladiolus segetum 
7. 12. 3. use of root in food : root 
described; 7. 13. 1. leaves de- 
scribed ; 7. 13. 4. grown from 
<t>a.a-Ko<;, tree-moss, Usnea barbata 

3. 8. 6. borne only on at-yt'Awv// (1). 
4>eAA6Spvs (= dpt'a 3. 16. 3.), holm- 

oak, Quercus Ilex var. agrifolia 
1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 3. 3. do.; 


I l 


3. 16. 3. described: called ipia 
by Dorians. 

0eAA6 s , (?= tyos c/. Plin. 16. 98.), 

cork-oak, Quercus Suber 
1. 2. 7. bark; 1. 5. 2. bark rough 
and fleshy; 1. 5. 4. wood light; 
3. 17. 1. grows in Tyrrhenia : 
described; 4. 15. 1. is the 
stronger for having its bark 
stripped ; 5. 3. 6. wood of $o!Vi 
(1) comp. 

<es (= o~7-o<./3>7 6. 1. 3.), Poterium 

<^7jy6? (= Spvs T] aypia), Valonia oak, 

Quercus Aegilops 

3. 3. 1. a mountain tree; 3. 4. 2. 
time of budding ; 3. 6. 1. slow- 
growing (?) ; 3. 8. 2. one of the 
five ' Idaean ' kinds of oak : de- 
scribed : fruit ; 3. 8. 3-4. acorns ; 
3. 8. 4. timber; 3. 8. 7. one of 
the four ' Macedonian ' kinds of 
oak; 4. 13. 2. ancient trees at 
Ilium; 5. 1. 2. time of cutting 

</>iA.v*7], alaternus, Rhamnus Ala- 


1. 9. 3. evergreen ; 3. 3. 1. a moun- 
tain tree; 3. 3. 3. evergreen; 
3. 4. 2. time of budding ; 3. 4. 4. 
time of fruiting ; 5. 6. 2. easiest 
wood for turning. 

<iAvpa( = 4>L\vpa y) 0TjAeta), lime (or 

silver lime), Tilia platyphyllos, 
(or tomentosa) 

1. 5. 2. bark thin : bark in layers ; 
1. 5. 5. wood pliable ; 1. 10. 1. 
leaves inverted in summer; 
1. 12. 4. leaves, but not fruit, 
eaten by animals ; 3. 3. 1. a 
mountain tree ; 3. 4. 2. time of 
budding ; 3. 4. 6. time of fruit- 
ing : fruit inedible ; 3. 5. 5-6. 
winter-buds; 3. 10. 4-5. de- 
scribed: 'male* and 'female* 
forms distinguished (see below) ; 
3. 11. 1. bark of or(/>eVfia^.vos 
comp.; 3. 13. 1. bark of Kepaa-os 
comp.; 3. 13. 3. grows where 
/ce'paoro? grows ; 3. 17. 5. leaf of 
/oj }] 'iSaia comp.; 4.4.1. hard 
to grow in Babylon ; 4. 5. 1. in 
list of Northern trees ; 4. 8. 1. 
grows partially in water ; 4.15.1. 
outer bark can be stripped; 

4. 15. 2. survives stripping of 
bark for some time; 5. 1. 2. 
time of cutting timber ; 5.1.4. 
do.; 5. 3. 3. character of wood ; 

5. 5. 1. wood easy to work; 
blunts tools ; 5. 6. 2. wood soft 
and easy to work ; 5.7.5. various 
uses of wood and bark ; 5. 9. 7. 
wood used for fire-sticks. 

</>i'Avpa 17 apprjv (= <|>iAipea), mock- 

privet, Phillyrea media 
3, 10. 4-5. distinguished from <f>. y 

<f>i\vpa -f) 0ijAeia (= $t'Avpa), silver- 

lime, Tilia tomentosa 
3. 10. 4-5. distinguished from <. 17 


<iAvpe'a., mock-privet, Phillyrea 

1. 9. 3. evergreen; 3. 4. 6. (?) 

time of fruiting. 

$Aew (</>Aee5s), Erianthus Ravennae 
4.8.1. in list of ra AOXM^ ; 4.10.1. 

in list of plants of Lake Copais ; 

4. 10. 4. described; 4. 10. 6. 

grows both on land and in 

water; grows on the floating 

islands of Lake Copais ; 4. 10. 7. 

part used for food; 4. 11. 12. 

foliage of some xaAa/aoi comp. 
$A6y ivov ( = <A6f ), wall-flower, Cheir- 

anthus Cheiri 
6. 8. 1-2, a coronary plant: 

flowering time. 
$A6/A05 r/ /xeAatva, mullein, Verbascum 


9. 12. 3. leaf of ^K^V r) /cepcmTis 


<A6f ( = tfr\6yivov), wall-flower, 

Cheiranthus Cheiri 
6. 6. 2. a cultivated under-shrub ; 
a coronary plant: scentless; 
6. 6. 11. grown from seed. 

(j>olvitj(l), date-palm, Phoenix dacty- 


1. 2. 7. 'flesh' turns to wood; 
1. 4. 3. (?) tolerant of sea-water ; 
1. 5. 1. few branches; 1. 5. 2. 
rough bark ; 1. 5. 3 wopd 
fibrous; 1.6.2. core not dis- 
tinguishable ; 1. 9. 1. growth 
chiefly upwards; 1. 9. 3. ever- 
green; 1. 10. 5. reedy leaves; 
1.11.1. seed immediately within 
envelope : envelope not single ; 



1. 11. 3. seed solid and 'dry' 
throughout; 1. 13 5. 'male* 
only flowers; 1.14.2. bears fruit 
at top; 2. 2. 2. propagation; 

2. 2. 6 seeds come true ; 2. 2. 8. 
effect of locality ; 2.2.10. effects 
of climate ; 2. 6. 1. propagation 
from fruit ; 2. 6. 2. propagation 
from 'head'; 2. 6. 3. cultiva- 
tion ; 2. 6. 4. do.; 2. 6. 5. culti- 
vation in Syria; 2. 6. 8. various 
kinds ; [2. 6. 9. branching kind : 
see KovKi6<j>opov] ; [2. 6 10. 
shrubby kind: seeKo^]; 2.6.12. 
cuttings set upside down ; 
2. 8. 1. apt to shed immature 
fruit; 2. 8. 4. artificial fertilisa- 
tion ; 3. 3. 5. not fruitful wher- 
ever it grows; 3. 13. 7. dwarf 
form (? $. 6 xa-Mo-ippi</7s) ; 4.1.5. 
c/. 2. 2. 10 ; 4. 2. 7. KovKi6<f>opov 
comp.; 4. 3. 1. grows in parts of 
Libya ; 4.3.5. grows well in 
waterless Libya: salt in soil, 
water supply ; 4. 3. 7. kept alive 
by dew in dry regions ; 4. 4. 3. 
sown in pots; 4.4.13. dangerous 
to eat unripe dates (in Ged- 
rosia); 4. 7. 8. occurs on the 
island of Tylos ; 4. 13. 2. story 
of the very old <f>. on Delos; 
4. 14. 8. if topped, becomes 
barren, but is not destroyed; 
4. 15. 2. survives stripping of 
bark; 5. 3. 6. character of 
wood : used for images ; 5. 6. 1. 
wood strong: behaviour under 
pressure : 5. 9. 4. wood makes a 
very evil smoke when burnt for 
charcoal; 6. 4. 11. seed-vessel 
of /ca/cros (1), when stripped of 
seeds, comp. to 'brain' of <.; 
9. 4. 4. mats in Arabia made of 
leaves of $. 

li>i (2), Nannorhops ritchiana 

4. 4. 8. Bactrian. 

ii>ig (3), 6 xa/oiaippK^?, dwarf palm, 

Chamaerops humilis 
2. 6. 11. described ; 3. 13. 7. (?). 
iVif (4), Callophyllis laciniata 
4. 6. 2. peculiar to certain waters ; 

4. 6. 10. described. 
'os ( = aTpa/cTvXt's 6. 4. 6.), distaff- 

thistle, Carthamus lanatus 
6. 4. 6. reason for name 

(1) TO 

4. 6. 2. = TTpao-oi/ (2)), grass- 
wrack, Posidonia oceanica 
4. 6. 2. occurs generally in Greek 
waters : root described. 

(f>VKO<; (2) 6a.vtJ.a.a-rov TO /ue'yeflos, ri- 

band-weed, ( = irpda-ov (3)), 
Laminaria saccharina 
4. 6. 4. described : grows in Atlan- 
tic : washed into Mediterranean ; 
4. 7. 1. refers to 4. 6. 4. 
$VKOS (3) TO novnov 

4.6.4. collected by sponge-fishers. 
$UKOS (4) TO Tptxo</>vAAoj>, Cystoseira 

4. 6. 3. described. 
<i)/co9 (5), litmus, Roccetta tinctoria 

4. 6. 5. Cretan: dye described. 
<J>VKOS (6), grass-wrack, Cymodocea 

nodosa (and Zostera marina) 
4. ^ 6. 6. described : comp. to 

j, see Trava/ce? (TO 2vptov). 

, Carlina corymbosa 
6. 4. 3. a ' thistle-like' plant. 

3. 18. 4. described. 

/iaiSac^, periwinkle, Vinca her- 

3. 18. 13. leaf of evoS^vMos comp. 

fuuSpvy, germander, Teucriwni 

9. 9. 5. medicinal use : described. 

/AcuA.eW, chamaeleou 

6. 4. 3. a 'thistle-like' plant, but 
leaves not spinous (see n. on 
6. 4. 8.) ; 6.4.8. flower turns into 
'down'; 9. 12. 1-2, kinds (see 

eW 6 Aevicos (= aKavOa (9) 
9. 12. 1. = a/cai/o? = it'a (2) = 

iiVrj), pine-thistle, Atractylis 

9. 12. 1. described : medicinal use : 
fatal to dogs and pigs: how 
administered : grows every- 

a/xcuAeW 6 /ae'Aa?, Cardopatiitm 

9. 12. 2. described: medicinal 
use : habitat : fatal to dogs ; 
9. 14. 1. how long drug will 



eAiSoj'ioi', greater celandine, Cheli- 

donium mains 
7. 15. 1. flowering depends on the 

heavenly bodies. 
wSpvAAa, Chondrilla juncea 
7. 7. 1. a \a.\a.vov: classed as 

'chicory-like' from its leaves; 

7. 11. 4. growth of ' 


a./Ai'ov, Ballota acetabulosa 
9. 16. 2. comp with ^Lura^vov as to 
appearance and properties : said 
by some to be only a degene- 
rate form of : method 
of keeping. 

KLfiov, basil, Ocymum basilicum 
1. 6. 6-7. root woody; 1. 10. 7. 

time of leaf-growth ; 7. 1. 2-3. 
time of sowing and germina- 
tion; 7.2.1. propagation; 7.2.4. 
?rows again when stem is cut ; 
. 2. 7-8. root described ; 7.3.1. 
long in flower; 7. 3. 2-3 seeds 
described; 7. 3. 4. seed very 
abundant : seed borne at top ; 
7. 4. 1. only one kind; 7. 5. 2. 
watered at mid-day; 7. 5. 4. 
effect of hot weather ; 7. 5, 5. 
seed does not keep well ; 7. 7. 2. 
leaf of /cdpxopos comp.; 7. 9. 2. 
flowers borne in succession, c/. 

7. 3. 1.; 9. 18. 5. leaf of appcvo- 
yovov and of 6fi\vyovov comp. 

o;, Lathyms Ochrus 

8. 1. 3. sown early ; 8. 3. 1. leaf ; 

8. 3. 2. stem ; 8. 10. 5. infested 
by ' worms. ' 


The following plants (arranged in the order of mention) which are 
described or indicated, but not named, in the Enquiry, seem possible 
to identify : 

1. (ofjioiov T<2 apa/cco), tine-tare, La- 

thy rus tuber osus 
1.6. 12. root described. 

2. (v\i)(j.a I8t.ov TI Trepi Me/x^)ii/), Mi- 

mosa asperata 
4. 2. 11. described : 'sensitive.' 

3. (SevSpov . . , fJLeya.\oKapTrov), Jack- 

fruit, Artocarpus integrifolia 
4. 4. 5. used for food by Indian 

4. ($uAAoi' . . . TOIS TWJ/ crrpovOwv 

TTTepots o/xoioi'), banana, Muso, 

^ 4. 4. 5. described. 
0. (/capTrb? (T/coA.i6s ecrOtofjievos Se 

yAv/cys), mango, Mangifera in- 

4. 4. 5. fruit described: causes 


6. (/capTrbs GECKOS rot? (cpaveois), ju- 
jube, Zizyphus Jujuba 
4. 4. 5. 

7. (OIJ.OLOV repjouVflw), pistachio-nut, 

Pistacia vera 
4. 4. 7. described. 

8. (6/HOlOC TTJ 6t//l KOL TO jSoUKCpas), 

Pkaseolus Mungo 
4. 4. 9-10. called by Hellenes 
<^>a/c6?, and similarly used. 

9. (a-KOLvOa e</>' ^? -ytVeTai Sditpvov) ( = 

aKavBa. (4) TJ 'IvSiKif)), Balsamo- 
dendron Mukul 

4. 4. 12. grows in Aria : de- 

10. (vArj/Aa rjAiKOr pa</>ai/o?), Asa- 

foetida, Scorodosma foetidum 
4. 4. 12. described: fatal to 

11. (O/AOIOC rfj Sa^vr) </>vAAov exoc), 
Nerium odorum 

4. 4. 13. effect on animals. 
12a. (SeVSpa /ae-yaAa), mangrove, 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza 
4. 7. 4. described. 




126. (SevSpov <j)v\\ov ex ov ofioiov 77} 

Sou^vT)) mangrove, Rhizophora 

4. 7. 4. described (as if identical 
with 12a.). 

13. (jcapTrbs 6/xotos TOI? 0ep/AOis), Aeffi- 
ceras mains 

4. 7. 5, 6, and 7. described. 

14. (fieVSpa o^oia 7^7 ai'SpaxAri ( = 
ci</>i/i} (6) = A.aa (3)), white 
mangrove, Avicennia officinalis 

4. 7. 5. described. 

15. (SevBpa. TO avflos e\ovra. ofjiciov Tto 

\evKoi<*>) ( = (16)), tamarind, 
Tamarindus indica 
4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 

16. (SevSpov no\v<j)V\\ov) ( = (15)), 
tamarind, Tamarindns indica 

4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 
Tylos : opening and closing of 

17. (<rvK7j ov ^vAXopoovo-a), Ficus 


4. 7. 8. grows in the island of 

18. (o/ocoiov rot? /cpiVots) Ottelia alls- 

4. 8. 6. Egyptian marsh-plant: 
habitat and leaves : medicinal 

19. (eV TC. yeVo? ei' rats A.i'/uii>ats), 

Saccharuvn biflomm 
4. 8. 13. use for fodder. 

20. (ye'i/os Trapa<f)v6iJ.evov cv r<a trtTw), 

Corchorus trilocularis 

4. 8. 14. treatment as fodder: 
fruit described. 

21. (SeVSpor), Sissoo-wood, Dalbergia 

5. 3. 2. wood described : use for 
making furniture. 

22. (vAov), teak, Tectona grandis 

5. 4. 7. wood stands sea-water well. 

23. (SevSpov), calamander wood, 
Diospyros quaesita 

5. 4. 7. wood described. 

24. (O/J.OLOV appoTovy), Artemisia 

6.3.6. properties : effect on sheep. 

25. (TO Tjfj vdpu> Trpoo-ejOL^eprj TTJV 

ba-^v e'xov), Valeriana Dios- 
9. 7. 4. a Thracian apw/xa. 

26. (viro<f>voiJ.ei>ov ev6vs en T^S pi'<TJ? 
Tt5 Kvn-ivfa), broom-rape, Oro- 
banche versicolor 

8. 8. 5. parasitic on KV^IVOV. 

27. (pt^aeava-nj^opos), Somali arrow- 
poison, AcoJcanthera S chimp eri 

9. 15. 2. Aethiopian: used for 
poisoning arrows. 




Abies cephalonica 

eAaTT, (1) 

Anagallis caerulea 



eAaTT) (2) 

Anchusa tinctoria 


Acacia albida 


Andropogon Ischae- 






a/cav0a (3) 

Anemone blanda 

a. v e ju. c5 v ij TJ 

Acantha arabica 

a.Kav6a (7) 


Acer campestre 




a. 17 Aeiju.a>via 

Acokanthera Schiin- 

App. (27) 

Anethum graveolens 

Anthemis chia 


avOefj.ov, a. TO 

Acouitum Anthora 



<]>Ol>OV, JU.UO- 

Antirrhinum Oron- 




Apium graveolens 


Acorus Calamus 


<re\ivov, o~. 
TO eAeto^ 

Adiantum Capillus- 

uSiavTOv, a. TO 

Arbutus Andrachne 






Aegiceras majus 
Aegilops ovata 

App. (13) 
at-yiAwi// (2) 

Aristolochia rotunda 


Ailanthus malabarica 


Artemisia Absinthium 


Ajuga Ira 




Allium Cepa and vars. 

yrfOvoi', yjjTei- 

OV, Kp6fJ*VOV, 

Artocarpus integri- 

App. (24) 
App. (3) 

K. TO 0-XIO-- 


TOV, /cpo/xvo- 

Arum italicum 


Arundo Donax 

&6va, KttAauo? 



o avArjTi/cos 

Alnus glutinosa 

Trpacrov (1) 

Asparagus acutifolius 
Asphodelus ramosus 


do~<J!)65Ao5, TTO- 

Althaea offlcinalis 

dAflaia, /xaAa- 
Xr, 17 dypia 

Asplenium Ceterach 

t 0os (2) 

Amarauthus Blitum 



dfiiai'TOf TO 

Amelanchier vulgaris 

o-u/crj 17 'Ifiai'a 

AeuKoi', rpi- 

Amomum subulatum 





Aster Amellus 


Carthamus teucocaulos 

KvfjKO 1 ; r) aypt'a 



/crrj/cos, K. 17 

Astragalus creticus 

rpa.ya.Ka.v6a. (1) 

TJ/xepo?, > Kpo- 

Atractylis gummifera 

aKO-vQa. (8), i 

KOS 6 axaiA* 

aKapo?, lia 1 Castanea vesca 


(2), livii, j var. 

Kapva rj Ev- 

ACVKO? Celtis australis 

AWTO? (1) 

Atriplex Halimus 

aAiju-ov Centaurea calcitrapa 



dpa<avs salonitana 


Atropa Belladonna 

jmavSpayopas SOlstitialis 


(2) Ceratonia Siliqua 


A vena sativa 

/3p6/Aos Cerris Siliquastrum 

Kepic/s (1) a-vj- 

Avicennia offlcinalis 

O Ct <p V 7] (v), i 

eAaa (3), ! Chamaerops humilis 
App. (14) ; Cheiranthus Cheiri 


Chelidonium majus 


Balanites aegyptiaca 
Ballota acetabulosa 

Q > x Chondrilla juncea 
a 1 ?* Cicer arietinum 
* ! Cichorium Intvbus 



SiKTafiivov (ere- 

Cinnamomum Cassia 


Balsamodendron Mu- 

aKavda (4), 

App. (9) 

Cistus salvifolius 

KLcrOo<; 6 flrjAus 
KivOos, K. 6 



Citrus medica 

/xTjAea 17 Ilepert- 

Bambusa arundinacea 

KaAajmos 6 'Iv- 

Clematis vitalba 

/f>J (MljSlKTJ) 

Beta maritirna 
Brassica alba 


Cnicus Acarna 

/cr/rjKos ^ aypia 



Colchicum parnassi- 

, (ere'pa) 

Bruguiera gymnorhiza 
Bryonia cretica 

App. (12a) f 
a/u,7reAo5 17 ay- 

Colocasia antiquorum 
Colutea arborescens 


Buxus sempervirens 


Conium maculatum 
Convolvulus Scam- 



Calamintha incana 




Calamogrostis Epi- 

/caAa/uio? (CTTI- i CorchoTus trilocularis 

App. (20) 

Callitriche verna 

yeios) Cordia Myxa 



Callitris quadrivalvis 
Callophyllis laciniata 

Bvov Coriandrum sativum 
<t>olvig (4) Cornus Mas 


Calycotome villosa 



Capparis spinosa 
Cardopatium corym- 


Corydalis densiflora 
Cotoneaster Pyra- 




Carduus arvensis 

oLKavOa (2) 

Corylus avellana 





Kapva 17 'Hpa- 

Car ex riparia 


Carlina corymbosa 

xaA/ceios i Crataegus Heldreichii 


Carthamus lanatus 

aTpa/cTuAts, orientalis 

/xeCTTriAvj 17 av 





Crataegus oxyacantha 

^eo-n-t'AT] y dv- \ Elettaria Cardamo- 


0ij6oi'oet8rj? mum 

Crepis Columnae 
Crocus cancellatus 

K. o Aeuico? 
K. b euo(r/xos 

Ephedra campylo- 
Erianthus Ravennae 

Tel^ 05 



Erica arborea 


Cucumis sativus 


Eruca sativa 


Cucurbita maxima 
Cuminum Cyminum 
Cupressus semper- 


Ervum Lens 
Eryngium campestre 
Erythraea Centavf- 




Cuscuta europaea 


Euonymus europaeus 


Cyclamen graecum 
Cydonia vulgaris 


Euphorbia antiquo- 



Cymbopogon Schoen- 

o-xoiVos (2) 


aTrtos (2), l<r- 


X a ?5 p<x<pcti^os 

Cymodocea nodosa 
Cynara Cardunculus 

<t>VKO<i (6) 
KttKTOS (1) 


y bpeia 


KdKTOS (2) 


Cynodon Dactylon 
Cyperus auricomus 




jU.TJKWVtOl/, TlQv- 











lArfKwviov, IT- 

Cystoseira Abies ma- 

eAarrj (3) 

TTo^ews, TI- 




SpOs (7) 

Cytisus aeolicus 

^VKOS (4) 
KoAoiTia (1) 

Fagonia cretica 
Fagus silvatica 

T-pi^oAos (2) 

Dalbergia Sissoo 

App. (21) 

Ferula communis 

va.p9-qK.ia., vdp- 

Daphne Gnidium 



irdva.Ke<; TO 


Kvetapos 6 Aev- 

Datura Stramonium 

Opvopov, Trepir- 

Ferulago galbanifera 


TO?j^ (TTpVX* 

Ficus bengalensis 

CTVKTJ 17 "IvStioj 

Daucus Carota 
Delphinium Ajacis 

vos o 
SO.VKOV (1) 

UttKlV^O? T) 


O-VKTJ (1) 

<rvKTf 17 'Apa- 



1T000S (1) 


App. (17) 

Dendrocalamus stric- 

xaAa^ios 6 'lv- var> 

<rvKTj ^ KvTrpta 

Diospyros Ebenum 

yu*l-t\ Fraxinus excelsior 


Dracunculus vulgaris 

o ' /o\ (Jrnus 
Fucus spiralis 
opa/coi/riov Funsi 

a/oiTTeAos (3) 

Drypis spinosa 


Ecballium Elaterium 

O-I'KVO; 6 o'yptos Galanthus nivalis 

AeuKolov (2) 

Echinops spinosus 
Echium diffusum 

pvrpo? Galium Aparine 
owxetAe's Genista acanthoclada 

(T/COpTUOS (1) 



Gladiolus segetum 

fi<ioi>, i$os, 

Lagenaria vulgaris 



Laminaria saccharina 

<f>VKO<; (2) 

Glaucium flavum var 

/ATj/cwi' 17 Kepct- 

Lapidium sativu rn 



Lathyrus amphicar- 


Glycyrrhiza glabra 

yAvfceia (pia), 





Gossypium arboreum 

(SeVSpoi' TO) 





App. (1) 

Laurus nobilis 

8d<}>i>r) (1) 

Lavandula spica 


Hedera Helix 


Lavatera arborea 

fjia\d X yi (1) 

Helichrysum siculum 


Lecokia cretica 

Ai/SavwTos 17 

Heliotropium villo- 




Lemna minor 


Helleborus cyclo- 


Ligustrum vulgare 



e. 6 /w.e'Aas 

Lilium candidum etc. 

KpCvov, npivta- 

Herniaria glabra 



via, Aetpiov(l) 


Hordeum sativum 



and vars. 



Hyphaene thebaica 

KOl, KOVKl6<f)O- 

Limnanthemum nym- 




Linum usitatissimum 


Lolium temulentum 


Ilex Aquifolium 


Lonicera etrusca 


Imperata arundi- 


Loranthus europaeus 

ifta (1) 


Lupinua alba 

Inula flelenium 

Trdfa/ce? TO 

Lychnis coronaria 



Lycoperdon Bovista 



KoVvjja 17 6rj- 





Kovv^a r) appijv 



Malabaila aurea 

SavKov (2) 

Iris foetidissima 

Malva silvestris 

/aaAdx^j (2) 

pallida etc. 


Mandragora omci- 



tricrupivx 101 ' 



Mangifera indica 

App. (5) 

Marrubium peregri- 


Juglans regia 

xapv'a 17 Ilep- 



Matthiola incana 

lov TO AevKoi', 

Juncus acutus 

o-xoifos 6 o^v's 

ttoi/ia (17 Aev- 



K^), \evKoiov 

Juniperus communis 


v (l) 


Ke'fipos (2) 

Matricaria Chamo- 

a^e/Ltoi/ TO 




apKevGos, Ke- 

Medicago arborea 

/cvTitros (2) 

fipos (3) 


(Troct) w MTJ^IKT? 


Melissa officinalis 




Mentha aquatica 




Laburnum vulgare 



i^fivocr/xov, /xtV- 

Lactuca graeca 





Mercurialis perennis 







Mespilus germanica 

jixecrTriAyj, fj.e<r- 

Orobanche cruenta 



TriAi) 17 (rara- 

Oryza sativa 

App. (26) 

Mimosa asperata 

App. (2) 

Ostrya carpinifolia 


Mimusops Schimperi 

Trepae'a, nep- 

Ottelia alismoides 

App. (18) 


Musa sapientum 

App. (4) 

Paeonia offlcinalis 

y \vKva-iSfj, 

Muscari comosum etc. 



Myrtus communis 

Paliurus australis 


Pancratium mariti- 

/3oA/3b? 6 epto- 



Nannorhops ritchiana 
Narcissus poeticus 

tfoivif (2) 
va.pnicra'os (2) 
Aeipiov (2), 

Panicum miliaceum 
Papaver hybridum 

ju.rj/cwi' 17 poias 

fJiT^KCOV f\ /X* 




Aeipiot/ (2) 


/X^KWV (17 OTTai- 


Aeiptoi' (2) 

Sr)<;), vriTrev- 

Nardostachys Jata- 






Nelumbium specio- 

KVO/XOS 6 Ai- 

Parietaria cretica 




Petroselinum sativum 


Nephrodium Filix- 


Peucedanum ofBci- 




Nerium Oleander 

od<f>vr) 17 aypi'a, 

Phillyrea media 



Phoenix dactylifera 

^Oll/lf (1) 


App. (11) 

Phragmites commu- 

/caAa/xo? 6 x a " 

Neslia paniculata 
Nuphar luteum 

Pinus brutia 

TTITU? rj <f)6eipo- 



Nymphaea alba 



TTiTus ; see also 


AWTOS (2) 

under TTI'TVS 

17 aypi'a. ^ 


irevKV) 17 a/cap- 

Ocymum basilicum 


7TOS, TT. 17 

Olea cuspidata 

eAaa (2) 

0>jAeia, TT. 17 





aypte'AaioSj KO- 


jrevKTj ^ i/xe- 


POS, 7T. 17 KW- 

Ononis antiquorum 


Onopordon illyricum 
Opoponax hispidua 

Travaxeia, tra.i>- 

Pimpinella Anisum 


a*ce? TO 'Hp- 

Piper nigrum 



Pistacia Lentiscus 


Orchis longicruris 






App. (7) 

Origanum Dictamnus 


Pisum sativum 


opiyavos 17 

Plantago Coronopua 








viride etc. 

opiyai/o?, opt- 


< " ^ 
yai*os 17 jixe- 






Ornithogalum pyre- 

CTKiAAa 17 "ETTI- 

Platanus orientalis 




Polygonum mariti- 







Polygonum Persicaria 
Polypodium vulgare 


Ranunculus Ficaria 
Raphanus Raphani- 

(cepct't?, pd<f>a- 

Polypogon mouspeli- 



vos -T) dypia 




Polyporus igniarius 


Rhamnus alaternus 


Populus nigra 



pd/oii/os TJ Aev<7 


Jtepicis (2) 


pd/xi/os 17 fJ-e- 

Portulaca oleracea 


Potentilla reptans 

Td<JvAA 0l > 

Rhizophora mucro- 


App. (126) 

Poterium spinosum 

aroi/Si), </>eios 


Prangos ferulacea 


Rhus Coriaria 





Prunus Amygdalus 

(cepao"O5, A,a- 

Ricinus communis 
Rosa canina 




centifolia var. 





poSov TO dypiov 


TrpovfJ-vr), CTTTO- 




Rubus ulmifolius 

jSotTos, x a M at/ - 


TTaSos (jTTjSds ') 


Pteris aquilina 


Roccella tinctoria 

<}>VKOS (5) 

Puccinia graminis 


Rumex conglomera- 

AaTrafloi' TO ay- 

Punica Granatum 

poa _ 




poa 17 aTTvprji/os 



Pyrethrum Parthe- 

Ruscus aculeatus 




Pyrus amygdalifor- 



odfjtvrj r) 'AAe^- 




aTTios (1) 

Ruta graveolens 


var. Pyraster 




Saccharum biflorum 

App. (19) 


joujAea i) yAu- 
xeia, ju,. 17 

Salix alba 

iTea 17 Aeu/oj 
iTea 17 jixeAatva 

eapivri, p.. 17 


KoAotTta (2) 






Quercus Aegilops 

Spvs 17 a-ypia, 

Salvia calycina 






aiytAwi/^ (1), 



Sambucus nigra 

d/cTe'o?, d/crrj 



Saponaria oflBcinalis 

a-rpovBiov (2), 

Ilex typica 

0"IJU\.Oi (1) 



apta. t^/o?, 

Sargassum vulgare 
Satureia Thymbra 

Spvs (8) 



Spvs 17 TrAarv- 

Saussurea Lappa 
Scandix australis 






Spvs 17 aAt- 

Schoenus Holoschoe- 

crxolvoi; 6 6A6- 

<Aoto?, 5. 17 






8pv9, 6. 17 rj/ote- 

o-xotvo? 6 

pos, erv/ao- 


(V I / 

opv?, T7/xepts 

Scilla autumnalis 




vdicivOos r} dy- 





Scolopendrium vul- 


Trapa natans 

Tpt/3oAos (3) 


Tribulus terrestris 

Tpi'/3oAos (1) 

Scolymus hispanicus 

Aeijuu>i>ia OTCO- 

Trifolium fragiferum 

AUTOS (3) 


Trigonella Foenum- 

/3ov/cepas, TJ- 

Scorodosma foetidum 

App. (10) 



Securigera Coronilla 
Sedum anopetalum 



AWTO? (5) 

Sempervivum tec- 


Triticum dicoccum 

feta, oAupa 




Senecio vulgaris 




Sesamum indicum 




Setaria italica 

e'Av/uos, /ue'Ai- 

Tuber aestivum 





Silene venosa 

'Hpa/cAet'a, /U.TJ- 

Typha angustata 


Ku>v T) 'Hpa- 

Silybum marianum 
Sniilax aspera 
Smyrnium Olusatrum 
Solanum nigrum 

f M?\aT(2) a 

Ulmus glabra 
Ulva Lactuca 
Urginea maritima 
Urtica urens 



Sonchus Nymani 


Usnea barbata 


Sorbus domestica 


Sorghum halepense 

KpiOai at ayot'at 


Valeriana Dioscoridis 
Veratrum album 

App. (25) 

eAAe'/Sopos 6 

Spartium junceum 



Spiraea fllipendula 

oivdvOri (1) 

Verbascum sinuatum 

<|>A6ju.o? T] jxe- 

Storax officinalis 



Vicia angustifolia 


Tamarindus indica 

App. (15) (16) 



Tamarix articulata 

^pt'KT, (2) 



/HUptKTJ (1) 



Taraxacum offlcinale 


Vigna sinensis 

Taxus baccata 


Vinca herbacea<f>vr) 

Tectona grandis 

App. (22) 

Viola odorata 

lov TO jaeAai/, 

Teucrium Folium 

taji'ta 17 /ute- 

Thapsia garganica 



Thymelaea hirsuta 

K^e'wpos 6 jixe- 

Viscum album 


Thymbra capitata 

Ovfjiov (1) 

Vitex Agnus-castus 
Vitis vinifera 

a-yvos, oltros 
a/u.77eAo? (1) 

Thymus atticus 

epAAos (2) 

var. corin- 

a/LiTrcAos (2) 


epn-vAAos (1) 


Tilia platyphyllos 



oivavQi) T) dypia. 


</>i'Aupa, (j). rj &rf- 


Zizyphus Jujuba 

App. (6) 

Tordylium apulum 



AUTOS (4) t 

Tragopogon porrifolius 



TToAtovpos 6 Al- 






Aev'KTj Bog-rush 



aKavOa. (I), (3) 

O^OlfOS 6 


















Sdros, yauat- 






Broadleaved oak 

8pus }) TrAari;- 

. Anemones 



~ Apples 



App. (26) 





Arrow-poison (So- 

App. (27) 

O"KOp7TlOS (1) 



d/xTreAos 17 dy- 


KO.KTOS (2) 

pia, UTjAw^- 


App. (10) 



- Buckthorns 

pduvo?) d)i\vKin 









KfpKlS (2) 




d<r^>66eAos, wo- 


KaAa/uos (exri- 

0os (2) 




Butcher's broom 


Bachelor's buttons 






Balsam of Mecca 



App. (23) 


KoAa/u.o? 6 'Iv- 







o-vufj r) 'IvSixr, 



Barbary nut 











Bay (sweet) 

Sd<f)i>r) (1) 









nepuvia, tru/cij 



77 AtyuTTTia 






Ke'pao-os, Aa- 

Castor-oil plant 
Cat's ear 


^ jcdpr; 

Cedar, odorous 




prickly .-- 

ce5p09(l), o^v- 



* * 





Ke'opo? (2) 



Celandine, greater 







\diraOov TO dy- 












Chamomile, wild 

dvde/jiov TO 






Kepdi's, patjSai/i? 

Dog's tooth grass 


17 dypia 


Koi', KOVKIO- 

Chaste -tree 

ayvos (oceros) 


oivdvOr, (1) 



Dwarf palm 

JSSiS 6 x - 




Kapva 17 Ev- 






d/cre'o?, OLKTrj 

Christ's thorn 



Trdi'a/ces TO Xet- 







TrreAea, opei- 

7T i>Tad> v A Ao v 



/ATjAea 17 Ilep- 







/Sov/cepa?, TTJ- 


ityos (?), </>eA- 




dSCavTov, T)}M.6- 



VLOVy $T/Av- 

f ornel 


7TT6pt9 TTOAv- 

Cornelian cherry 



TTofilOf, 7TT6- 


i<f>iov, ^i^)os, 

pi's, TpixofJ-a- 


i/s, o*xoAo- 


a K av0a (2) 





rap^TjKi'a, vdp- 


(SevSpov TO) 



Crack willow 


Fig, wild 





o" v /< TJ, <r. 17 


KpoKO 1 ; 

'Apa^iKTj, <r. 



IPP. V?^' 


O~IKVOS 6 dypio? 


/capva 17 'Hpa- 





d>we*os (2) 


TrevKij, eAaTTj 









French sparrow- 

o-KiAAar/ 'ETTI- 






a<rxtoi^, ^v/c7;^, 





$olvi (l) f 









Garden nightshade 

'~ ~, 




jawAv, (TKopo- 


ap/cevflos, Qvia, 


Kefipi's, Ke- 


fipos, 6u/ce- 


ibv TO AevKOf 



o"xoivo? 6 evw- 


f ip ^^ 





Goat's beard 
Goat willow 
Gold flower 
Golden thistle 

Aeipwi'ta (2), 



OtO-Ta</)lS, TT000S 

(1), va.Kt.v6oi; 



n-pdo-ov (1) 





al-yt'Aw^ (2), 

Leopard's bane 

<r/copTTi09 (2) 


Bpvov, Troa 


flpifiaf, ^pifia- 

Gum arable 




Kpivov, K. 

Hart's tongue 
Hawk's beard 

/aeoTriAij rj dv- 


TO 7TOp<|)W- 

povv, Aei- 
yAvxeta (pi^ia) 

^)i'Awpa, </>. ^ 




c^uKO? e (5) 
(Troa) 17 MijSiK>) 




dpia,i>/(0s, Q-/XI- 




Madonna lily 

Kpivov, Aetpiov 





dSt'aj/Tor, a. TO 






aSt'ai'TOj/ TO 

Horned poppy 

ja^Kwi/ 17 Kepa- 


jaaAaxTj (1) 


pa^at'ts 17 d/a- 

- Mandrake 



cope'a (?) 



App. (5) 
App. (12) > 



Ipis, ^tp's* <rt - 


M e\ia 


e'At^, KITTOS 





App. (3) 








App. (6) 

Marsh celery 



/cep/ct? (1), OTJ- 

Marsh mallow 

d\0aia, p.aAa- 


XJ ^ dypia 



Martagon lily 



yy&vov, yri- 



reiov, Kpdju.- 

Meadow saffron 

fd>-rtu.epov, <rir<i- 





jueoTriArj, (J.. i] 

Opium poppy 

(Jir)K<av (17 biria- 


5rjs), (vrjTrci/- 

Michaelmas daisy 



(TPtTToAtOI 7 




\fVKaKavOa. ~ 





Oriental thorn 

/u.e<T7riAij ^ d'- 










ifia (1), i!(J>eap 


KOlf, KOV/CtO- 


4i'Avpa rf appyv 

4>6pOl', Qoll'it; 

Monk's rhubarb 










<^)Adju.o? TJ /i*e- 


an-tos (1) 



dvpdc OVYI/TJ 





Mustard, white 













Pimpernel, blue 



Aeiptov (2), 




a.Kav0a (8), 

Nepaul cardamom 


d/cai/05, ifia 



(2), if i' vi,, 



Nightshade, deadlv /uai/Spaydpa? 


6 AeuKO? 


(7 5^05 0?0 ^ < ' i " 


flpvaAAi?, KO- 

vwi^, 6'prvf, 


alyi\up (1), 



Spvs, erv/xo- 

TrdSo?, n-pov- 

5pU9 ^UPtC 

MVTJ, o-TroStas 



6 \aK!(ort/c6c 

AdSpus, (/>eA- 

. ? tC> 





tf to (1 



Sd<})vri r) aypia. 

Poplar, black 
white (abele) 



eAaa (1), (2) / 


Olive, wild 

dypie'Aaio?, KO- 








K K 



<rrpov6iov (2) 


arpovOiov (2), 








Soval-, KaAa- 

Spanish broom 


jU.05, TTCXTrvpOS 


KaAajaos 6 rrAo- 



Kl/XOS, *C. 

Rib -grass 

opvfrv ^ 




eid, 6'Avpa 










evtavvfjios (re- 


KVVOppoSoV, KV- 



v6V/3a.Tos, po- 

aTrio? (2), itr- 


7ro/>eaj?, ia- 



Xas, JU.>JKW- 



fiov, pa<f>avl<; 



rj bpeia, ri6v- 




ffKi\\a, Tt- 



<f>V01' t VOLKtV- 

6 d/ccii'^w&Tjy 

Oos r) dypia 

Saffron crocu* 

KpoKo;, K. o 






















Scrub oak 

6pvs r) TrAarv- 




Sweet bay 

$a.d)irn M \ 

Sea-bark oak 

8pOs ^ aAc- 

Sweet flag 

/cdAajitos 6 euw- 

j</)AoioSj 8. ^ 




0-v/cdju.iros -^ 

Sea spurge 

Ti0v'/u.aAAos 6 

AtyvTTTt'a, o-. 


^ Kun-pt'a 


a/ui7reAos (3), 

/Spuop, fipuj 



(7), (8), eAd- 


nj (3), <^o^ 



/ V\ i 

(4), tyVKOS 


App. (22) 






aicavOa. (2), 



(8), a/cavoy, 



aKopra, iia 


Kp6jU.jU.VOf TO 

(2), iftVij, 


KCI/CTO?, Aei- 



Mwv/a (2), 





$i'Avpa, <^>. 17 



pl/TpOS, CTKO- 


App. (21) 
afuAaf (2) 

Aiijuo?, <rdy- 
K o s, x a A- 


XevK&bv (2) 

KtO9, YttjUai- 






Thorn, oriental 

fjie<riri\r) -q av- 

Vine, wild 

olvavOrj r) aypia 


Bpvopov, irepiT' 


lof TO iif\av 

TO?, ^ orpvx- 


$X6yivov c/)A6^ 


V OS 6 jtiaVlKO? 



KO.cwa rj Ilep- 

Thyme, Attic 

epTTvAAos 6 ay- 

Water chestnut 

rpiaoAos (3) 


Water chick weed 



Mywy (1) 

ep;rvAAos (6 

Water-lily, Nile 




App. (1) 


/xa^oji'at?, vvfJi m 

Traveller's joy 






AWTO? (3) 

Ktpavviov, vS' 


eAaiayi/os, eAi- 
KIJ, ire'a, reo- 

Turk's cap lily 
Turkey oak 



ai^iAa)^ (1), 

Wolf's bane 

AoiTia (2) 




tow' <?K 6 ~- 

Valonia oak 

5pus 17 aypi'a, 


t <()*** 

Vetch, bitter 





oE/nn-eAos (1) 








PA Theophrastus 

Enquiry into plants and 
AS minor works on odours and 
1916 weather signs 
cop. 2